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Fisgraphy. till he completed their discomfiture under the walls soldiers plaeed their strength and their pride. Leaving Lucius

of that City, and compelied their Sovereign to take the defence of the place to six hundred bowmen, he Domitius refuge in her Capital. The strength of the fortifi- turned to Emesa ; where he spent some time in distri- Aurelianus

Augustus. cations, and the ample stores of provisions and ammuni- buting rewards and punishments, according to the ser270. tion with which she had supplied the garrison, gave her vices he had received, or the injuries which he had

From reason to hope that she could hold out till famine or sustained from the subjects of Zenobia. On this 275. the climate should drive the victors from the depth of occasion, the celebrated Longinus fell a victim to the

270. the wilderness which surrounded her seat of Govern- weakness of his mistress, and to the severe policy of ment, *

the victor. The Queen of Palmyra has been accused 275. He great The siege of Palmyra is one of the most interesting of purchasing life at the expense of her fame and Execution preparations events that mark the History of the declining Empire. friends. To avoid the disgrace of inflicting the penalty of Longinus.

In the eyes of Aurelian it appeared an object of not less of treason upon a woman, Aurelian selected from among difficulty than importance. The Roman People, said her counsellors fit objects upon whom to vent his anger, he, may speak with contempt of the war which I am and to assert the rights of an offended Sovereign. But now waging against a woman. They are ignorant both the fame of Longinus, it has been observed, will survive of the character and of the power of Zenobia. It is that of the Princess who betrayed, and of the Tyrant impossible to enumerate her warlike preparations, of who condemned him. Genius and learning were instones, of arrows, and of every species of missile wea- capable of moving a fierce, unlettered soldier, but they pon. The walls are provided with formidable engines, had served to elevate and harmonize the soul of Lonand artificial fires are thrown from every assailable ginus. Without uttering a complaint, he calmly folpoint. The fear of punishment has armed her with a lowed the executioners, pitying his unhappy mistress, desperate courage ; but still I trust for success to the and bestowing comfort on his afflicted friends. * protecting Deities of Rome, who have hitherto been But the miseries of Palmyra were not yet accom- Insurrection favourable to all my undertakings.t

plished. The Roman Emperor had scarcely reached at Palmyra Gege of Unwilling, at the same time, to incur the manifold Illyricum, whither he was called by a renewed incursion Panna hazards inseparable from a protracted siege in such a of the Goths, when the fickle Syrians once more re

region, the Emperor wrote to Zenobia with the view of volted, and displayed on their walls the standard of inducing her to surrender. Her answer was firm and rebellion. Listening to the advice of Apsæus, they fell indignant. She reminded him of the resolute conduct upon the garrison, all of whom, with their Commander of Cleopatra ; threatened him with the vengeance of the Sandarion, they cruelly put to death; after which they Persians, the Saracens, and the Armenians ; and even proclaimed as Augustus a relative of their Queen, who taunted him with the losses which he had recently sus- is known in the varying histories of the times, by the tained at the hands of the roving Arabs. But her allies names of Achilleus and of Antiochus. Stimulated by a were less zealous than she expected; her provisions just resentment, Aurelian returned to Palmyra, rejected were at length exhausted; and after all her resources the submission of the rebels, and forthwith delivered had been called into action and failed, she was obliged up the town to military execution. Torrents of blood It is sacked to yield to the fatal necessity of relinquishing her proud were shed; the Temples were robbed of their ornaments, by the

City to the resentment of a powerful Conqueror. At- and the other public edifices of their magnificence and Romans. Capture of tempting to make her escape to the Persians, on the splendour; and, upon the whole, so great was the de

back of a swift dromedary, she was taken prisoner by a vastation, that the City of Palm Trees never afterwards
body of Roman horse, who received notice of her flight. recovered entirely from its ruined condition. Justinian,
When brought into the presence of the Emperor, he indeed, after the lapse of a long period, repaired its
upbraided her with the folly and ingratitude of her fortifications, to serve as a barrier against the inroads of
rebellion; to which charge she replied with an air of the Saracens; but the Grecian architecture and classical
dignified flattery, that she was not ashamed to acknow- taste which adorned the reign of Odenatus and his
ledge a master in Aurelian, because his courage and immediate successor, appear not to have revived in the
wisdom were worthy of his station ; but as to Gallienus beginning of the VIth century.t
and others of the same class, she could not refrain The Imperial arms were equally successful in Egypt
from holding them in contempt. I

