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graphy. Gauls and Britons, in the West, were stimulated into Aurelian and Probus he had distinguished himself on Caius
rebellion by the intrigues of their ambitious Chiefs, or every frontier of the Empire ; and though his talents Valerius by the deep feeling of oppression to which the peasantry were better fitted for executing the commands of a
Diocletianus bad long been subjected. The Germans, too, accus- superior, than for regulating the movements of
Augustus. 285. tomed to the enjoyments which spring from a rich soil extensive campaign, he was nevertheless capable, by
and a tine climate, could not, without unremitting his valour, constancy, and experience, of conducting the 305. vigilance, be restrained from crossing the Rhine, and most arduous undertakings. He was formed by nature
285. extending their occasional settlements as far as the Alps to be a fit instrument in the hand of Diocletian. In and the Pyrenees. On the authority of certain medals war he led the arniies of Rome to certain victory; and 305. we are warranted to conclude, that the first year of at home he was ever ready to exercise those necessary Diocletian's reign was signalized by some advantages, severities which policy from time to time required, but gained by his Lieutenants over the Barbarians of the from which the mild or timid character of his colleague Continent as well as those of Britain ; but, although the habitually recoiled. It was the object of the latter to honour of victory was reflected upon the head of the establish a reputation for clemency and gentleness ; Emperor, it is manifest that he had no share in the and, accordingly, while he employed the stern hand of labour by which it was obtained, because he spent the Maximianus to inflict punishment or to gratify revenge, winter which immediately followed his accession at his he usually contrived to interpose his influence in order favourite residence of Nicomedia.*
to save such victims as he had no wish to sacrifice, and The urgency of affairs suggested to Diocletian the to moderate the rage which he himself had either Vimianos expediency of nominating a colleague in the Govern- kindled or impelled. But, notwithstanding the diftis culez ment, who might share with him the various toils ference of their characters, the two Emperors cultivated
incident to a state of war. He selected from among on the Throne the friendship which they had contracted
It was at Nicomedia that Maximianus was invested He is inhazard. Indeed, he himself appears to have estimated with the name and power of Augustus ; immediately trusted with at a much higher rate the wisdom of the statesman after which he was charged with the management of
against the than the valour of the soldier ; and no sooner, accord- the war against the rebellious peasantry of Gaul. The Gauls. ingly, was he clothed with the Purple, than he made class of persons here mentioned are described by the known by the line of policy upon which he entered, that name of Bagaude, a term which is understood to his labours for the welfare of the Empire were to bear denote an insurgent or tumultuary assemblage. Opa greater resemblance to the thoughtful administration pressed by the extortion and tyranny of the Nobles, the of Augustus, than to the brilliant reigns of those war- occupiers of the land had been occasionally driven to like Princes who succeeded Gallienus.t
arms, in order to vindicate their rights or to defend L sezge and Maximianus was born near Sirmium, in Pannonia, their property ; and, on the present emergency, they décracter of of parents who belonged to the lowest class in society, appear to have listened to the counsels of Helianus and Hanimianus and who could not bestow upon their son any of the Amandus, two ambitious Chiefs, who employed their
advantages of education. He was so ignorant, indeed, resentment with the view of accomplishing certain that, after he ascended the Throne, a Panegyrist who objects of their own. But undisciplined rustics could compared his exploits to those of Hannibal and Scipio not long withstand the valour of the Legions under such Africanus, ventured to lavish upon him the ambiguous a Commander as Maximianus. They were defeated in compliment that he had surpassed heroes with whose several battles, reduced once more to submission, and names he was probably unacquainted. Bred amid the saw their leaders, who had assumed the Purple, obliged toils and perils of war he exhibited much personal bra- to seek safety in flight. Having restored tranquillity in very, with the rough and honest frankness which is the Southern Provinces, the new Augustus advanced generated in the camp. His rise in military honours towards the Rhine, where he gained a succession of did not compensate the want of that early discipline victories over the Franks, the Burgundians, and the which forms the manners to the mould of social life ; Alemanni, who had as usual seized the moment of for, even when in the Palace of the Cæsars, he betrayed suspense or weakness to renew their depredations the fierce, the licentious, and, sometimes, cruel disposi- within the limits of the Empire. He pursued them tion of the Illyrian peasant. He aspired to nothing across the river; carried fire and sword into their higher than the fame of an able General. Under country; and compelled the proudest of these Barba
Panegyr. Vet. Aurel. Vicior. Eutrop. lib ix. + Lactant. de Mort. Pers. c. 7-9. Zonar. lib. xii. c. 31. p. 640, • Panegyr. Vet. in Max. Victor, Epit. Eutrop. lib. ix. Aurel. Victor, Epit, Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus.
