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Biography, his Throne, and now looked forward to the enjoyment no sooner finished the war with foreigners, than he Caius

Vibius of that security which his policy, rather than his arms, found it necessary to conduct the Legions against his

Trebonianus had purchased. But the disgrace which he had inflicted Imperial master. Gallus, amazed by the rapidity of

Gallus upon the majesty of Rome, by an ignominious peace events, the victories, the revolt, and the advance of the Augustus. 251.

with the Barbarians, rankled in the breasts of his people. Pannonian army, sent Valerian to collect the cohorts 253.

From The annual gift to the Gothic Monarch could not be which were serving on the Rhine, while he himself set viewed in any other light than that of a tribute; and to out at the head of such troops as he could assemble on this humiliating reflection, which cast a gloom on the the spur of the occasion, to meet the rebellious Gover

251. return of the Emperor, there were soon added all the nor. The two armies came in sight of each other near

253. miseries attendant upon a destructive Plague.

Interamna, a district of Umbria ; but as both were Goihs te

The Legions In the second year of his reign, Gallus had the mor- convinced that no higher object was at stake than the their

revolt, and tification to discover that the faith of the Barbarians, personal interests of two individuals, they resolved that, Gallus is put invasion,

whom he had hoped to bind by Treaty, had again yielded without striking a blow, the smaller number should to death." ceirated by to the temptation held forth by the superior wealth and give way to the greater, and that the Empire should be Amuliagus, comfort of the Provincials in Mæsia and Pannonia. secured to him who was surrounded by the strongest

Swarms of those restless shepherds, conducted by camp. The soldiers of Gallus, accordingly, ended the various leaders, crossed the Danube, carrying with strife by putting him and his son to death ; upon which them terror and devastation, and setting at equal defi- the Imperial cohorts immediately passed over to the ance the obligations of honour and the fear of arms. ranks of their antagonists. Nor did the Senate long The safety of Rome, in such a case, was justly regarded delay to give the sanction of their authority to the right as being placed in the hands of the General who com- of conquest. The letters of Emilianus to that body manded the Illyrian Legions. Æmilianus, who was said display a mixture of moderation and vanity. He to be a Moor by birth, acted at that time as Proconsul assured them that he should resign to their wisdom the on the banks of the Danube ; and as his ambition was administration of Civil affairs ; and, contenting himself not inferior either to his power or his military genius, with the honour of obeying their commands as a he did not refuse the reward which the army thought General, he would endeavour to avenge the cause of proper to present to a successful Chief. He defeated Rome, by driving from the Empire those crowds of thie Goths in several bloody engagements, recovered Barbarians by whom its Provinces in the North and much of the booty which had been previously carried East had been recently insulted. His modesty and away, and thereby so materially diminished their strength patriotism were applauded by the Senators; and their as to afford to the neighbouring Provinces the hope of sense of his good intentions is perpetuated in certain lasting tranquillity.

medals, which represent him as combining in his own But the success of Æmilianus as a Commander put person the attributes of Hercules and of Mars.* an end to his allegiance as a subject; and hence he had

CAIUS JULIUS ÆMILIANUS AUGUSTUS.

FOUR MONTHS IN A, D. 253.

Caius Julius

A. D.

A. D.

Eisgraphy. VALERIAN, who had been despatched by Gallus to which Æmilianus. displayed, and which was probably

bring to his assistance the Legions stationed on the the effect of principle, was ascribed by the fierce soldiery

Gontiers of Germany, did not arrive in time to prevent to the influence of fear. His apparent pusillanimity Æmilianus 253. the death of the Emperor ; but finding, upon his return withdrew their confidence; and finding that Valerian Ersranas to Italy, that the catastrophe now mentioned had already was approaching, hy rapid marches, to punish their late serta taken place, he determined to revenge it on the person disaffection, they resolved to secure his forbearance by

253. The army which had raised the latter repeating, in his own favour, the treason with which to the Throne, appears still to have continued on the they were chargeable against Gallus. The troops under ground whereon was decided the fate of the two rival his command had already proclaimed him Augustus ; Commanders; and where, without drawing the sword and the murder of the reigning Prince by their hands to defend the object of its recent choice, it was again soon opened to Valerian an unresisted passage to the to transfer the Crown to another head. The moderation Throne.f

of the usurper.

• Zosim. lib. i. Aurel. Victor. Eutrop.
† Zosim. ubi supra. Eutrop. lib. ix. Victor, de Cæsaribus.

Zosim. lib. Zonar. lib xii. c. 21. p. 627. + Eutrop. lib. ix. Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus

CAIUS PUBLIUS LICINIUS VALERIANUS AUGUSTUS.

