A. D.



A. D.

In Pontus


In Italy


In Gaul

M. Cassius Latianus Posthumus 260. Ægean to the shores of the Adriatic; and it was not until Publius
Julius Cassius Posthumus

this ferocious enemy had advanced within sight of Italy, Licinius From

Ulpius Cornelius Lælianus .. 267.

. 267. Marcus Aurelius Victorinus that Gallienus allowed himself to be awakened from his Gallienus

Augustus. Lucius Aurelius Victorinus

dream of security.* 260.

P. Pesuvius Tetricus ...... 267, The appearance of a Roman army first alarmed and
In Egypt
T.Cestius Alexander Æmilianus 262.

afterwards divided the Gothic hordes. Having lost their
268. In Africa
'T. Corneliani Celsus

ships, some of them attempted to return homeward
In Isauria
C. Annius Trebellianus

260. P. Sempronius Saturvinus 263.

through Mæsia and across the Danube ; while others, Man. Acilius Aureolus ...... 267. weary of adventures or unwilling to engage in unequal 268. Their cha

To these we may add the names of Odenatus, of Herodes war, entered into alliance with Gallienus and abandoned Goths reracters and his son, of Mæonius his nephew, and finally of Zenobia

the national confederacy. We are not without suspi- pulsed : motives.

cion, that in the works of the several annalists and extent of his Queen ; but as the Government of Palmyra was re

their cognised by Gallienus, we can see no reason for insert- compilers from which we collect our materials, we have


been condemned to read in various forms more than ing the legitimate Sovereigns of that Country in the list

one account of the same campaign. The general idea
of tyrants or usurpers. Indeed, if we examine with

that results from a comparison of their different narra-
candour the conduct of those commanders to whom
the stigma of usurpation is attached, it will appear Minor, the islands and even the continent of Greece

tives is, that all the Provinces of Illyricum and Asia
that they were much oftener driven into rebellion by
their fears than by any impulse of ambition. They and German nations, who poured in upon them both

were continually exposed to the ravages of the Gothic
dreaded the cruel suspicions of Gallienus, and the capri- by sea and land ; sometimes passing the Danube, some-
cious violence of their own troops. If the dangerous times entering by the mouth of that great river, and
favour of the Army had imprudently declared them

sometimes crossing the Euxine sea; and in the engage-
deserving of the Purple, they were marked for sure
destruction ; and in such circumstances, even prudence sometimes victorious, but were never daunted nor com-

ments which they fought were sometimes defeated and
would counsel them to secure a short enjoyment of

We find, in particular, that the
Empire, and rather to try the fortune of war than to sub-

pletely destroyed.
mit ingloriously to the hand of an executioner. Never- Temple of Diana, at Ephesus, was plundered and
, even as it was, of the nineteen tyrants who unfortunate, suffered from them the same calamities

burnt by those Barbarians; that ancient Ilium, always
started up in the reign of Gallienus, there was not one

which were brought upon it by the Greeks many Ages who enjoyed a life of peace, or a natural death.* New inva. The irruptions of the Gothic nations were so frequently and reduced it to so deplorable a condition, that, three

before; that they sacked the city of Chalcedon also, sions of the repeated during the days of Gallienus, that it is very hundred years after, it still retained marks of their

difficult to determine either their number or their order. fury; and finally, that all Trajan's conquests beyond the
On one occasion they extended their ravages to the veryDanube were wrested from the Romans, and became
heart of Greece, and even threatened the shores of Italy, again the property of the Northern tribes.f
Having forced a passage into the Propontis, or sea of

The name of Odenatus is, hy one of the authors of Murder of
Marmora, they landed on the island of Cyzicus, and
reduced to ruins the ancient city of the same name.

the Augustan History, connected with the repulse of Odenatus.

the Goths, Of this fact there remains no satisfactory
Pushing at length through the Hellespont, and dividing evidence ; but it admits not of any doubt, that the
their incursions between the Asiatic and European
coasts, they finally anchored their fleet in the port of Sovereign of Palmyra fell soon afterwards by the hand
Piræus, about five miles distant from Athens.

