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Biography, his Throne, and now looked forward to the enjoyment no sooner finished the war with foreigners, than he Caius
Vibius of that security which his policy, rather than his arms, found it necessary to conduct the Legions against his
Trebonianus had purchased. But the disgrace which he had inflicted Imperial master. Gallus, amazed by the rapidity of
Gallus upon the majesty of Rome, by an ignominious peace events, the victories, the revolt, and the advance of the Augustus. 251.
with the Barbarians, rankled in the breasts of his people. Pannonian army, sent Valerian to collect the cohorts 253.
From The annual gift to the Gothic Monarch could not be which were serving on the Rhine, while he himself set viewed in any other light than that of a tribute; and to out at the head of such troops as he could assemble on this humiliating reflection, which cast a gloom on the the spur of the occasion, to meet the rebellious Gover
251. return of the Emperor, there were soon added all the nor. The two armies came in sight of each other near
253. miseries attendant upon a destructive Plague.
Interamna, a district of Umbria ; but as both were Goihs te
The Legions In the second year of his reign, Gallus had the mor- convinced that no higher object was at stake than the their
revolt, and tification to discover that the faith of the Barbarians, personal interests of two individuals, they resolved that, Gallus is put invasion,
whom he had hoped to bind by Treaty, had again yielded without striking a blow, the smaller number should to death." ceirated by to the temptation held forth by the superior wealth and give way to the greater, and that the Empire should be Amuliagus, comfort of the Provincials in Mæsia and Pannonia. secured to him who was surrounded by the strongest
Swarms of those restless shepherds, conducted by camp. The soldiers of Gallus, accordingly, ended the various leaders, crossed the Danube, carrying with strife by putting him and his son to death ; upon which them terror and devastation, and setting at equal defi- the Imperial cohorts immediately passed over to the ance the obligations of honour and the fear of arms. ranks of their antagonists. Nor did the Senate long The safety of Rome, in such a case, was justly regarded delay to give the sanction of their authority to the right as being placed in the hands of the General who com- of conquest. The letters of Emilianus to that body manded the Illyrian Legions. Æmilianus, who was said display a mixture of moderation and vanity. He to be a Moor by birth, acted at that time as Proconsul assured them that he should resign to their wisdom the on the banks of the Danube ; and as his ambition was administration of Civil affairs ; and, contenting himself not inferior either to his power or his military genius, with the honour of obeying their commands as a he did not refuse the reward which the army thought General, he would endeavour to avenge the cause of proper to present to a successful Chief. He defeated Rome, by driving from the Empire those crowds of thie Goths in several bloody engagements, recovered Barbarians by whom its Provinces in the North and much of the booty which had been previously carried East had been recently insulted. His modesty and away, and thereby so materially diminished their strength patriotism were applauded by the Senators; and their as to afford to the neighbouring Provinces the hope of sense of his good intentions is perpetuated in certain lasting tranquillity.
medals, which represent him as combining in his own But the success of Æmilianus as a Commander put person the attributes of Hercules and of Mars.* an end to his allegiance as a subject; and hence he had
CAIUS JULIUS ÆMILIANUS AUGUSTUS.
FOUR MONTHS IN A, D. 253.
Eisgraphy. VALERIAN, who had been despatched by Gallus to which Æmilianus. displayed, and which was probably
bring to his assistance the Legions stationed on the the effect of principle, was ascribed by the fierce soldiery
Gontiers of Germany, did not arrive in time to prevent to the influence of fear. His apparent pusillanimity Æmilianus 253. the death of the Emperor ; but finding, upon his return withdrew their confidence; and finding that Valerian Ersranas to Italy, that the catastrophe now mentioned had already was approaching, hy rapid marches, to punish their late serta taken place, he determined to revenge it on the person disaffection, they resolved to secure his forbearance by
253. The army which had raised the latter repeating, in his own favour, the treason with which to the Throne, appears still to have continued on the they were chargeable against Gallus. The troops under ground whereon was decided the fate of the two rival his command had already proclaimed him Augustus ; Commanders; and where, without drawing the sword and the murder of the reigning Prince by their hands to defend the object of its recent choice, it was again soon opened to Valerian an unresisted passage to the to transfer the Crown to another head. The moderation Throne.f
of the usurper.
• Zosim. lib. i. Aurel. Victor. Eutrop.