under the command of Probus, who afterwards ascended The capture of Zenobia decided the fate of Palmyra. the Throne, as well as under the personal direction of It is asserted by Zosimus, that before she left the city, Aurelian himself, who went thither to subdue the disshe exhorted the garrison to hold out until she should affection of Firmus, a wealthy citizen of Alexandria. return with a reinforcement from the Persians. But Entitled by so many victories to the honours of a Aurelian no sooner was it known that she was prisoner in the Triumph, the Emperor repaired to Rome, where the celebrates a

Triumph. camp of the Romans, than the inhabitants, despairing people were impatient to witness the gratifying spectacle of relief, entreated the clemency of the conqueror, of that gorgeous procession. Vopiscus exhausts all and declared their readiness to deliver up the city into the powers of language in describing the objects which his hands. Aurelian listened to the voice of policy invited the public applause and admiration. Three rather than to that of revenge ; he granted to them the Royal chariots graced its splendour. The first was life and liberty which they implored, and contented that of Odenatus, shining with gold, silver, and precious himself with a portion of their wealth, the silks and stones. Another, equally superb, had been given to precious stones which they obtained from the remoter Aurelian by the King of Persia. The third was made Asia, and the arms, horses, and camels, in which their for Zenobia, who in the height of her prosperity, when

she flattered herself with thoughts of becoming mistress * Zosim. lib. i. p. 655—657. Aurel. Victor, Epit. + Vopisc. in Aurel. c. 26.

* Vopisc. in Aurel. Zosim. lib. i. Trebell. Poll. in Trigint. Tyran. Trebell. Poll. in Trigint. Tyran. Zosim. lib. i. p. 657.

† Zosimn. lib. i. Vopisc. in Aurel. Trebell. Poll. in Trigint. Turun.

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It is the Goths,

Biography. of Rome, intended it for her triumphant entry into that and the hand of the executioner was fatigued with the Lurias city ; little anticipating that it would be her fate to daily duties of his office. *

Domitius From follow the wheels of the same car, a vanquished and Conscious that he was better qualified to guide the

Aurelianus hopeless captive. A fourth vehicle appeared, drawn by valour of his Legions in the field, than to employ the

Augustus. 270. four stags, and described as having belonged to a King wisdom of his counsellors in the Senate, he listened

of the Goths; a deceitful token of victory over a Peo- without reluctance to a rumour which announced an 275.

ple to whom had been recently conceded the important approaching commotion in Gaul. The rapidity of his 270.
Province of Dacia. The line of prisoners, which was movements disconcerted the designs of the disaffected ;
long and various, was closed by Tetricus and Zenobia, and hence the months which he had intended to devote 275.
both magnificently attired. The former wore the Im- to the fatigues of a campaign were more profitably Affairs of
perial robe of purple over a rich Gaulish dress; and was employed in repairing a City on the Loire, which, under Gaul.
accompanied by his son, upon whom he had conferred the modern name of Orleans, still reflects, though some-
the title of Cæsar. The Queen of Palmyra was so what indistinctly, the honours and care bestowed upon
loaded with diamonds, jewels, and other ornaments, it by Aurelian.
that she could scarcely support their weight. Her sons His labours beyond the Alps were succeeded by an Dacia sur
and daughters, arrayed with equal splendour, attended expedition into Illyricum, whence he once more ex- rendered to
her on either side ; and last of all advanced the Em- pelled the Barbarians by whom it was infested.
peror himself, elevated in the Gothic car, surrounded by doubtful whether it was on this occasion or at a former
his troops in the most brilliant uniforms, and followed period, that he relinquished to the Gothic Tribes the
by all the higher Orders of the Roman State. *