of domestic treason, in which his Queen, Zenobia, was

attempt had been made, by an Imperial engineer, to suspected to have had a share. Gallienus made a
repair the walls which had lain neglected since the ally. Heraclian, to whom was confided the command

fruitless attempt to revenge the death of his faithful
conquest of Sylla ; but all the efforts of his skill proved of the Syrian Legions, attacked the widow of Odenatus,

, for the Barbarians, who supplied by courage but, after a sanguinary conflict, he was obliged to
their want of science, soon rendered themselves masters
of the city of Cecrops. The bravery of the Athenians,

return with the shattered remains of a defeated army. I
indeed, revenged the shame and loss inflicted upon their

Aureolus, meanwhile, who had been left in Italy at Death of Country. While the conquerors were occupied with

the head of a considerable force, assumed the Purple Gallienus. the intemperate joys which usually followed their suc

and displayed the standard of rebellion. This intellicess, Dexippus collected a body of soldiers, and making gence induced Gallienus to leave Illyricum, whence he a sudden attack upon the Gothic flotilla, which was but

was soon afterwards followed by his two Generals,
slenderly guarded, succeeded in burning it to ashes. in the siege of Milan, into which the usurper had thrown

Marcian and Claudius, who joined him when engaged
This exploit, though little regarded at the moment, con-
tributed very materially to the ultimate failure of the

himself. But they entered his camp, not to strengthen
expedition. The Barbarians, in the mean time, it is true,

his hands nor to promote his interests. The Empire could
incensed at being cut off from the means of retreat, gave whose conduct reflected upon it infamy and loss; on

no longer tolerate the vicious imbecility of a Prince,
vent to their wrath in more extended devastations.
The smoke of burning cities rose in every part of Greece.

which account, the Commanders just named, with Hera-
Thebes, Argos, Corinth, and Sparta, once so powerful and transfer the Imperial Sceptre to more worthy hands.

clian, the Prætorian Præfect, agreed to take away his life,
and warlike, were not able to meet the invaders in the
field, nor even to defend their fortifications. The havoc

For this purpose a false alarm was given, that the enemy
of fire and sword spread from the remotest islands of the

* Trebell. Poll. in Gallien. c. 6,7. Aurel. Victor. Eutrop. lib. ix.

+ Trebell. Poll. c. 7, 8. 'Trebell. Poll. ubi supra. Aurel. Victor, Epitom. C. 46, 47.

Zosim. lib. i. Zonar. lib. xii. c. 24.

From 4. D.

Biography. were about to make a sally, which immediately roused their detestation of his memory, and in visiting his Publius Gallienus from his table or his bed ; when, issuing forth crimes upon his family and relations. Hence, the first


Gallienus to direct the movement of his troops, he was shot with exercise of authority, on the part of the new Emperor,

Augustus. an arrow aimed at him by a Dalmatian horseman. His was directed to the protection of the Tyrant's friends; a 260. brother Valerian, who had been associated with him in token of clemency which inspired the best hopes rela

the Government, and his son Saloninus, who enjoyed tive to the spirit of the ensuing reign, and contrasted 268.

the title of Cæsar, soon afterwards fell victims to the most advantageously with the vindictive temper which 260.
popular resentment. The news of his death, indeed, had stained the ten preceding years with terror and
was received at Rome with transports of joy. The bloodshed.*

268. Senate and People vied with one another in expressing


From A. D.

And of bis

8cn and




FROM A. D. 268 to 270.

A. D.

A. D.


He defeats

Biography. Claudius, being the second of the name who had ment to commemorate the fame of his companion in

Marcus ascended the Imperial Throne, is usually distinguished arms; and declared in a Greek epitaph, which is still Aurelius from

by the epithet of Gothicus, which he derived from a vic- extant, that he meant to save the unfortunate Aureolus, Claudius II.

tory gained over those Barbarians. He is said to have but was prevented by the troops into whose hands hé Augustus. 265. been of Illyrian extraction, and he was certainly one of had fallen. The tomb, if we may confide in the accu

From whose whose merits stand higher than their genealogy; racy of Tillemont, continues to distinguish a spot upon 270. Ertraction for we find him in the reign of Decius serving in the the river Adda, between Milan and Bergamo, anciently