Zosim. lib. Zonar. lib xii. c. 21. p. 627. + Eutrop. lib. ix. Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus
CAIUS PUBLIUS LICINIUS VALERIANUS AUGUSTUS.
FROM A. D. 253 to 260.
Biography. Few Princes, in the evil times of which we are now His views were not sufficiently expansive; and, above Caius
writing, entered upon the Government with the advan- all, he wanted firmness in adhering to his plans, and Publius From
tage of so high a reputation as that enjoyed by Valerian. activity in reducing them to practice. He is reported Valerianus
His merits had attracted the attention of the whole also in his latter years, to have become timid and credu- Augustus. 253.
Empire ; and his elevation to the most eminent rank lous, more alive to the sense of danger, than to the 260. in the State was accompanied with universal congratu
means of avoiding it; and hence, though the love of his Character of
lation in Italy as well as in the Provinces. Descended Country never cooled in his breast, he yet brought on Valerianus. from an illustrious family, he was introduced at an early it, or rather, perliaps, allowed it to endure, evils much 253.
period of life to the most important offices, Civil and more formidable than could have arisen from injustice
ment just given, a remarkable historical fact, which Spain. His reign
But with all these qualities to fit him for govern- cannot be reconciied to the belief that the Franks were not,pros- ment, the reign of Valerian was not happy. His merits either intimidated, or induced to relinquish their plans perous.
may have been overrated by partial judges; or, per- of conquest. We find in the pages of Aurelius Victor,
war agains of all men, have been esteemed most capable of dis- Rhine, the government of the Empire must have been the Persian charging all the duties belonging to that high office.f confided to Chiefs of the Senate, under the nominal
* Trebell. Poll. Valer. c. 1-3.
+ Major privato visus, dum privatus fuit, et omnium consensu mpax imperii, nisi imperâsset. Tacit. Hist. lib. i. c. 49.
* Zosim. lib. i. Aurel. Victor.
Aurel. Victor, c. 33. Eutrop. lib. ix.
Biography. superintendence, perhaps, of one of the junior members their armies to the coast of Asia. Embarking in the Caius of the Imperial Family. In the absence of the two feet with which they were thus provided, the Gothic Publius
Licinius rulers, Italy appears to have been menaced with an in- Chiefs first encountered the Roman power, at the fortress
Valerianus vasion by another horde of Germans, who are known of Pityus, whence they were repulsed with considerable
to history by the name of Alemanni ; an appellation slaughter : but being desirous to remove the disgrace
which is understood to express the variety of their which attached to their failure, they afterwards renewed From 260.
lineage, and the courage which they claimed as common the siege with increased vigour, and ultimately reduced
attack the wealth which had provoked their avarice. were involved in a common destruction; and the Gillegas This second invasion procured for Gallienus the amount of the spoil was so great, that the victors loaded defeats the honour of a decisive victory. Zonaras informs us, that with it a fleet of ships which they found in the harbour.
the Prince, at the head of only ten thousand legionary The prisoners, too, whom they carried with them to
course of the ensuing winter, made preparations for a
second expedition against the Roman settlements in
of ancient Annalists, to determine the actual succession
* Zosim. lib. i. p. 647, 648. Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus. Zonar. † August. Hist. Vopisc in Aurel. Trebell. Poll. in Claud. Vopisc. lib. xii. c. 23. p. 630. in Prob.
t Zosim. lib. i. p. 649.
From A. D.
Biograpny. are considerable authorities for an earlier date, we shall preserved to the present day on certain well authenti- Caius adopt the more common arrangement. Meantime we cated medals. Finding that the Persians had laid siege
Licinius proceed to trace the fortunes of the Roman Emperor in to Edessa, he crossed the Euphrates and entered Meso
Valerius the East, when he was called from his retirement at potamia ; where, encountering the host of the enemy on 253.
Augustus. Byzantium to repress the ambitious designs of the disadvantageous ground, or betrayed by the wiles of a 260. warlike Sapor.*
faithless General, he sustained a severe defeat. Intimi- From Since the Peace concluded by Philip with the Persian dated by this reverse, he was about to make arrangevances into Prince, there had been no open hostilities between the ments for purchasing Peace at the hand of the con- 253. Mesopo- two Empires. Sapor, indeed, had seized several occa- queror, by paying a large sum of money. Sapor, tamia and sions for annoying the Romans, and undermining their meditating, it is presumed, the treachery which followed,
interests in Armenia and Syria ; availing himself of the expressed a desire to treat with the Emperor in person.