Province of Dacia, originally conquered by Trajan, and
This sacrifice to the vanity of Aurelian soothed his settled the inhabitants of it in a part of Mæsia, to which
resentment against the rebellious Governors of Gaul the latter gave the appellation of the Country which they
and Palmyra. Tetricus was restored to his rank as a had been induced to leave. Having accomplished this
Roman Senator, and even appointed to an office of arrangement, he prepared to march into Asia, either to
trust and emolument; while Zenobia, who had con- oppose the schemes of Vararanes, who was then on the
sented to undergo the indignity from which Cleopatra Throne of Persia, or to punish the subjects of that
shrank to a violent death, was provided with a comfort- Prince for their base treatment of Valerian, and for their
able establishment at Tibur, about twenty miles from confederacy with Zenobia. · But the hand of treason
the Capital, where she spent the remainder of her days was about to frustrate all his endeavours for the peace
in affluence and repose. There the Syrian Queen is and stability of the Empire. Mnesthæus, one of his
said to have sunk into the Roman matron; her son was Secretaries, whom he had reproved, incited by revenge
associated with the Emperor in honour or authority, or by the fear of a greater punishment, formed a
and her daughters married into noble families, whose conspiracy against his life ; and while the Emperor Assassina-
descendants preserved her name during the two succeed- was waiting a favourable wind to transport his army tion of

Aurelian," ing centuries.t

from Thrace into Asia Minor, he was attacked and
hsurrection Having vanquished the foes of the Empire abroad, slain by an officer of rank, who consented to act the
suppressed Aurelian seems to have contemplated reformation at part of an assassin.t
at Rome,

home; a duty which at all times requires a delicate It was the remark of a Ruler who succeeded him
hand, and which, during a period of faction and revolt, on the Throne, that Aurelian deserved esteem for his
was particularly ill suited to one that had been accus- qualities as a soldier, rather than for his personal dis-
tomed only to wield the sword. An insurrection in the positions, which were rigid and severe. f It was to
City, said to have been excited by certain individuals him as a General and not as an Emperor, that Rome
who had profited by the adulteration of the coin, em- owed her gratitude ; and we, accordingly, find that
ployed his vigilance and a large body of his troops; and the Historians most partial to his memory, are com-
it was not subdued until after he had lost seven thou- pelled to modify all their eulogies, by acknowledging
sand men, belonging to those hardy Legions which that he was an utter stranger to compassion, and that
usually encamped in Dacia, and along the other frontier he too often permitted the claims of stern justice to
Provinces of the Danube. Perhaps this act of rebel- triumph over those of pity and forgiveness. To the
lion was occasioned by the severities which the Em- Senators his pride was not less offensive than his
peror was wont to inflict upon his people under the cruelty. Ignorant or impatient of the restraints of
name of Justice. Carrying into the administration of Civil institutions, he scorned to hold his power by any
Civil affairs the same rigid adherence to Law which other title than that of the sword; and under this false
marked his conduct towards the army, he frequently impression, he persisted in governing by right of con-
sullied his good intentions by indiscriminate and exces- quest, a Country which he found it necessary to subilue
sive punishment. No Order of the State was exempted before he could save it.
from his suspicions and violence. The noblest families
of the Capital felt the weight of his jealousy or resent-

* Vopisc. in Aurel. 36, 37, 39. Aurel. Victor. Calphurn. Eclag
ment : the prisons were crowded with illustrious victims, i. 60.
* Zonar. lib. xii. c. 27. p. 636. Trebell. Poll. in Trigint. Tyran, Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus ; et Aurel. Victor, Epit.

† Zosim. lib. i. Zonar. lib. xii. c. 27. p. 636. Eutrop. lib. ix, 24, 25, 30. Aurel. Victor. Eutrop. lib. ix. | Vopisc. in Aurel. Trebell. Poll, in Trigint, Tyran. Aurel. Victor,

Vopisc. in Aurel. 44. Diocletianum frequenter, dixisst, Aurelio Epit.

anum magis ducem esse debuisse quam Principem.,

5

MARCUS CLAUDIUS TACITUS AUGUSTUS.

FROM SEPTEMBER, A. D. 275, to APRIL, A. D. 276.