Victor, de Cæsaribus.
Biography. rians to sue for compassion, and consent to hold their cens; in Pannonia, over the Sarmatians, the Goths, the
Carus lands at the pleasure of the Roman Emperor. *
Quadi, the Jugonthi, and the Carpians; and in Rhætia, Valerius From But the Franks, although unequal to their powerful over the more active and warlike Alemanni. The Diocletianus
enemies in the field, maintained their superiority on the two Emperors, in the winter of the year 290, had Augustus. 285. Emboldened by the successful enterprise which an interview at Milan, the object of which has not
From they completed in the reign of Probus, when they per- been transmitted to our times; but it was 305. War with formed a voyage from the Euxine to the mouths of the occasion that the first of the orators just named,
285. the Franks Rhine and the Elbe, they had learned to put confidence in while celebrating the concord which prevailed beand defec- the sea; and having equipped numerous vessels of a light tween the Augusti, took an opportunity of specifying 305. tion of structure and convenient size, they were constantly seen their respective triumphs.
their respective triumphs. "The laurels," said he, Carausius, who as
“ which Diocletian gathered in the East, in Rhætia, and hovering along the coasts of Gaul, Britain, and Spain, sumes the
and ready to retaliate upon the defenceless inhabitants Pannonia, afforded to you, Maximianus, the most heartPurple in the losses which their countrymen suffered from the felt joy; while, on the other hand, the defeat of the Britain. invading Legions. To check the incursions of these seditious Tribes in Gaul, the conquest of Germany, and
pirates, Maximian resolved to form a navy; and fixing the successful termination of the war with the Saxon
questioned, indeed, whether this eulogy does
The restless rius appoir
ted Cæsar. gave instructions to some confidential agent to super- spirit of the Germans and Goths impelled them to new sede the Admiral in the command of the fleet, and to adventures; the Asiatic nations, at variance with one put him to death. But the suspicions of Carausius another, agreed in their hatred or jealousy of Rome; anticipated the designs of his master. Dreading the and the Maritime tribes who inhabited the extreme punishment that awaited him, he sailed into Britain; boundaries of the West, were becoming every day more where, having gained the troops which were stationed formidable to the Provincials of Gaul, and even to the to defend that island, he assumed the Imperial title and numerous cities beyond the Pyrenees. It, therefore, authority, and defied at once the resentment and the occurred to the wisdom of Diocletian, that the Empire, arms of his offended Sovereign. He even formed an exposed to be assailed on every side, ought on every alliance with the Saxons and Franks, whose active side to be protected by a separate army, under a leader squadrons, joined to his own, commanded the seas invested with supreme power. With this view, as well which separate Albion from the Continent. Retaining as to prevent the wanton exercise of the elective privipossession of Boulogne, the original seat of his power, lege so long assumed by the Legions, he determined he spread the terror of invasion from the Rhine to the once more to divide his jurisdiction, and to confer on two promontory of Calpe; and so firmly established did his Generals, who were each to enjoy the title of Cæsar, an government in a short time become, that Diocletian and equal share of the Sovereign authority. Galerius, surMaximian judged it expedient to resign into his hands named the Herdsman, and Constantius, who from some the Sovereignty which he had usurped, and to acknow. peculiarity in his complexion had acquired the denomiledge him as one of the Roman Emperors. A medal nation of Chlorus, were the two individuals appointed struck by Carausius, to commemorate this event, repre- to enjoy the subordinate honours of the Imperial sents him in conjunction with his two colleagues, and Purple.T bears for its legend the Pax TRIUM AUGUSTORUM. The former of these Chiefs was born at Dacia, and Lineage His administration in Britain was more remarkable for could not boast a descent any higher than that of of these vigour than for either wisdom or clemency. He chas- Diocletian, nor a more liberal education than that Comman.