Sapor is reproached with a proud abuse of the rights His miserinduced, it is said, to take this important step by the of conquest. We are told that Valerian, in chains, but able capticounsels of Cyriades
, the son of a Syrian nobleman, invested with the Imperial Purple, was exposed to the city, and who, having forfeited his reputation at home, took refuge multitude, a constant spectacle of fallen greatness; and Persia. at the court of the Persian Monarch. Taking the field that whenever the Persian Monarch mounted on horsesuddenly, and before the Romans were acquainted with back, he placed his foot on the neck of a Roman Emhis design, Sapor advanced into Mesopotamia, where peror. Notwithstanding all the remonstrances of his he took Nisibis and Carrhæ ; and then penetrated into allies, who repeatedly advised him to remember the Syria, where he succeeded in surprising Antioch. So
So vicissitude of fortune, to dread the returning power of unexpected was the approach of the enemy, that the Rome, and to make his illustrious captive the pledge inhabitants of the great city just named, were attacked of peace, not the object of insult, Sapor still remained by the spears of the Persians, while employed in witnes- inflexible. When Valerian sunk under the weight of sing the feats of a Pantomime. Their houses were shame and grief, his skin stuffed with straw, and formed sacked, and the surrounding country was plundered, into the likeness of a human figure, was preserved for before they could have recourse to arms, or summon to ages in the most celebrated Temple of Persia; a more
their aid the Legions which guarded the Province. real monument of triumph than the fancied trophies of The Per- In such circumstances, indeed, nothing could have brass and marble, so often erected by Roman vanity. sians retire
saved the whole of Asia Minor from conquest, had the The tale is moral and pathetic, but the truth of it may before Vale rian; but in victors thought proper to advance. But the soldiers of very fairly be called in question. The Letters still extant the end de- Sapor, enriched by an immense booty which they were from the Princes of the East to Sapor, are manifest feat him unwilling to hazard, and aware, perhaps, that the forgeries ; nor is it natural to suppose that a jealous
Western Provinces were already disputed by an enemy, Monarch should, even in the person of a rival, thus him pri
from whom they could gain neither honour nor wealth, publicly degrade the majesty of Kings. Whatever more
PUBLIUS LICINIUS GALLIENUS AUGUSTUS
FROM A. D. 260 TO 268.
Biography. When the news of Valerian's hard fate reached Galli- summer, his most valuable Provinces were attacked by Publius
enus, the unnatural son concealed his inward satisfaction powerful enemies, and his Lieutenants, in many parts, Licinius From under the show of Philosophical constancy and modera- had renounced their allegiance, and even turned their Gallienus
Augustus. tion. He made some trivial remarks on the vanity of arms against him. The Plague, at the same time, 260. human life, and on the instability of earthly hopes, and continued to desolate the Capital ; carrying off, on some
From forthwith relapsed into his luxurious habits and vicious occasions, not fewer than five thousand individuals in 268. indulgences. While he was thus exhausting the treasures a day. Famine, too, joined its ravages to those of
260.. Character of Gallienus. of the Empire on the most contemptible objects, changing, disease ; and even inanimate nature, by storms and by his fantastic pleasures, day into night, and winter into earthquakes, cooperated with moral causes to desolate 269.
* Zonar. lib. xii. c. 23. Aurel. Victor, Epit. c. 46. p. 89. Edit. * Zosim. lib. i.
Lugd. Bat † Zonar. lib. xii, c. 23, 24. p. 629–631. Trebell. Poll. Aug. Hist. # Lactan, de Mort. Persecut.c.5. Victor, Epit.c. 46. Oros. lib viia Trigini. Tyrann. Amm. Marcel. lib. xxiii.
Euscb. Hist, Eccl, lib, vii. c. 10.
and alarm the whole Roman World. But we cannot utmost contempt and indignation. “ Who is this Ode- Publius Engrapay.
pursue the details, which made the deepest impression natus,” he exclaimed, “ that he should thus dare to Licinius From on contemporary writers, and which, perhaps, have been write to his master? If he would obtain
Gallienus any mitigation
Augustus. magnified by superstition and resentment. We resume, of his punishment, let him prostrate himself at the foot 260. therefore, the course of general History, and return to of my Throne, with his hands tied behind his back.
