« ElőzőTovább »
M. Cassius Latianus Posthumus 260. Ægean to the shores of the Adriatic; and it was not until Publius
this ferocious enemy had advanced within sight of Italy, Licinius From
Ulpius Cornelius Lælianus .. 267.
. 267. Marcus Aurelius Victorinus that Gallienus allowed himself to be awakened from his Gallienus
Augustus. Lucius Aurelius Victorinus
dream of security.* 260.
P. Pesuvius Tetricus ...... 267, The appearance of a Roman army first alarmed and
afterwards divided the Gothic hordes. Having lost their
ships, some of them attempted to return homeward
260. P. Sempronius Saturvinus 263.
through Mæsia and across the Danube ; while others, Man. Acilius Aureolus ...... 267. weary of adventures or unwilling to engage in unequal 268. Their cha
To these we may add the names of Odenatus, of Herodes war, entered into alliance with Gallienus and abandoned Goths reracters and his son, of Mæonius his nephew, and finally of Zenobia
the national confederacy. We are not without suspi- pulsed : motives.
cion, that in the works of the several annalists and extent of his Queen ; but as the Government of Palmyra was re
their cognised by Gallienus, we can see no reason for insert- compilers from which we collect our materials, we have
been condemned to read in various forms more than ing the legitimate Sovereigns of that Country in the list
one account of the same campaign. The general idea
that results from a comparison of their different narra-
tives is, that all the Provinces of Illyricum and Asia
were continually exposed to the ravages of the Gothic
sometimes crossing the Euxine sea; and in the engage-
ments which they fought were sometimes defeated and
We find, in particular, that the
burnt by those Barbarians; that ancient Ilium, always
which were brought upon it by the Greeks many Ages who enjoyed a life of peace, or a natural death.* New inva. The irruptions of the Gothic nations were so frequently and reduced it to so deplorable a condition, that, three
before; that they sacked the city of Chalcedon also, sions of the repeated during the days of Gallienus, that it is very hundred years after, it still retained marks of their
difficult to determine either their number or their order. fury; and finally, that all Trajan's conquests beyond the
The name of Odenatus is, hy one of the authors of Murder of
the Augustan History, connected with the repulse of Odenatus.
the Goths, Of this fact there remains no satisfactory
of domestic treason, in which his Queen, Zenobia, was
fruitless attempt to revenge the death of his faithful
, for the Barbarians, who supplied by courage but, after a sanguinary conflict, he was obliged to
return with the shattered remains of a defeated army. I
Aureolus, meanwhile, who had been left in Italy at Death of Country. While the conquerors were occupied with
the head of a considerable force, assumed the Purple Gallienus. the intemperate joys which usually followed their suc
and displayed the standard of rebellion. This intellicess, Dexippus collected a body of soldiers, and making gence induced Gallienus to leave Illyricum, whence he a sudden attack upon the Gothic flotilla, which was but
was soon afterwards followed by his two Generals,
Marcian and Claudius, who joined him when engaged
himself. But they entered his camp, not to strengthen
his hands nor to promote his interests. The Empire could
no longer tolerate the vicious imbecility of a Prince,
which account, the Commanders just named, with Hera-
clian, the Prætorian Præfect, agreed to take away his life,
For this purpose a false alarm was given, that the enemy
* Trebell. Poll. in Gallien. c. 6,7. Aurel. Victor. Eutrop. lib. ix.
+ Trebell. Poll. c. 7, 8. 'Trebell. Poll. ubi supra. Aurel. Victor, Epitom. C. 46, 47.
Zosim. lib. i. Zonar. lib. xii. c. 24.
From 4. D.
Biography. were about to make a sally, which immediately roused their detestation of his memory, and in visiting his Publius Gallienus from his table or his bed ; when, issuing forth crimes upon his family and relations. Hence, the first
Gallienus to direct the movement of his troops, he was shot with exercise of authority, on the part of the new Emperor,
Augustus. an arrow aimed at him by a Dalmatian horseman. His was directed to the protection of the Tyrant's friends; a 260. brother Valerian, who had been associated with him in token of clemency which inspired the best hopes rela
the Government, and his son Saloninus, who enjoyed tive to the spirit of the ensuing reign, and contrasted 268.
the title of Cæsar, soon afterwards fell victims to the most advantageously with the vindictive temper which 260.