268. i Claudius, quality of Tribune, without any other distinction be- known by the name of Pons Aureoli, and which, in its

sides that of professional ability and zeal. The means present appellation of Pontirolo, bears an intelligible 270.
by which he raised himself to the Empire did not escape reference to the event that we have just described. *
condemnation ; for in taking away the life of Gallienus, Nothing now remained to prevent Claudius from
he was forgetful of the obligations which he owed to repairing to Rome, to enjoy the congratulations of his
the House of Valerian, the most active of his patrons. subjects, who could not find terms in which to express
But it has been observed in his defence, that his oppo- the joy that his presence every where excited. But the
sition would not have prevented the catastrophe which Emperor was too wise to devote much of his time to
he was induced to countenance; and, moreover, that the laudatory ceremonials which followed his entrance
bis participation in this crime was the only stain in his into the Capital. Law had been despised, and justice
public life. In all other matters he justly deserves the trampled under the foot of power; he therefore pro-
praise that is due to real magnanimity, true patriotism, ceeded without delay to redress injuries which had been
a strict love of justice, a noble simplicity of manners, already inflicted, and to enact such statutes as might
bravery and good conduct in war, and a wise and prevent their repetition. He was, however, svon
gentle government in peace.*

obliged to relinquish that pacific occupation. Tetricus The Letter in which he announced his accession to had seized with his rebellious army the Provinces of the Aureodasthe Throne, was received by the Senators with much West. The centre of the Empire was harassed by the

delight, and answered with a corresponding enthusiasm. incessant inroads of the Goths; while Zenobia, in the
" Claudius Augustus," said they, we are confident we East, not satisfied with the territory which her husband
shall find in you a father, a brother, and a friend : you had possessed, extended her dominions by conquest,
are a deserving Member of the Senate ; and the Empire and even forced Egypt to acknowledge her power.
acknowledges you for a Head worthy of its greatness. His attention was directed to these three enemies at
Before he proceeded to Rome, he thought it expedient once ; but the Scythian invaders, as they were more
to determine the pretensions of Aureolus, who still kept active than the other two, seemed to demand a more
possession of Milan, and claimed the allegiance due to prompt and determined resistance. I
the Master of the Roman World. A battle ensued, in The return of the Barbarians on the present occasion, New inva-
which the usurper was defeated and slain. The accounts has been ascribed to the injudicious levity with which sion of
of his death are indeed various; but it is agreed on all they were treated by the Imperial Lieutenants, when Goths.
hands, that if he did not fall in the field, he was des- they were dispersed in Illyricum by Gallienus, during
patched immediately afterwards by the victorious sol- his last expedition. Claudius, who at that period com-
diers ; who conjectured, perhaps, that such an instance manded in Mæsia or Pannonia, proposed to cut off
of forward zeal would not prove unacceptable to the their scattered bands, and prevent them from crossing
Imperial Commander. The sincerity of Claudius has the Danube ; but Marcian, who served in the same
therefore been questioned, when he bewailed the fate
of a rival, whose life could not but appear incompatible
with his own security and repose.

He erected a monu

* Zosim. lib. i. p. 651. Aurel. Victor, Epit. Zonar. lib. xii. c. 24.

ť Trebell. Poll. Trigint. Tyran. Aurel. Victor. * Trebell. Poll, Claud. c. 14, 15.

Zonar. lib. xii. c. 26. p. 635. Trebell. Poll. in Claud.


p. 631.

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[blocks in formation]

A. D.


A. D.


Biography. Country as his colleague, would not concur in a mea- They rushed upon the Roman foot with such fury, that Marcus

sure which appeared more cruel than expedient. The they threw them into disorder, cut a considerable body Aurelius From

Claudius II. facility and impunity with which they were thus allowed of them in pieces, and probably would have secured a

Augustus. to carry away loads of spoil, could not but encourage complete victory, had not the horsemen, informed of the 268. them to renew their depredations; and the successor of danger with which the Legions were surrounded, re

From 270.

Gallienus, accordingly, had no sooner mounted the traced their steps and appeared in the field of battle.
Throne than he received information that a confederacy The fate of the Goths was now inevitable. A succession 268.
of the Gothic Tribes had invaded the Empire, to the of defeats had greatly thinned their numbers; the
amount of three hundred and twenty thousand fighting ablest of their leaders had fallen; their baggage and 270.
men, and two thousand ships.*

provisions were taken or destroyed, alu a powerful eneThey sail to Embarking at the mouth of the Niester, anciently my occupied the grourid over which they had meditated the Helles- called the Tyrus, they sailed southward along the coast,

to effect their escape.