ders. tised, indeed, the Caledonians on the Northern border, which had been enjoyed by Maximianus. Like the and even rebuilt the wall of Severus ; but, at the same latter, his early youth was spent in tending cattle, and time, he oppressed the subjects of the Empire by like him, too, he was rough in his manners, impetuous, cruel exactions, and during six or seven years set an and blood-thirsty. The birth of Constantius was less example to his troops of every species of tyranny and obscure, and his character was much more amiable. licentiousness.t
His mother was a niece of the Emperor Claudius, and Successes of
While Maximianus was carrying on a doubtful war his father held an eminent rank among the Nobles of Diocletian with the rebellious Carausius on the Western liinits of Illyricum. Trained to arms from his childhood he rose in the East. the Roman World, his colleague is said to have been more to high promotion under Aurelian and Probus, whose
successfully employed against the Persians in the East, interests he strengthened by several brilliant exploits and the Barbarians in Thrace and Asia Minor. If we against the enemies of the Empire: and when Carus may trust to the authority of the Panegyrists, Mamer- mounted the Throne, his services were acknowledged tinus and Eumenes, Diocletian, in the interval now by his being appointed to the important Government of mentioned, gained victories in Africa, over the Sara- Dalmatia. To cement still more firmly the bonds or
* Panegyr. Vet. ii. 4; vi. 8. Eutrop. lib. ix.
Eumen. in Panegyr. Vet. Mamertin, Panegyr. in Marim
Biography. this political union, each Emperor adopted one of the the Purple. The same honour is supposed to have been Caius Cæsars as his son ; Diocletian fixing his choice upon conferred upon Constantius by the second Augustus, in
Diocletianus From Galerius, and Maximian upon Constantius. In order one of the cities of Italy or Gaul, on which occasion
Augustus. to be more closely engrafted into the Imperial families, both the young Princes were addressed as Emperors 285. each of the new Sovereigns accepted a wife at the hand and Fathers of their country, and clothed with the From
of his adopted father : nor was the circumstance that Tribunitian power, the High-Priesthood, and all the 305. they were both previously married, allowed to prove a other attributes of Sovereign authority.*
285. They are
bar to this domestic arrangement, for: Constantius was Constantius was no sooner nominated to his Governadopted by
desired to repudiate Helena, the mother of the famous ment, than he made preparations for recovering Britain 305. përors. Constantine, to make way for Theodora, the step- from the hands of the usurper. By reducing Boulogne, Constantius daughter of Maximian, while Galerius performed a which continued in the power of Carausius, he dimin
Boulogne. similar act to qualify him to become the husband of ished greatly the maritime strength of his antagonist, Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian. It has been and acquired, at the same time, the means of building noticed by a contemporary Annalist, that each Emperor, a fleet which he intended for the invasion of his insular in exercising the rights of adoption, selected the Cæsar Kingdom. But the equipment of a sufficient number whose character was most opposed to his own; as if of ships to accomplish such an object, occupied the it had been intended, that in both cases the defects of mechanics of Gaul nearly three years; in the course of the elder Princes should be compensated by the quali- which, the colleague of Maximian employed his troops ties of the younger, and that, by combining in the same in strengthening the defences of the Rhine against the Administration a variety of endowments, the balance of Franks, whose daring spirit he repressed in several the Constitution might be the better preserved. It has bloody engagements.t been thought further worthy of remark, that the rank of When every thing was ready for a descent upon Bri- Death of Constantius and Galerius was not settled according to tain, the news arrived that Carausius had fallen the Carausius, the dignity of their adopted fathers ; on the contrary, victim of treason, and left the Government to Allectus,