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Biography. The death of Aurelian so much enraged the Army, powerful Monarchy in the world, menaced by foreign Marcus that the Soldiers were more intent for a time on bring- enemies, and torn by domestic factions.*

Claudius From ing his murderers to condign punishment, than on It was the wisdom not less than the inclination of

Tacitus

Augustus. providing a successor. Even after they had recovered this aged Emperor, that induced him to leave much of 275. from the first paroxysm of wrath, they hesitated whether the supreme power in the hands from which he received

From they should immediately exercise the right which long it. He encouraged the Senate to resume their wonted 276. custom had placed in their hands, or wait for the advice authority; to appoint Proconsuls to all the Provinces ;

275. The Army csalts the

and concurrence of the Senate, in choosing a Head for and to exercise all the other privileges which had been Sesate, the Empire. Upon a short deliberation they adopted conferred upon them by Augustus. His moderation 276.

the latter alternative, and resolved to write, or to send a and simplicity were not affected by the change of his His encou-
deputation, to Rome. Their message to the venerable condition ; the only expense which he permitted to him- ragement of
Body which they addressed, after bewailing the loss self, was the encouragement which he bestowed on the
which they had sustained, and condemning the crime Fine Arts; and the only personal indulgence which he
by which it had been effected, proceeded to give assu- would not resign, were reading and conversation with
rance that none of those by whose fault or misfortune literary men. He took great pains to preserve the
it had been brought about, should be allowed to ascend writings of his ancestor, the Historian of Rome: for
the Throne ; and finally, to crave their assistance in which purpose he gave orders that every Library should
selecting a Prince worthy to fill the place of Aurelian. possess that author's works, and that, to render this
The Senators, long unused to such deference, knew not object more practicable, ten copies of them should be
how to act. Unwilling to incur responsibility, they at transcribed every year in one of the Public Offices. It
length resolved to abide by the judgment of the Le- is to be lamented that so much anxiety should have
gions; who could not fail, they insinuated, to nominate been, expended comparatively, in vain; and that the
from among the most meritorious of their Officers some instruction which a Roman Emperor valued so highly,
one who might realize the intentions of their late Chief, should in a great measure be denied to the modern
and thereby secure the interests of the Commonwealth scholar.t
in the East as well as in the West. But the Army, Having obtained the approbation of the Citizens, he
actuated by a very uncommon degree of moderation, departed from the Capital to show himself to the army
renewed their request to the Civil authorities, to supply in Thrace. The usual largesses secured his popularity
them with a General and Ruler; and it was not until among the soldiers ; and the reverence which he found
this reciprocal compliment had been urged and rejected still subsisting for the memory of Aurelian, dictated the
three times, that the Senators agreed to assemble and punishment of certain chiefs of the conspiracy which had
discharge their duty to the Empire. Meanwhile, six or taken his life. But his attention was soon with-
seven months had insensibly passed away; an amazing drawn from the investigation of past delinquencies to
period, it has been remarked, of tranquil anarchy, meet an urgent danger. When the late Emperor was (sruption or
during which the Roman World remained without a making preparations to invade Persia, he had nego- the Alani.

Sovereign, without an usurper, and without a sedition.* ciated with a Scythian tribe, the Alani, to reinforce his
Tacos On the twenty-fifth of September, 275, the Senate ranks with a detachment of their best troops. The

was convoked to exercise once more the valuable pre- Barbarians, faithful to their engagement, arrived on Emperor,