268. Senate and People vied with one another in expressing
From A. D.
And of bis
MARCUS AURELIUS CLAUDIUS II. AUGUSTUS.
FROM A. D. 268 to 270.
Biography. Claudius, being the second of the name who had ment to commemorate the fame of his companion in
Marcus ascended the Imperial Throne, is usually distinguished arms; and declared in a Greek epitaph, which is still Aurelius from
by the epithet of Gothicus, which he derived from a vic- extant, that he meant to save the unfortunate Aureolus, Claudius II.
tory gained over those Barbarians. He is said to have but was prevented by the troops into whose hands hé Augustus. 265. been of Illyrian extraction, and he was certainly one of had fallen. The tomb, if we may confide in the accu
From whose whose merits stand higher than their genealogy; racy of Tillemont, continues to distinguish a spot upon 270. Ertraction for we find him in the reign of Decius serving in the the river Adda, between Milan and Bergamo, anciently
268. i Claudius, quality of Tribune, without any other distinction be- known by the name of Pons Aureoli, and which, in its
sides that of professional ability and zeal. The means present appellation of Pontirolo, bears an intelligible 270.
obliged to relinquish that pacific occupation. Tetricus The Letter in which he announced his accession to had seized with his rebellious army the Provinces of the Aureodasthe Throne, was received by the Senators with much West. The centre of the Empire was harassed by the
delight, and answered with a corresponding enthusiasm. incessant inroads of the Goths; while Zenobia, in the
He erected a monu
* Zosim. lib. i. p. 651. Aurel. Victor, Epit. Zonar. lib. xii. c. 24.
ť Trebell. Poll. Trigint. Tyran. Aurel. Victor. * Trebell. Poll, Claud. c. 14, 15.
Zonar. lib. xii. c. 26. p. 635. Trebell. Poll. in Claud.
Biography. Country as his colleague, would not concur in a mea- They rushed upon the Roman foot with such fury, that Marcus
sure which appeared more cruel than expedient. The they threw them into disorder, cut a considerable body Aurelius From
Claudius II. facility and impunity with which they were thus allowed of them in pieces, and probably would have secured a
Augustus. to carry away loads of spoil, could not but encourage complete victory, had not the horsemen, informed of the 268. them to renew their depredations; and the successor of danger with which the Legions were surrounded, re
Gallienus, accordingly, had no sooner mounted the traced their steps and appeared in the field of battle.
provisions were taken or destroyed, alu a powerful eneThey sail to Embarking at the mouth of the Niester, anciently my occupied the grourid over which they had meditated the Helles- called the Tyrus, they sailed southward along the coast,
to effect their escape.
Unable to hazard another pont.
committing ravages as they proceeded upon such towns engagement, or even to continue longer together, they
to serve as slaves." Are defeated The Goths were still before Thessalonica when Clau
The flotilla, in the meantime, sought the coast of Their ships
destroyed. by Claudius. dius appeared in Greece. Intimidated by his military Macedonia, in order to rejoin the army which had taken
reputation not less than by the formidable armament shelter in that Province. But the army no longer
waggons, and received with determined bravery the very few of the invading host remained, to mourn the And almost onset of the victors. After a desperate conflict, success loss of their friends, or to attest the triumph of their extermin
once more attended the Imperial arms; while such of enemies.t nated.
the enemy as survived, finding their retreat entirely cut But the same disease which proved fatal to so many Death of off, fell back upon Macedonia, in the hope, perhaps, of Goths did not spare their conqueror.
Claudius reaching their fleet on the coast. Claudius, by means seized with its worst symptoms, at Sirmium, in the of a rapid movement effected by his cavalry, threw him- month of March in the year 270, where he soon afterself between them and the sea; the infantry, at the wards expired, amid the unfeigned lamentations of the same time, pressing upon their rear, and allowing them whole army. During his illness he is said to have no leisure for repose or for consultation. But even in convened the principal Officers, Civil as well as military, the deplorable circumstances to which they were now and in their presence to have recommended Aurelian, one reduced, the fierceness and valour of the Barbarians of his Generals, as the most deserving of the Throne, rendered them extremely formidable to the conquerors. and the best qualified to execute the great design which
he himself had been permitted only to undertake. Zonar. lib. i. p. 652. + Trebell. Poll, in Claud. Zosim. lib. i. p. 653. Amm. Marcel, * Zonar. lib. xii. c. 26. p. 635. Aurel. Victor, Epit. lib. xxxi.