Unable to hazard another pont.

committing ravages as they proceeded upon such towns engagement, or even to continue longer together, they
as lay within a convenient distance, until at length resolved to seek for safety amid the passes of Mount
they reached the Thracian Bosphorus. Being repulsed Hæmus; where famine and disease consummated in
at Cyzicus and Byzantium, they steered for the gulf a short time the process of destruction which the sword
of Thessalonica. That city was exposed to the of Claudius had commenced. A Letter from the Emperor
miseries of a siege ; but neither it nor Cassandræa, to Brorchus, the Governor of Illyricum, describes the
which was likewise beleaguered, fell into the hands of extent of his victory, and of the loss sustained by the
the enemy. No place of consequence, indeed, except Gothic warriors. “We have destroyed three hundred
Athens, was subjected to the horror and disgrace of and twenty thousand Goths, and sunk two thousand
actual capture ; but, while the main Body of the army ships. The rivers are covered with bucklers, and the
was employed in investing the greater towns, the fleet shores with large swords and small lances. The plains
supplied the means of inflicting much distress upon the are hid under heaps of slain. Every road is stained
shores of Thessaly and of Greece, the Islands of Crete, with blood. We have taken so many female prisoners,
Rhodes, and Cyprus, and upon all the maritime parts that every Soldier in our army can claim two or three
of Pamphylia.

to serve as slaves." Are defeated The Goths were still before Thessalonica when Clau

The flotilla, in the meantime, sought the coast of Their ships

destroyed. by Claudius. dius appeared in Greece. Intimidated by his military Macedonia, in order to rejoin the army which had taken

reputation not less than by the formidable armament shelter in that Province. But the army no longer
which he had under his command, they raised the siege existed, either to protect or to cooperate with the more
and retired into the Northern parts of Macedonia. The fortunate marauders, who had filled their ships with the
Emperor followed in their steps towards the Danube, be- spoils of Greece and of Asia. In the uncertainty which
yond which they had meant to continue their retreat; and prevailed respecting the lot of their countrymen, the
it was not before they reached Naissus, in Servia, that soldiers landed, with the view of sharing their triumphs
he could overtake their fugitive hordes. There a battle or of alleviating their misfortunes ; a resolution which
ensued which was long and obstinately disputed, until only tended to accomplish the entire ruin of their cause
victory at length declared in favour of the Romans. by land as well as by sea. Their vessels, abandoned
Fifty thousand of the enemy were slain, and the rest by those who had been left to protect them, were burned
resumed their flight; but Claudius was now resolved to or sunk; while the crews, unable to penetrate into an
make an example of the vanquished Barbarians, and to enemy's country, where every thing opposed them, were
visit them with so severe a chastisement, that the remem- obliged to disperse and throw themselves on the mercy
brance of it might for a time confine them to their of the inhabitants. An epidemic sickness, which tracked
woods and marshes. He therefore renewed his pursuit the progress of this sanguinary war, relieved the greater
and brought them again to action. The Goths rallied number from the restraints of captivity; and it was
their scattered forces, constructed a rampart of their remarked, that after the lapse of a single winter, only a

waggons, and received with determined bravery the very few of the invading host remained, to mourn the And almost onset of the victors. After a desperate conflict, success loss of their friends, or to attest the triumph of their extermin

once more attended the Imperial arms; while such of enemies.t nated.

the enemy as survived, finding their retreat entirely cut But the same disease which proved fatal to so many Death of off, fell back upon Macedonia, in the hope, perhaps, of Goths did not spare their conqueror.