FROM A. D. 253 to 260.

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Biography. Few Princes, in the evil times of which we are now His views were not sufficiently expansive; and, above Caius

writing, entered upon the Government with the advan- all, he wanted firmness in adhering to his plans, and Publius From

tage of so high a reputation as that enjoyed by Valerian. activity in reducing them to practice. He is reported Valerianus

His merits had attracted the attention of the whole also in his latter years, to have become timid and credu- Augustus. 253.

Empire ; and his elevation to the most eminent rank lous, more alive to the sense of danger, than to the 260. in the State was accompanied with universal congratu

From

means of avoiding it; and hence, though the love of his Character of

lation in Italy as well as in the Provinces. Descended Country never cooled in his breast, he yet brought on Valerianus. from an illustrious family, he was introduced at an early it, or rather, perliaps, allowed it to endure, evils much 253.

period of life to the most important offices, Civil and more formidable than could have arisen from injustice
military, that were open to the ambition of a Patrician and tyranny combined. *

260.
youth; and long before he reached the Throne, he had The reign of Valerian was soon disturbed by a simul- Empire
arrived at a degree of consideration much more gratify- taneous invasion of several of those warlike nations, invaded by
ing to a patriotic mind than the more ostentatious which had gradually been augmenting their numbers the Franks.
honours of Imperial power. The judgment formed of and improving their martial skill, along its Northern
his character by his contemporaries, supersedes every boundaries. A powerful host, who had assumed the
other species of eulogy. When Decius desired the proud appellation of Franks, or Freemen, threatened
Senate to select from their Body one qualified to dis- the banks of the Rhine, and even made repeated in-
charge the duties of Censor, the choice unanimously roads into the Roman Provinces; to oppose whom, the
fell on Valerian. “His whole life,” they exclaimed, Emperor sent his son Gallienus, already honoured with
“ has been an example and an admonition to his fellow the title of Cæsar, assisted by the experience of Posthu-
citizens. Let Him be the judge of others, who, in all mus, a General of high reputation, who undertook to
respects, is their superior. Let Him be appointed to direct the movements of the army. The first efforts of
investigate the conduct of the Senators, who himself is the Prince, it is said, were crowned with distinguished
not chargeable with any crime. Let Him pronounce success. The applause of History, confirmed by a series
sentence on our lives, whose own purity has never been of medals, ascribes to the son of Valerian several im-
impeached. From his earliest childhood Valerian has portant victories, by which he acquired the distinction
been Censor; his maturer years have done honour to of Germanicus, Maximus. Having weakened their
the same office: as a Senator he has been wise, mode- power in the field of battle, he next attempted to hind
rate, and grave; a friend of good men, and an enemy the faith of the enemy by a solemn compact; a proof,
of the tyrannical and the immoral. We are all ready to in all cases, that the triumphs of the conqueror have
acknowledge him as Censor, because we are deirous to not been complete. The German Prince with whom
imitate his virtues. More distinguished by his merits this alliance was formed, promised not only to abstain
than by the nobleness of his blood, his conduct shows from all farther aggressions himself, but even to prevent
innocency of manners and sublimity of sentiments. every other member of the confederacy from crossing the
He has revived in his person the excellence of the first Rhine with hostile intentions.t
Ages; and we venerate in his character an example of There appears, however, in opposition to the state- Inroad into
the
purest and best of times."*

ment just given, a remarkable historical fact, which Spain. His reign

But with all these qualities to fit him for govern- cannot be reconciied to the belief that the Franks were not,pros- ment, the reign of Valerian was not happy. His merits either intimidated, or induced to relinquish their plans perous.

may have been overrated by partial judges; or, per- of conquest. We find in the pages of Aurelius Victor,
haps, the advanced period of life to which he had that the Barbarians, who are supposed to have yielded
arrived, may have blunted his energies and clouded his to the arms or policy of Gallienus, not only extended
discernment ; but, whatever may have been the cause, their ravages to the Pyrenees, but entered Spain, and
there is no doubt that the character of his administration laid waste some of its richest Provinces. Having ex-
did not correspond to the lofty conceptions of wisdom hausted the plunder of that extensive peninsula, they
and vigour, which his conduct in a lower sphere had led crossed the Mediterranean, and carried into the Roman
his Countrymen to form. To this ruler, accordingly, Colonies in Africa the terror and desolation which every
has been applied an observation made by Tacitus in where marked their progress. I
regard to Galba; that, as long as he was a private Valerian had already departed from Rome to con- Valerian
person he appeared superior to a private station, and if duct the Legions in Syria against Sapor, King of Persia; sets out to
he had never been Emperor he would, in the opinion and, consequently, while Gallienus was engaged on the

war agains of all men, have been esteemed most capable of dis- Rhine, the government of the Empire must have been the Persian charging all the duties belonging to that high office.f confided to Chiefs of the Senate, under the nominal

* Trebell. Poll. Valer. c. 1-3.