† Zosim. lib. i. p. 653. Zonar. lib. xii. c. 26. p. 635.
LUCIUS DOMITIUS AURELIANUS AUGUSTUS.
FROM A. D. 270 TO 275.
Bintaphy. AURELIAN, a Soldier of Fortune, owed his elevation to them by the Romans; while, in return, they bound Lucius merit and not to birth. His father is said to have been themselves to supply to the latter two thousand cavalry
Aurelianus small farmer at Sirmium, a town in one of the Illyrian to serve under the Imperial Generals, and to give a
Augustus. Provinces, and to have occupied a piece of ground which certain number of young men and maidens, the children 270. belonged to Aurelius, a rich Senator. The future Em- of their principal men, as hostages of the due perform
From peror of Rome entered the army as a private ; rose ance of the Treaty. The youths Aurelian trained in the 275.
through the successive ranks of Centurion, Tribune, exercise of arms, and near his own person; to the 270. Lere of
Legionary Præfect, and General; and during the Gothic damsels he gave a liberal education; and by bestowing Aardian.
war, under Claudius, we find him discharging the im- them in marriage on some of his most deserving 275. portant office of Commander-in-chief of the Cavalry. Officers, he gradually introduced between the two He was one of the bravest and most vigorous men of nations the closest and most endearing connections. * his Age. Devoted from his earliest days to military exer- But the Empire soon received a greater shock from Invasion by cises, he excelled all his companions in horsemanship, a confederacy of the German nations on the upper
German in darting the javelin, and in a dexterous use of the Danube. An army, consisting of forty thousand horse sword. Nor was he less distinguished for the regularity and double that number of infantry, made an incursion of his discipline, and his assiduity in pointing out the within the Rhætian border, and even menaced the Norway by which others might attain the same honours thern parts of Italy. A slight advantage gained over with himself; he exhorted the young officers to one of the Tribes by Aurelian, induced the former to prokeep a watchful eye over the conduct of the Soldiery. pose terms of Peace; but as the power of Rome was “Let not any one rob, nor extort, nor injure the pro- not yet sufficiently humbled to receive conditions from perty which falls into his hands. Let all learn to be Barbarian Ambassadors, the war was renewed with satisfied with their allowances; or, if more be necessary, increased animosity and vigour.
increased animosity and vigour. The Emperor, not let them draw it from the blood of their enemies, and content with the prospect of driving back the invaders, not from the tears of their fellow subjects.”
determined to imitate the manœuvre of Claudius; and, Death of The beginning of his reign suffered a momentary dis- by preventing their retreat, destroy them in a body. Qastillas. turbance from the ambition of Quintillus, a brother of With this view, he conducted his army through the
the late Emperor. This unfortunate Commander, being mountain passes, and occupied a strong position beleft with the charge of a body of troops in the neigh- tween the Alemanni and their native Country; so that, bourhood of Aquileia, was by them raised to the Purple had the frontiers of Italy been protected by a compeas soon as it was known that Claudius had expired ; tent strength, it is very probable that his design would but, owing the favourable opinion in which he was have been crowned with entire success. But no sooner held to an amiable disposition rather than to splendid did the Germans find that their march towards the talents, he soon confessed himself unequal to dispute Danube was obstructed, than they turned their faces the Sovereignty with Aurelian, and accordingly submit- once more to the South, forced the barriers of the Italian ted to a voluntary death, after swaying an unhonoured States, and at length encamped their army in the sceptre only seventeen days.f
plains of Milan. Aurelian had scarcely received at Rome the confir- Aurelian posted to the relief of his Country, carrying And defeat ireption of mation of his title, as Master of the Empire, when in- with him a chosen Body of auxiliaries, the Vandal of the the Geths. telligence was brought to him that the Goths had again cavalry, and all the Prætorian Guards, who had served Romans.