Claudius reaching their fleet on the coast. Claudius, by means seized with its worst symptoms, at Sirmium, in the of a rapid movement effected by his cavalry, threw him- month of March in the year 270, where he soon afterself between them and the sea; the infantry, at the wards expired, amid the unfeigned lamentations of the same time, pressing upon their rear, and allowing them whole army. During his illness he is said to have no leisure for repose or for consultation. But even in convened the principal Officers, Civil as well as military, the deplorable circumstances to which they were now and in their presence to have recommended Aurelian, one reduced, the fierceness and valour of the Barbarians of his Generals, as the most deserving of the Throne, rendered them extremely formidable to the conquerors. and the best qualified to execute the great design which

he himself had been permitted only to undertake. Zonar. lib. i. p. 652. + Trebell. Poll, in Claud. Zosim. lib. i. p. 653. Amm. Marcel, * Zonar. lib. xii. c. 26. p. 635. Aurel. Victor, Epit. lib. xxxi.

† Zosim. lib. i. p. 653. Zonar. lib. xii. c. 26. p. 635.



FROM A. D. 270 TO 275.



A. D.


A. D.



Bintaphy. AURELIAN, a Soldier of Fortune, owed his elevation to them by the Romans; while, in return, they bound Lucius merit and not to birth. His father is said to have been themselves to supply to the latter two thousand cavalry


Aurelianus small farmer at Sirmium, a town in one of the Illyrian to serve under the Imperial Generals, and to give a

Augustus. Provinces, and to have occupied a piece of ground which certain number of young men and maidens, the children 270. belonged to Aurelius, a rich Senator. The future Em- of their principal men, as hostages of the due perform

From peror of Rome entered the army as a private ; rose ance of the Treaty. The youths Aurelian trained in the 275.

through the successive ranks of Centurion, Tribune, exercise of arms, and near his own person; to the 270. Lere of

Legionary Præfect, and General; and during the Gothic damsels he gave a liberal education; and by bestowing Aardian.

war, under Claudius, we find him discharging the im- them in marriage on some of his most deserving 275. portant office of Commander-in-chief of the Cavalry. Officers, he gradually introduced between the two He was one of the bravest and most vigorous men of nations the closest and most endearing connections. * his Age. Devoted from his earliest days to military exer- But the Empire soon received a greater shock from Invasion by cises, he excelled all his companions in horsemanship, a confederacy of the German nations on the upper

German in darting the javelin, and in a dexterous use of the Danube. An army, consisting of forty thousand horse sword. Nor was he less distinguished for the regularity and double that number of infantry, made an incursion of his discipline, and his assiduity in pointing out the within the Rhætian border, and even menaced the Norway by which others might attain the same honours thern parts of Italy. A slight advantage gained over with himself; he exhorted the young officers to one of the Tribes by Aurelian, induced the former to prokeep a watchful eye over the conduct of the Soldiery. pose terms of Peace; but as the power of Rome was “Let not any one rob, nor extort, nor injure the pro- not yet sufficiently humbled to receive conditions from perty which falls into his hands. Let all learn to be Barbarian Ambassadors, the war was renewed with satisfied with their allowances; or, if more be necessary, increased animosity and vigour.

increased animosity and vigour. The Emperor, not let them draw it from the blood of their enemies, and content with the prospect of driving back the invaders, not from the tears of their fellow subjects.”

determined to imitate the manœuvre of Claudius; and, Death of The beginning of his reign suffered a momentary dis- by preventing their retreat, destroy them in a body. Qastillas. turbance from the ambition of Quintillus, a brother of With this view, he conducted his army through the

the late Emperor. This unfortunate Commander, being mountain passes, and occupied a strong position beleft with the charge of a body of troops in the neigh- tween the Alemanni and their native Country; so that, bourhood of Aquileia, was by them raised to the Purple had the frontiers of Italy been protected by a compeas soon as it was known that Claudius had expired ; tent strength, it is very probable that his design would but, owing the favourable opinion in which he was have been crowned with entire success. But no sooner held to an amiable disposition rather than to splendid did the Germans find that their march towards the talents, he soon confessed himself unequal to dispute Danube was obstructed, than they turned their faces the Sovereignty with Aurelian, and accordingly submit- once more to the South, forced the barriers of the Italian ted to a voluntary death, after swaying an unhonoured States, and at length encamped their army in the sceptre only seventeen days.f

plains of Milan. Aurelian had scarcely received at Rome the confir- Aurelian posted to the relief of his Country, carrying And defeat ireption of mation of his title, as Master of the Empire, when in- with him a chosen Body of auxiliaries, the Vandal of the the Geths. telligence was brought to him that the Goths had again cavalry, and all the Prætorian Guards, who had served Romans.