+ Major privato visus, dum privatus fuit, et omnium consensu mpax imperii, nisi imperâsset. Tacit. Hist. lib. i. c. 49.

* Zosim. lib. i. Aurel. Victor.
+ Zosim. lib. i. Eutrop. lib. ix.

Aurel. Victor, c. 33. Eutrop. lib. ix.

From

A. D.

A. D.

to

Biography. superintendence, perhaps, of one of the junior members their armies to the coast of Asia. Embarking in the Caius of the Imperial Family. In the absence of the two feet with which they were thus provided, the Gothic Publius

Licinius rulers, Italy appears to have been menaced with an in- Chiefs first encountered the Roman power, at the fortress

Valerianus vasion by another horde of Germans, who are known of Pityus, whence they were repulsed with considerable

Augustus. 253.

to history by the name of Alemanni ; an appellation slaughter : but being desirous to remove the disgrace

which is understood to express the variety of their which attached to their failure, they afterwards renewed From 260.

lineage, and the courage which they claimed as common the siege with increased vigour, and ultimately reduced
to them all. A numerous Body of this enterprising the garrison to the necessity of surrendering. This 253.
People had pushed across the Danube, penetrated the success inspired them with so much confidence, that
defiles of the Rhætian Alps, and poured down upon the they resolved to pursue their conquests on an enlarged

260.
plains of Lombardy. Meeting with no force able to scale. They cruised along the shores of the Euxine in
oppose their progress, they advanced as far as Ravenna, search of an object worthy of their courage, when, at
and even extended the fear of conquest to the very length, they cast their eyes upon a rich Temple, at the
gates of the Capital; when an army, raised in haste by mouth of the river Phasis, which they attempted, but in
the zeal of the Senate, and reinforced by the Prætorian vain, to plunder. The city of Trebizond next awakened
Guards, successfully repelled the tumultuary invaders, and their love of booty and of adventure, and, owing to the They take
finally drove them back into their own Country. It is most culpable negligence on the part of the soldiers Trebizond.
probable, however, that the. Alemanni, already laden appointed to defend it, their determination to carry it
with plunder, and having therefore a stronger induce- by storm was followed by the most complete success.
ment to retreat than to fight, allowed to the Romans A double wall and ten thousand men could not protect
the credit of an easy victory; for it appears that they the wealth of that celebrated place against the assault
had no sooner deposited their spoils in a place of secu- of rude Barbarians. A general massacre of the inhabi-
rity, than they returned to lay waste the fields, and tants ensued; the Temples and the most splendid edifices

attack the wealth which had provoked their avarice. were involved in a common destruction; and the Gillegas This second invasion procured for Gallienus the amount of the spoil was so great, that the victors loaded defeats the honour of a decisive victory. Zonaras informs us, that with it a fleet of ships which they found in the harbour.

the Prince, at the head of only ten thousand legionary The prisoners, too, whom they carried with them to
soldiers, defeated, near Milan, a host of Germans, their new settlement in the Kingdom of Bosphorus,
amounting to not fewer than three hundred thousand served not only to man their ships, but also to instruct
men. But the extent of this triumph may very reason- them in naval architecture and navigation, in which Arts
ably be called in question, particularly when we find the Romans, who colonized the maritime districts of the
that the Roman conqueror immediately contracted an Empire, had made considerable advances.*
alliance with the King of one of the hostile tribes, Encouraged by a degree of success which must have They renew
married his daughter, and relinquished to him, as the surpassed their most sanguine hopes, the Goths, in the their inva-
price of his friendship, a large portion of territory in

sion.

course of the ensuing winter, made preparations for a
the Province of Pannonia.