poured a host of invaders into Pannonia. The death in the wars of Mæsia and Pannonia. He found the of Claudius is supposed to have revived their hopes; enemy near Placentia, and prepared to attack them on and desirous, perhaps, to rescue or to avenge such of the following day. But more intent, it should seem, in their Countrymen as were still enduring the pains of pursuing his own designs than in guarding against those captivity in the Roman Provinces, they ventured once of the enemy, he allowed himself to fall into a snare more on the chances of war. Aurelian put himself at which was spread for him, and lost, in a hopeless flight, the head of his Legions in Illyricum, and advanced in the greater part of his army. So great was the constersearch of the plunderers. A bloody and most obstinate nation produced by this disaster, that every one saw battle took place, which was terminated only by the in it the approaching dissolution of the Empire. The approach of night; and when the dawn of the following Sibylline Books were consulted, Processions were day enabled each Commander to estimate his loss, both ordered, and Sacrifices were offered up, to avert the parties were more willing to enter into a Treaty than to
vengeance of Heaven, and to postpone the ruin of the renew so dreadful a conflict. Peace was concluded on Imperial City. A second battle was fought with Germans terms mutually advantageous. The Goths were allowed better auspices near Faro in Umbria ; and a third with expelled. to retire beyond the Danube without molestation, and still greater effect, near Pavia, or in the plain of the to occupy the Province of Dacia, now conceded to ancient Ticinum.t
* Vopisc. in Aurel. c. 3. Eutrop. lib. ix. Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus; et Aurel. Victor, Epit.
† Vopisc. in Aurel. 17. Eutrop.
* Zonar. lib. xii. c. 27. p. 636. Zosim. lib. i. p. 655. Dexipp.
From A. D.
Biography, The alarm excited in the Capital by the German in- valour, till they were nearly all cut in pieces. The Lucius
vasion, suggested to Aurelian the expediency of repair- Franks and other auxiliaries, who had served under the Domitius From ing the walls and renewing the fortifications. From Roman standard since the usurpation of Posthumus, Aurelianus
Augustus. the days of Hannibal five hundred years had elapsed, finding that the arms of Aurelian could no longer be 270. during which Rome had not had occasion to dread any opposed, retired beyond the Rhine, and left the Trans
foreign enemy. Confiding her safety to the arms of alpine Kingdoms to enjoy an unbroken tranquillity.* 275.
her soldie and to the vigilance of her frontier camps, His successes in Gaul enabled Aurelian to carry an 270. Walls of Rome re
she had allowed her ancient walls to crumble down, and undivided power against Zenobia, who, availing herself to paired.
her battlements to become level with the earth. The of the distractions of the Empire, had already esta- 275.
languages.t War with
But the patriotic cares of Aurelian were not confined The death of Odenatus put an end to the authority She asserts Tetricus.
to Italy. It has been already mentioned, that Spain, which Palmyra enjoyed as a favoured Province of the her inde-
soldiers to take the field in that cause. They obeyed, the hands of Aurelian, by the perfidy of one of the inHe betrays but it was only to be delivered into the hands of habitants, he spared it for the sake of the Philosopher his troops. the Emperor; for no sooner had the two armies en- with whose name it was associated in the annals of gaged near Chalons, on the river Marne, than the Com- Literature.
Zenobia soon perceived that she must mander of the rebels passed over to the enemy and left fight for her independence in Syria and not in Asia them to their fate. The Gallic Legions, though dis- Minor. She advanced to Antioch ; but having susordered and alarmed by the unexpected treachery oftained a repulse from the Roman cavalry, she retired their Chief, defended themselves with the greatest towards the Desert, and concentrated her forces at
Emesa. Aurelian pursued the broken Palmyrenians * Vopisc. in Aurel. Zosim. lib. i. p. 655. Aurel. Victor, Epit. de Vit. et Moribus.
* Zosim. lib. i. Zonar. lib. xü. c. 27. p. 636. Aurel. Victor, in + Trebell. Poll. in Trigint. Tyran. Vopisc. in Aurel. Eutrop. Aurel. lib. ix. Euseb. in Chron. Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus ; et Aurel. | Trebell. Poll. in Trigint. Tyran. Vopisc. in Aurel. Zosim. lib. i. Victor, Epit.
Trebell. Poll. Vopisc. Aurel. Victor.