poured a host of invaders into Pannonia. The death in the wars of Mæsia and Pannonia. He found the of Claudius is supposed to have revived their hopes; enemy near Placentia, and prepared to attack them on and desirous, perhaps, to rescue or to avenge such of the following day. But more intent, it should seem, in their Countrymen as were still enduring the pains of pursuing his own designs than in guarding against those captivity in the Roman Provinces, they ventured once of the enemy, he allowed himself to fall into a snare more on the chances of war. Aurelian put himself at which was spread for him, and lost, in a hopeless flight, the head of his Legions in Illyricum, and advanced in the greater part of his army. So great was the constersearch of the plunderers. A bloody and most obstinate nation produced by this disaster, that every one saw battle took place, which was terminated only by the in it the approaching dissolution of the Empire. The approach of night; and when the dawn of the following Sibylline Books were consulted, Processions were day enabled each Commander to estimate his loss, both ordered, and Sacrifices were offered up, to avert the parties were more willing to enter into a Treaty than to

vengeance of Heaven, and to postpone the ruin of the renew so dreadful a conflict. Peace was concluded on Imperial City. A second battle was fought with Germans terms mutually advantageous. The Goths were allowed better auspices near Faro in Umbria ; and a third with expelled. to retire beyond the Danube without molestation, and still greater effect, near Pavia, or in the plain of the to occupy the Province of Dacia, now conceded to ancient Ticinum.t

* Vopisc. in Aurel. c. 3. Eutrop. lib. ix. Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus; et Aurel. Victor, Epit.

† Vopisc. in Aurel. 17. Eutrop.

* Zonar. lib. xii. c. 27. p. 636. Zosim. lib. i. p. 655. Dexipp.
Leg. p. 7. Amm. Marcel. lib. xvii.
† Vopisc. in Aurel. passim. Aurel. Victor, Epit.


A. D.


From A. D.

Biography, The alarm excited in the Capital by the German in- valour, till they were nearly all cut in pieces. The Lucius

vasion, suggested to Aurelian the expediency of repair- Franks and other auxiliaries, who had served under the Domitius From ing the walls and renewing the fortifications. From Roman standard since the usurpation of Posthumus, Aurelianus

Augustus. the days of Hannibal five hundred years had elapsed, finding that the arms of Aurelian could no longer be 270. during which Rome had not had occasion to dread any opposed, retired beyond the Rhine, and left the Trans

foreign enemy. Confiding her safety to the arms of alpine Kingdoms to enjoy an unbroken tranquillity.* 275.

her soldie and to the vigilance of her frontier camps, His successes in Gaul enabled Aurelian to carry an 270. Walls of Rome re

she had allowed her ancient walls to crumble down, and undivided power against Zenobia, who, availing herself to paired.

her battlements to become level with the earth. The of the distractions of the Empire, had already esta- 275.
Emperor could not conceal from himself, that in the pre- blished her sway from the Euphrates to the Nile. Character
sent great change of circumstances, the courage of his Historians have delighted to dwell on the personal of Zenobia.
people required assistance from the Arts of the mechanic attractions and the high mental endowments of this
and the engineer; on which account he proceeded to Syrian Princess. Claiming a descent from the Grecian
surround the City with a fence more than twenty miles Kings of Egypt, she is said to have equalled the
in length, and constructed with such skill and materials Ptolemies in learning, and surpassed Cleopatra in
as could resist the sudden attack of a Barbarian army. beauty. The gravest writers disdain not to extol her
The popular estimate is, indeed, considerably higher; dark expressive eyes, and her teeth of pearly whiteness,
and Vopiscus does not hesitate to assert, that the walls her melodious voice and her fine complexion. It is of
begun by Aurelian and finished by Probus, extended to more importance to relate, that the superior faculties
fifty thousand paces. But how extensive soever they may which she derived from Nature were improved by study
have been, it was at best a melancholy labour, inasmuch and sharpened by constant exercise; that she had a fine
as the fortification of the Capital betrayed the decline of perception of the excellencies of Poetical and Histori-
the Empire, and pointed to the coming of those evil cal composition; and that she possessed a perfect
days when savage strength should overcome for a time knowledge of the Greek, the Syriac, and the Egyptian
the Arts and policy of civilized Europe.*

languages.t War with

But the patriotic cares of Aurelian were not confined The death of Odenatus put an end to the authority She asserts Tetricus.