second expedition against the Roman settlements in
The first cares of Valerian, upon his departure from Asia Minor. Having equipped on this occasion a
kome, were directed to the safety of the Illyrian settle- greater armament than before, they directed their
ments. The Goths, who in their successive migrations course to the Western shores of the Euxine; and at
from the shores of the Baltic, had now reached those length, after stripping the city of Chalcedon of its arms
of the Euxine, were become very formidable neighbours and wealth, they marched their victorious bands into
to the Roman Provincials in that remote part of the the Province of Bithynia. Guided by the local know-
Empire. Various engagements took place between ledge of a traitor, who had joined their ranks, they
them and the Imperial Lieutenants, in which the skill and proceeded to Nicomedia, the ancient Capital of the
firmness of the Legions generally proved successful over Bithynian Kings, which they took and plundered.
mere savage strength and impetuosity. Aurelian, in a Nice, Prusa, Apamæa, and Chius, cities not much in-
particular manner, distinguished himself in the Gothic ferior in wealth or population to Nicomedia, were
war, and was rewarded for his exploits with the honour involved in the same calamity. Cyzicus escaped a
of the Consulate. Probus, too, who was afterwards similar fate, owing to an inundation of the adjacent
raised to the Throne, acquired great reputation in the country, or to the unusual swelling of a river which
same arduous service. The Emperor himself remained crossed the path of the Goths. These victors, accord-
at Byzantium to direct the movements of his Generals, ingly, once more loaded with booty, and leaving a name
and to remunerate their toils; and so great were their increased in terror by their late excesses, returned to
vigilance and activity along the whole extent of the their own coast, meditating new invasions and more
frontiers, that the Barbarians were checked or defeated extended conquests.t
in every inroad which they attempted into the Illyrian It is extremely difficult, amid the varying statements
Provinces.t

of ancient Annalists, to determine the actual succession
But the Goths found less difficulty in making an im- of events, and more especially as the same occurrence
pression on the Roman Colonies in Asia Minor. Direct- is referred to the time of Valerian, or to that of his son,
ing the stream of emigration from the Northern shores according to the caprice of the several writers from
of the Black Sea, they arrived at the little Kingdom of whom we derive our information. The third inroad of
Bosphorus ; which falling a ready prey into their hands, the Scythian or Gothic nations is usually placed in the
supplied them with ships and other means for carrying reign of Gallienus ; on which account, although there
• Zonar. lib. xii. c. 23. p. 629. Aurel. Victor, c. 33.

* Zosim. lib. i. p. 647, 648. Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus. Zonar. August. Hist. Vopisc in Aurel. Trebell. Poll. in Claud. Vopisc. lib. xii. c. 23. p. 630. in Prob.

t Zosim. lib. i. p. 649.

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From A. D.

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A. D.

Sapor ad

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Biograpny. are considerable authorities for an earlier date, we shall preserved to the present day on certain well authenti- Caius adopt the more common arrangement. Meantime we cated medals. Finding that the Persians had laid siege

Publius

Licinius proceed to trace the fortunes of the Roman Emperor in to Edessa, he crossed the Euphrates and entered Meso

Valerius the East, when he was called from his retirement at potamia ; where, encountering the host of the enemy on 253.

Augustus. Byzantium to repress the ambitious designs of the disadvantageous ground, or betrayed by the wiles of a 260. warlike Sapor.*

faithless General, he sustained a severe defeat. Intimi- From Since the Peace concluded by Philip with the Persian dated by this reverse, he was about to make arrangevances into Prince, there had been no open hostilities between the ments for purchasing Peace at the hand of the con- 253. Mesopo- two Empires. Sapor, indeed, had seized several occa- queror, by paying a large sum of money. Sapor, tamia and sions for annoying the Romans, and undermining their meditating, it is presumed, the treachery which followed,

260. Syria.

interests in Armenia and Syria ; availing himself of the expressed a desire to treat with the Emperor in person.
weakness, confusion, and distrust, which always accom- The latter complied with this request; upon which he
pany rapid changes in the supreme authority. But it was detained as a prisoner, and carried captive into the
was not till the reign of Valerian that he resolutely heart of Persia, where he lingered several years before
threw off the mask, and manifested a determination to he was relieved from his ignominy by the hand of death. *
try his strength against the armies of Rome.

He was

Sapor is reproached with a proud abuse of the rights His miserinduced, it is said, to take this important step by the of conquest. We are told that Valerian, in chains, but able capticounsels of Cyriades

, the son of a Syrian nobleman, invested with the Imperial Purple, was exposed to the city, and who, having forfeited his reputation at home, took refuge multitude, a constant spectacle of fallen greatness; and Persia. at the court of the Persian Monarch. Taking the field that whenever the Persian Monarch mounted on horsesuddenly, and before the Romans were acquainted with back, he placed his foot on the neck of a Roman Emhis design, Sapor advanced into Mesopotamia, where peror. Notwithstanding all the remonstrances of his he took Nisibis and Carrhæ ; and then penetrated into allies, who repeatedly advised him to remember the Syria, where he succeeded in surprising Antioch. So