From the scene of war oocupied by the Goths and Persians.* Should he refuse to do this, no mercy shall be extended
A. D. 265. Sapor, after having subdued the Roman army in to himself
, to his family, or to his devoted Country.”
260. Mesopotamia, and seized the person of the Emperor, The Palmyrian Commander, who read his fate in the to $aB Tedew renewed his invasion of Syria and of Asia Minor. He angry message of Sapor, immediately took the field; 268. Dar iava retook Antioch, which had been partially rebuilt and and, falling upon the enemy before they recovered from
strengthened ; after which he marched into Cilicia, the panic inspired into them by the cohorts of Balista, and made himself master of Tarsus. Thence he gained a decisive advantage over their main body. He advanced against Cæsarea, one of the principal towns burst into the camp, seized the treasure and the concuin Cappadocia, and supposed to contain not fewer than bines of the Prince, dispersed the intimidated soldiers, four hundred thousand inhabitants. Demosthenes, a and in short time restored Carrhæ, Nisibis, and all General much esteemed for his patriotism and profes- Mesopotamia to the possession of the Romans. Trebelsional knowledge, assumed the command of the garri- lius Pollio informs us, that he even proceeded so far as son, and would, it is probable, have baffled all the to lay siege to Ctesiphon, with the view of liberating efforts of the Persians, had not a Physician, who seems Valerian, who was still alive, but that neither his arms to have been taken prisoner in a sally, revealed to them nor his entreaties could effect his benevolent object. * the means by which the walls might be ascended. The The events now mentioned took place in an early The usurscene which ensued disgraced the triumph of Sapor. part of the reign of Gallienus; immediately after which pers who He is accused of treating his prisoners with wanton there follows a scene of confusion into which no dili. disturbed cruelty; enraged, it was thought, at the escape of the gence or arrangement can introduce the light of Histo. the reign of
Gallienus. Roman Commander, who bravely cut his way through rical order. In almost every Province of the Empire, a thick body of the assailants. Aware, perhaps, that the Commander of the Legions was raised by his men to he could not make any permanent establishment in the the rank of Augustus ; and hence, at one period in this Empire, he sought only to leave behind him a wasted troubled era, there were as many Emperors as armies. desert, whilst he transported beyond the Euphrates the Posthumus reigned seven years in Gaul; Macrian was people and the wealth of the conquered Provinces. But acknowledged Sovereign in Asia ; Valens assumed the his career was checked by two of the Imperial Lieute. Purple in Achaia ; and Ingenuus was hailed Ruler of nants, who, finding that the interests of the State were Pannonia. Macrian fell in Illyricum, whither he had abandoned by their profligate Prince, took upon them- gone to vanquish a rival, leaving his youngest son in selves the exercise of a discretionary power, in the em- the East to adıninister the Government. Quietus, the ployment of the forces committed to their charge. name of this Prince, was attacked by Odenatus, (who
The Persian Monarch laid siege to Pompeiopolis, acted as a Lieutenant of Gallienus,) and slain at Emesa.
to visit with all the horrors of war. Balista, who had in retaining three years, either by the sufferance, or in
the number fixed upon cannot be completed unless we But Sapor encountered a still more formidable enemy include in it the names of certain women and children, feated by on Odenatus, a noble Senator of Palmyra, who, amidst who were, in a moment of disaffection or sport, raised Osenatus. all the vicissitudes of their fortune, remained faithful to to the Imperial title. Instead, however, of tracing the
Valerian and to Gallienus. The zeal of this Chief was, progress and suppression of every separate revolt, we
Quintus Nonus Regillianus
M. Fulvius Macrianus haughty Monarch, instead of being softened by this ex
Servius Anicas Balista
262. pression of good will, ordered the gift to be thrown into
Lucius Valerius Valens the Euphrates, and returned an answer breathing the
L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi
Trebell. Poll. in Gallien. Euseb. Hist, Eccles. lib. vii. Zonar, lib. xii. c. 24. p. 631.
* Trebell. Poll. Trigint. Tyran. 13. Zonar. lib. xii. c. 23. Agath. + Trebell. Poll. Trigint. Tyran. 18. Syncell. Chronograph. p. 382. lib. iv. Zosim. lib. i. p. 661. Zonar. lib. xii. c. 24.
+ 'Trebell. Poll. Trigint, Tyran. passim ; et Vita Gallien. c. 10. VOL. XI.