to Italy. It has been already mentioned, that Spain, which Palmyra enjoyed as a favoured Province of the her inde-
Britain, and Gaul, were in the hands of Tetricus, whó Empire, and as a reward for the valuable services of her pendence.
appears to have succeeded without opposition to the chief. But Zenobia, having tasted the pleasure of abso-
power of Posthumus in those Countries : and the East, lute rule, refused to surrender the delegated power which
which had been neglected since the fall of Gallienus, her husband had employed so beneficially. She set
now acknowledged the Sovereignty of the ambitious Gallienus and the Senate at defiance, and even worsted
Zenobia. It remains doubtful to which of the two an army which they had sent to compel her to submis-
former Provinces the Emperor first directed his atten- sion. Claudius, whose whole strength was required
tion. Eutropius and Eusebius relate that he began by against the Goths, connived at the ambiguous policy of
subduing his rival beyond the Alps; while Trebellius the Eastern Queen ; and regarding her defence of the
Pollio, Vopiscus, and the two authors who are known Syrian frontiers from the incursions of the Persians as a
under the common name of Aurelius Victor, assert that sufficient compensation for the want of entire allegiance,
he gave precedence, in his scheme of conquest, to the he did not disturb the tranquillity of her reign. Aure-
heroic Queen of Palmyra. As convenience seems to lian, however, when he found that she had added to
require that we should follow the authority of the her native dominions, not only the fertile Kingdom of
former, we shall adopt the arrangement of Eutropius, Egypt, but also the Provinces of Bithynia and Cappa-
without minutely inquiring into the grounds upon which docia, could no longer allow her pretensions to pass
it rests.f

Tetricus, it would appear, had, during five or six It appears to have been in the second year after his Aurelian de-
years, exercised in Gaul a reluctant and ungrateful accession, that this Emperor assumed the command of clares war
Sovereignty, the slave of the Legions rather than their the Asiatic Legions. His march through Illyricum was against her.
master, and, at once, the organ and the victim of their distinguished by several advantages over the Scythian
licentiousness. Disgusted with a situation from which Tribes, which, under various names, still continued to
he had no direct means of extricating himself, he en- harass the Northern borders of the Empire. At his
tered into a secret correspondence with Aurelian, whom approach, Bithynia resumed its obedience, and Ancyra,
he entreated to resume, with a competent force, the the Capital of Galatia, opened its gates without resist-
Government of the Western Provinces. Tetricus, af- ance. Tyana, the birth place of Apollonius, preferred
fecting to aim at the Imperial Crown, induced his the hazard of a siege; and when it was betrayed into

soldiers to take the field in that cause. They obeyed, the hands of Aurelian, by the perfidy of one of the inHe betrays but it was only to be delivered into the hands of habitants, he spared it for the sake of the Philosopher his troops. the Emperor; for no sooner had the two armies en- with whose name it was associated in the annals of gaged near Chalons, on the river Marne, than the Com- Literature.

Zenobia soon perceived that she must mander of the rebels passed over to the enemy and left fight for her independence in Syria and not in Asia them to their fate. The Gallic Legions, though dis- Minor. She advanced to Antioch ; but having susordered and alarmed by the unexpected treachery oftained a repulse from the Roman cavalry, she retired their Chief, defended themselves with the greatest towards the Desert, and concentrated her forces at

Emesa. Aurelian pursued the broken Palmyrenians * Vopisc. in Aurel. Zosim. lib. i. p. 655. Aurel. Victor, Epit. de Vit. et Moribus.

* Zosim. lib. i. Zonar. lib. xü. c. 27. p. 636. Aurel. Victor, in + Trebell. Poll. in Trigint. Tyran. Vopisc. in Aurel. Eutrop. Aurel. lib. ix. Euseb. in Chron. Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus ; et Aurel. | Trebell. Poll. in Trigint. Tyran. Vopisc. in Aurel. Zosim. lib. i. Victor, Epit.

Trebell. Poll. Vopisc. Aurel. Victor.

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