rogative with which the Constitution of Rome had the Roman frontiers with a strong body of cavalry;
invested their Order. The individual whom they elected, but before they made their appearance Aurelian was
inherited the name and virtues of Tacitus, the celebrated dead, and the Persian war suspended : in which cir-
Historian, and was, besides, respected for his wisdom, cumstances, the Gothic auxiliaries, impatient of repose,
his experience in business, and his mild benevolence. and disappointed of their pay, soon turned their arms
This venerable Legislator had already attained his against the unfortunate Provincials. They overran
seventy-fifth year, a circumstance which he urged with Pontus, Cappadocia, and Cilicia, before Tacitus could
a great show of reason, for declining the honour which show his readiness to satisfy their claims or to punish
was now assigned to him. But his objection was re- their aggressions. Upon receiving the stipulated re-
pelled by the most flattering encomiums on his under- ward, the greater number retired peaceably into their
standing and prudence, as also by a retrospect of the deserts; while those who refused to listen to terms were
evils which had oppressed the Empire, arising from the subdued at the point of the sword. I
youth of several of its Sovereigns, Nero, Commodus, But the triumphs and reign of this venerable Sove- Death of
and Heliogabalus. The election was confirmed by reign were not of long duration. It is said that he Tacitus,
acclamation, both among the Citizens and Soldiers'; fell a victim to the jealousy of certain officers of rank,
and Claudius Tacitus, accordingly, at an age when men who were offended at the undue promotion of his bro-
in general long to throw off the burden of public life, ther; or to the angry passions of the private men, who
found himself charged with the government of the most

* Vopisc. Florian. c. 5,6. + Vopisc.
* Vopisc. in Tacit. c. l, Aurel. Victor, Epit.

| Vopisc. Zosim. lib. i. Zonar. lib. xii. c. 27. p. 637. VOL. XI.

57

away

I

Biography. despised his pacific genius and literary habits. But it him a stranger. It is clear, at all events, that he died

is not less probable, that he sank under the fatigues of at Tyana in Cappadocia, after having swayed the From

the campaign and the severity of the climate, to both Sceptre of the Roman Empire about two hundred
of which the pursuits of his later years had rendered days. *

Claudius

Tacitus Augustus.

A. D.

275.

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Probus

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vices of Probus,

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Biography. This virtuous Prince was a native of Pannonia, where, them with acting precipitately, in electing a Chief who Marcus

like the parents of Claudius and Aurelian, his father had no desire to enjoy supreme power, and who posses- Aurelius From appears to have filled the station and discharged the sed not those qualities which were best fitted to ensure

duties of a small occupier of land. The young Probus popular applause. In a Letter to the Prætorian Præfect, Augustus, 276. entered the army, it is supposed, in the rank of a private too, he declared that he had never wished for the Em

From soldier; but, his merits having struck the discerning eye pire, and had even accepted it with great unwillingness; 282.

of Valerian, he obtained immediate preferment, and but, he added, it is no longer permitted me to resign Early ser

276. afterwards advanced so rapidly in his profession, that, an office which exposes me to the utmost danger and before he reached the customary age, he was by the odium; I must continue to act the part which the 282. positive command of the same Emperor invested with soldiers have imposed upon me.t the office of Military Tribune. This increase of power The election of two Emperors necessarily produced Defeat and only served to display in a larger field his great talent a temporary commotion in all the Provinces beyond the death of

Florianus, for war, and to point him out as worthy of still higher Adriatic. It is even said that Rome and the West promotion. At length he was placed at the head of the acknowledged Florianus, while Syria, Egypt, and the third Legion, an honour which Valerian himself once neighbouring countries declared for his rival; but it is enjoyed; on which occasion, the latter acknowledged manifest, from the position of the two armies, that the that the quickest returns of favour were slow in com- fate of the Empire, and of the hostile competitors, could parison with the brilliant career of victory which he had only be determined at a distance from the Capital. The pursued, and promised that he would soon commit to former, impatient of the opposition with which he was his hands a much more important trust than he had threatened, left the frontiers, which he had been aphitherto discharged.*

pointed to guard, and advanced into Cilicia, with the His favour When Aurelian ascended the Thi ne, he found in view of giving battle to the Syrian Legions. Probus, on with Taci. Probus an able and faithful General. He employed the other hand, who knew that the climate would soon

him to reconquer Egypt from the arms of Zenobia, procure for him a bloodless triumph, satisfied himself
while he in person conducted his Legions against the for a time with watching the movements of his adver-
Lieutenants of that Queen in the heart of Syria, and on sary; when finding that disease and disaffection were
the banks of the Euphrates. Tacitus, in like manner, at length making rapid progress through his ranks, he
whose age and habits disqualified him for the more attacked him with vigour at the head of a chosen body
active scenes of war, appointed him Commander-in-chief of troops, and deprived him at once of Empire and of
of all the Eastern Provinces, with a great increase of life.
emolument, the promise of the Consulship, and even the This victory having placed Probus on an undisputed Probus
hope of a Triumph. “I have been created Emperor," Throne, he forthwith addressed the Senate in a Letter full wntes to