of Britain. the preeminence was given to the former of these Com- his Prime Minister, who was accused of effecting his manders, although the Emperor into whose family he destruction. The assassin having assumed the Purple, was introduced uniformly acknowledged the precedence and thereby declared himself an enemy to Ronie, the of his elder colleague.*
expedition was only delayed until such means were But, whatever might be their respective claims on adopted as could not fail to render its object most com
the homage of the Roman people, it is sufficiently mani- plete. A squadron, which had been fitted at the mouth svi vēces. fest that the Empire was now provided with four of the Seine, put to sea under Asclepiodatus, and
Rulers, all of whom might be regarded as independent reached without opposition a port on the coast of Kent Sovereigns. Every one of them had his Court, his or Sussex; while the remainder of the armament, conOfficers of State, and even a Prætorian Præfect; who, ducted by Constantius in person, threatened the Capital in his turn, had Lieutenants appointed in the different and the fruitful shores of the Thames. When the Provinces of the general government. Galerius re- former landed his troops he burned the transports, received from Diocletian the charge of Illyricum, Thrace, solving to conquer or die in the Province which he had and Macedonia; while he himself retained the com- undertaken to recover; and, accordingly, Allectus had mand of Greece, Egypt, and the rich Countries of Asia no sooner marched against him, than he put an end to from the Ægean to the Euphrates. The other Emperor the war and to the life of the usurper, by gaining a assumed for his peculiar department the defence of speedy and decisive victory. The approach of the Italy and the African Colonies; having intrusted to the Cæsar, therefore, bore a greater resemblance to a warlike vigilance of Constantius the protection of Gaul, Triumph than to the advance of a hostile army. He was Spain, and Britain. This distribution has been held welcomed with acclamations from crowds of obedient by Historians rather as a simple partition of official subjects, who seemed to regret their long separation care, than as an actual division of territorial Sove- from the Empire, and who now prepared to celebrate reignty; or, if each was independent within his own an event which, after a rebellion of ten years, placed jurisdiction, all of them were bound to afford mutual them once more under the protection of the Imperial assistance to their colleagues, as well by counsel as by Sceptre. I arms. The Cæsars, in their exalted rank, confessed the Constantius is said to have used his victory with Mildness of superior Majesty of the Emperors; and the three mildness and clemency. Far from confounding the the conyounger Princes invariably acknowledged, by their unhappy natives with their tyrannical oppressors, he queror. gratitude and obedience, the common parent of their studied rather how to compensate to the former the fortunes. The suspicious jealousy of power found not losses which they had sustained during the successive any place among them; and the singular happiness of usurpations He restored property to those from whom their union has been compared to a concert of music, it had been unjustly taken away; placed the whole the harmony of which is regulated and maintained by Country under the protection of equal laws; and the skilful hand of the leader.t
granted pardon to all who expressed contrition for It was on the Calends of March, in the year 292, their offences against the parent State. The year
296 that the Cæsars were installed into their high office. is distinguished by the Historians of Rome, as the Diocletian, having assembled the Legions at a short period when Britain was completely recovered by the distance from Nicomedia, recommended to them his arms and wise counsels of the father of Constantine. S adopted son, and in their presence invested him with Some years elapsed during which no event of pecu
Eumen, Panegyr. Vet. Lactant, de Mort. Pers. c. 52. Aurel. Victor. Eutrop. lib. ix.
† Lactant. c. 7. Julian, in Cæsar. Aurel. Victor,
Lactant. e. 19.
Euirop. lib. ix. Aurel. Victor. Eumen. Panegyr. in Constant.
Biography. liar magnitude arrests the attention of the reader. principal accomplices of his guilt. The city, at length, Cains
Galerius appears to have maintained a chain of posi- was taken by storm, when an indiscriminate slaughter Valerius From tions along the Danube, which the diminished courage ensued of all ranks and ages; and those who fell not Diocletianus
Augustus. of the Barbarians seldom urged them to attack. The by the sword were condemned to the severer punish285, duty of Constantius, who had returned from Britain to ment of poverty and of exile. The magnificence of
Gaul, was much more active but not less successful. Alexandria was given up to the fury and rapacity of
285, against the mans from the banks of the Rhine he pursued them origin or its antiquities. Coptos and Busiris shared the German into their own territory, and even planted his victorious same fate; being, by the orders of Diocletian, reduced
Eagles on the Ems and Weser. Pursuing the policy and levelled with the ground. Extending his arms to
Diocletian. lusurrection While the Empire enjoyed tranquillity in the North signs, and with the ruin of all who had placed themin Africa and West, an insurrection broke out almost at the selves under his banners, but that he directed his hosand Egypt. same moment in Egypt and Africa. In the latter tility against Science, and interdicted the most inge
country five Moorish nations, who are known to the nious and interesting pursuits of Philosophy. He
We are informed that an officer, called Julian, flows into the treasury of the dominant State ; and the
against the Persians. Several reasons concurred at with the To suppress the disturbance in Egypt, where another this time to induce the Romans to take up arms
Persians Pretender had placed himself on the Throne, Diocletian against their ancient enemies. They had not yet forresumed his arms, which appear to have been for some gotten the indignity inflicted upon the Empire in the time laid aside. He opened the campaign by the siege person of Valerian; the sudden retreat of Numerianus of Alexandria ; which he endeavoured to reduce by was still recent; and the King of Armenia, whose cutting off the aqueducts which conveyed the waters of family had long held their crown under the protection of the Nile into every quarter of that immense city, and the Roman People, was again expelled from his counby rendering his camp impregnable to every sally which try, and forced to seek an asylum in a foreign land. the despair of the inhabitants might urge them to In the year 296 Narses was on the Throne of Persia ; attempt. At the end of eight months, the resources who, after crushing a rebellion at home, had carried his as well as the courage of the garrison being exhausted, arms against Tiridates, the son of Chosroes, added they resolved to throw themselves upon the mercy of Armenia, as we have just related, to his vast domithe Emperor, who, irritated by their seditious and nions, and was now, after the example of Sapor, his wavering temper, refused to exempt from military execution Achilleus, the author of the rebellion, and the
* Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus. Eutrop. lib. ix. Euseb. Chron. in ann.
Oros. lib. vii. c. 25. * Zosim. lib. i. Panegyr. Vel. iv. 11.
Joan. Autioch. apud Vales,
Biography. warlike ancestor, preparing to stretch the limits of towards the wife and daughter of Darius.
Caius his sovereignty to the farthest parts of Asia Minor. * tected them from rapiue and violence, conveyed them
Augustus. 285. of his army. The immediate command of the Legions which became their sex and dignity.*
From was intrusted to Galerius, whose duty on the Illyrian The vanquished Persians, upon finding that Dio. 305. frontiers was in the mealtime transferred to an Officer cletian was advancing from Antioch to follow up the
of inferior rank; wich, equally confident in their victory which his son had just achieved, had immediate the Arme strength and in the goodness of their cause, the two recourse to negociation. Their Ambassadors, having 305. nian Prince, powerful hosts advanced to meet each other in the plains arrived at the camp of Galerius, represented to the The PerDefeat of of Mesopotamia. Orosius narrates, that the Romans Romans that Peace was now become desirable to both sians sue for Galerius,
Peace. were three times worsted before they could be induced to Countries, and that the prolongation of the unfortunate yield ground; but the last action appears to have been war in which they were engaged could not fail to be so decisive, that only the scattered remains of their productive of the greatest calamities, not only to themtroops reached Antioch after a disgraceful flight. The selves but to the Human race at large. Apharban, the young King of Armenia was in the battle, where, un- principal speaker, represented the rival Empires as subdued by misfortune, he signalized his valour against the two eyes of the world, and deplored on that ground the inveterate foes of his House. He was pursued the extinction of either. He also reminded the victor as far as the Euphrates, on a wounded horse which of the uncertainty and change which attached to all could carry him no farther; but rather than sur- mortal grandeur, and besought him to exercise that render to the Persians, from whom he had reason to ap- moderation which became the Prince of a great People, prehend the most unworthy treatment, he plunged into and of which the Persians on similar occasions had the river, and at length reached in safety the opposite given so many striking proofs. Galerius could no bank.