the Senate.
said that unfortunate Senator in a letter to Probus, of duty and respect. Nothing could be more suit-
“ with the consent of the army ; but it is not to be con- able to the dignity of the Roman name than the conduct
cealed that the Republic must rest more upon your which, Conscript Fathers, you pursued last year, when
shoulders than upon mine.”+

your clemency gave to the world a Head chosen from Elected

It is not, therefore, in any degree surprising that among yourselves; for you are the legal Sovereigns of Emperor with Flo.

when, by the insurrection in Cappadocia, the Empire the Empire, and the power which you derive from your rianus.

was deprived of a Head, the army of the East should ancestors, ought to descend to your posterity. Happy
have proclaimed their General the successor of Tacitus. would it have been for Florianus, had he waited for
The troops in Asia Minor, indeed, who beheld in their your decision, and not arrogated to himself the supreme
Commander, Florianus, a near relation of the Sovereign authority as a private inheritance to which he might
whose life they had taken away, were induced to raise succeed as a matter of right! Since he thought proper
him to the Throne ; but the Legions of Syria, more to have recourse to arms, it became necessary to oppose
powerful than the other, and, at the same time, better him in the field. The victorious soldiers, who insisted
assured of the approbation of the Senate, persevered in upon punishing his usurpation with death, have con-
their choice, and resolved to enforce the concurrence of ferred upon me the title of Augustus. But to You it
their brethren in arms. Probus, it is said, yielded with belongs to determine whether I am worthy of the
reluctance to the ardour of his soldiers. He accused

Aurel. Victor, Epit. Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus, Florian, Vopisc. c. 3,9. Aurel. Victor, Epit.

c. 2, 3. Zosim, lib. i. f Vopisc, c. 9. Jul. de Cæsaribus.

† Zosim. lib, i. Eutrop. lib. ix. Vopisc. in Prob. c. 7.

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Esgraphy. Empire; and by your judgment on this head I shall his mercy: and so complete was his success, that he Marcus regulate my conduct.**

hesitated for a moment whether he should leave them Aurelius From

Probus When this respectful Epistle was read in the Senate, in possession of their rude independence, or subject

Augustus. the election of the Eastern army was ratified by the their whole Country to the condition of a Roman 276. Members with the loudest acclamations. A decree Province. The latter object, he was aware, could not

was immediately passed to confirm in the hand of be obtained without inducing or compelling the natives 982.

Probus the sceptre which he seemed willing to relin- to relinquish their arms; a concession which, he knew, 276. He'ection tied quish, and to confer upon him all the several branches they would not make, as long as there was a marsh or of the Imperial dignity; the names of Cæsar and a forest in their rear to protect their scattered remains.

282. Augustus, ihe Proconsular command, the Tribunitian He therefore thought it more expedient to limit the power, the Office of Pontifex Maximus, the title of price of the peace which they sought to the restitution Father of his Country, and the privilege of making of the effects and captives which they had carried away three motions in the Senate in the same day: a mode from the Provinces ; obliging the Chiefs to punish such of investiture, it has been remarked, which, though it of their people as might refuse to comply with those seemed to multiply the authority of the Emperor, ex- terms to the full and literal extent. In additiou, he

pressed the Constitution of the ancient Republic. imposed upon them an annual tribute of corn and cattle, Ba Consti- That Probus was sincere in the deference which he for the use of the garrison, which he might find it társal Gothus paid to the Senate, is placed beyond doubt by the necessary to establish along their frontier, as well as to

general tenour of his whole reign. On all occasions he reimburse the Empire for the expense and loss occaconfined himself to military affairs, and confided to the sioned by the war. Lastly, he demanded from them a illustrious body now named, the full and unfettered ad- contingent of sixteen thousand men, chosen from among ministration of the Civil government. Indeed, he not the bravest of their youths, to serve in the Roman only preserved entire the privileges of the Senatorial armies. These he took care so to distribute in distant Order, but even enlarged them to an extent fully equal Provinces, and in separate corps, that not more than to the Constitution established by Augustus. By a fifty or sixty individuals were under the same standard ; declaration addressed to that assembly, he ordered that observing that, though it might be wise to recruit the all appeals from inferior Courts of justice, throughout ranks of the Legions from the Barbarians, it was a the whole Empire, should be submitted to their judg- species of aid which ought to be felt but not seen.* ment. He likewise restored to them the power of ap- To ensure a continuance of the tranquillity which he He builds a pointing the Proconsuls of such Provinces as belonged had thus enforced, he established a line of forts and wall from

the Danube to the jurisdiction of the People ; and also insisted that other military stations from the Rhine to the Danube. the Civil Magistrates even of those Provinces which About the reign of Hadrian, when that mode of defence Rhine. were under the immediate direction of the Emperor, began to be practised, these garrisons were connected, should consent to receive their commissions from the and covered by a strong entrenchment of trees and Senate.†

palisades. In the place of so rude a bulwark, Probus The first exercise of power on the part of the new built a stone wall of a considerable height, and fortified Monarch, was to punish those individuals who had been it by towers at convenient distances. From the neighmost active in the mutiny which led to the fall of his bourhood of Nieustadt and Ratisbon on the Danube, it predecessor. But the restless spirit of the Barbarians, stretched across hills, vallies, rivers, and morasses, as by whom the Empire was surrounded, soon called him far as Wimpsen on the Neckar, and at length terminated

to a service more congenial to his warlike character. on the banks of the Rhine, after a winding course of zations Gaul, ever since the death of Aurelian, had been infested nearly two hundred miles. This important barrier,

by the usual inroads of Franks, Burgundians, and other uniting the two mighty streams which protected the Northern nations, who, not content with plundering the Roman Provinces in Europe, seemed to fill up the country, as formerly, seized upon the principal towns, vacant space through which the Northern Barbarians and manifested every where an undisguised resolution could penetrate into the heart of the Empire. But it to invest themselves with a permament occupation of has been well observed, that the experience of the world the land.

from China to Britain, has exposed the vain attempt of Great suc

Marching against the several hordes in their respec- fortifying an extensive tract of country. The fate of the enter of the tive settlements, he succeeded, after a bloody campaign, wall which Probus erected confirms the truth of this

in driving them across the Rhine, and in restoring tran- remark; for in a few years after his death, it was overquillity to the Gallic Provinces. Four hundred thou- thrown by the Alemanni, and its scattered ruins, still sand of the invaders are reported to have fallen the visible in our times, serve only to excite the wonder, or victims of their avarice or rashness. Vopiscus adds,

amuse the superstition, of the German peasant.* that the Roman Emperor, not satisfied with having

To the wise policy of Probus has been ascribed a His plans delivered his territories from an enemy so active and practice, the general adoption of which at a later period, of coloniza

tion. rapacious, followed them into their own fortresses, and might have conferred an important benefit on the displayed the terror of his power on the banks of the Empire; that, namely, of replenishing the border lands Neckar and of the Elbe. To teach them the value of exhausted by incessant war, with colonies drawn from peace, he resolved to leave upon their minds a deep im- the more crowded countries of the Barbarians, strengpression of the horrors and devastation which accom.

thened by such Roman soldiers as chose to accept repany an unsuccessful war. With his views he continued tirement, and a portion of the richest soil. It was not the pursuit and the slaughter, until nine of the Barba- unusual to dispose of captives in the manner now disrian Kings threw themselves at his feet and implored cribed. Zosimus relates, that most of the prisoners

Vopisc. in Prob. c. 13-15. Zosim. lib. i. p. 664. Aurel. • Vopisc. in Prob. c. 11–13.

Victor, er Vict. Epit. + Zosim, lib. i. p. 663. Zonar. lib. xii, c. 29. p. 637

| Vopisc. ubi supra, Zosim. lib. i. Hieron, Chron. Eutrop. lib. ix.

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