longer restrain his impatience. “ Ill does it become Diocletian was greatly offended at the failure of you," he exclaimed, “ to expatiate on the vicissitudes of Galerius; who, it should seem, was carried by the im- Fortune, and on the forbearance which we ought to petuosity of his temper to attack the enemy with an practise to one another ; you, who, after obtaining by inadequate force, and on ground highly disadvan- fraud the possession of an Emperor's person, kept him tageous to the Roman infantry. He accordingly re- in the most painful captivity till the day of his death! ceived the vanquished Cæsar with the strongest expres- Think of the clemency which you showed' to Valerian, sions of indignation, and even compelled him to walk and then consider what you have a right to exact at a considerable way by the side of his chariot before he our hands. But, he continued, it is not the practice would vouchsafe to answer his entreaties, that he might of the Romans to trample on a beaten enemy; and, by be supplied with another opportunity to retrieve his the compassion which we are willing to bestow upon character, and avenge the cause of the Empire on the the supplicating Persians, we shall make manifest to squadrons of Narses. Having drawn reinforcements the world that the soldiers of the West are not more from the hardy cohorts which served on the Danube, gallant in the field of battle than merciful in the hour and strengthened his ranks by a large body of Gothic of victory.”+ auxiliaries, who were taken into the Imperial pay, The unreflecting ambition of Galerius pointed, it The terms Galerius once more crossed the Euphrates, and waited was thought, to the complete and final subjugation of on wbich it the approach of his antagonist.
the Persian Empire, which he was desirous to add as a
is granted. Galerias Taught by experience, he avoided the level plains on Province to that of Rome. But the mind of Dioclegais a deo which he had found the Persian cavalry so formidable, care vic.
tian, influenced by the wise maxims of Augustus and and directed his march along the confines of Armenia, by the experience of Trajan, was disposed to pursue a a billy country, the inhabitants of which afforded him, more moderate policy; to humble the subjects of at the same time, both supplies and intelligence. The Narses, to strip them of a large portion of their terrienemy, elated by their recent success, had begun to tory, and thereby to deprive them of the means of redespise the Romans and to neglect the safety of their newing their incursions beyond the Euphrates. With own camp, whereupon Galerius, who had carefully this view he sent Sicorius Probus, one of his Secreexamined their position, resolved to attack them in taries, to explain to the Persian Court the terms on the night with his whole forces. The assault proved which Peace might be obtained. In the first place the decisive. The army of Narses, consisting chiefly of Envoy was instructed to demand the entire relinquishhorsemen, was thrown into confusion and totally ment of Mesopotamia, the occasion of so many wars routed: the King himself was wounded and compelled and disputes, and the cession to Rome of all the counto continue his retreat into the deserts of Media ; leav- tries which extended from that Province to the Aboras, ing in the hands of the conquerors his wife his chil- or Araxes, a stream which falls into the Tigris. The dren, and sisters, with all the wealth usually to be tract of land thus acquired, including Carduena, Arzafound in the tent of a Persian Monarch. The character nena, and Zabdicene, was of great value to Diocletian, of the Roman Cæsar did not, indeed, present many because it formed a strong barrier on the Eastern limits points of resemblance to that of the renowned son of of the Empire, and increased at the same time the Philip; but on the present occasion he revived, in number of his allies from among the hardiest and most favour of his female captives, the generosity which has warlike tribes of Asia. It was likewise stipulated that been so justly praised in the conduct of Alexander Armenia, upon being restored to Tiridates, should have
or over Narses.
Ammian. Marcel. lib. xxüi. Oros. lib. vii. c. 25. Zonar lib. xii. e, 31. p. 640.
+ Moy, Choren. Armen. Hist. lib. ii. c. 76.
* Aurel. Victor. Pet. Pat. in Legat. Sex. Rufin.
+ Aurel. Victor, Pet. Pat, in Legat. Aminian. Marcel. lib. xxii. Eutrop. lib. ix.