So vicissitude of fortune, to dread the returning power of unexpected was the approach of the enemy, that the Rome, and to make his illustrious captive the pledge inhabitants of the great city just named, were attacked of peace, not the object of insult, Sapor still remained by the spears of the Persians, while employed in witnes- inflexible. When Valerian sunk under the weight of sing the feats of a Pantomime. Their houses were shame and grief, his skin stuffed with straw, and formed sacked, and the surrounding country was plundered, into the likeness of a human figure, was preserved for before they could have recourse to arms, or summon to ages in the most celebrated Temple of Persia; a more

their aid the Legions which guarded the Province. real monument of triumph than the fancied trophies of The Per- In such circumstances, indeed, nothing could have brass and marble, so often erected by Roman vanity. sians retire

saved the whole of Asia Minor from conquest, had the The tale is moral and pathetic, but the truth of it may before Vale rian; but in victors thought proper to advance. But the soldiers of very fairly be called in question. The Letters still extant the end de- Sapor, enriched by an immense booty which they were from the Princes of the East to Sapor, are manifest feat him unwilling to hazard, and aware, perhaps, that the forgeries ; nor is it natural to suppose that a jealous

Western Provinces were already disputed by an enemy, Monarch should, even in the person of a rival, thus him pri

from whom they could gain neither honour nor wealth, publicly degrade the majesty of Kings. Whatever more
judged it expedient to return into their own Country. cruel treatment the unfortunate Valerian might experi-
Valerian, meanwhile, made his appearance in Syria, and ence in Persia, it is at least certain that the only Em-
began to repair the fortifications of Antioch ; a labour peror of Rome who had ever fallen into the hand of the
for which he has been rewarded by the flattery of the enemy, languished away his life in hopeless captivity.t
Imperial Mint, with the title of Restorer of the East,

and take

soner.

PUBLIUS LICINIUS GALLIENUS AUGUSTUS

FROM A. D. 260 TO 268.

A. D.

to

A. D.

Biography. When the news of Valerian's hard fate reached Galli- summer, his most valuable Provinces were attacked by Publius

enus, the unnatural son concealed his inward satisfaction powerful enemies, and his Lieutenants, in many parts, Licinius From under the show of Philosophical constancy and modera- had renounced their allegiance, and even turned their Gallienus

Augustus. tion. He made some trivial remarks on the vanity of arms against him. The Plague, at the same time, 260. human life, and on the instability of earthly hopes, and continued to desolate the Capital ; carrying off, on some

From forthwith relapsed into his luxurious habits and vicious occasions, not fewer than five thousand individuals in 268. indulgences. While he was thus exhausting the treasures a day. Famine, too, joined its ravages to those of

260.. Character of Gallienus. of the Empire on the most contemptible objects, changing, disease ; and even inanimate nature, by storms and by his fantastic pleasures, day into night, and winter into earthquakes, cooperated with moral causes to desolate 269.

* Zonar. lib. xii. c. 23. Aurel. Victor, Epit. c. 46. p. 89. Edit. * Zosim. lib. i.

p.
641.

Lugd. Bat † Zonar. lib. xii, c. 23, 24. p. 629–631. Trebell. Poll. Aug. Hist. # Lactan, de Mort. Persecut.c.5. Victor, Epit.c. 46. Oros. lib viia Trigini. Tyrann. Amm. Marcel. lib. xxiii.

Euscb. Hist, Eccl, lib, vii. c. 10.

to

A, D.

The Per

and alarm the whole Roman World. But we cannot utmost contempt and indignation. “ Who is this Ode- Publius Engrapay.

pursue the details, which made the deepest impression natus,” he exclaimed, “ that he should thus dare to Licinius From on contemporary writers, and which, perhaps, have been write to his master? If he would obtain

Gallienus any mitigation

Augustus. magnified by superstition and resentment. We resume, of his punishment, let him prostrate himself at the foot 260. therefore, the course of general History, and return to of my Throne, with his hands tied behind his back.

From the scene of war oocupied by the Goths and Persians.* Should he refuse to do this, no mercy shall be extended

A. D. 265. Sapor, after having subdued the Roman army in to himself

, to his family, or to his devoted Country.”

260. Mesopotamia, and seized the person of the Emperor, The Palmyrian Commander, who read his fate in the to $aB Tedew renewed his invasion of Syria and of Asia Minor. He angry message of Sapor, immediately took the field; 268. Dar iava retook Antioch, which had been partially rebuilt and and, falling upon the enemy before they recovered from

strengthened ; after which he marched into Cilicia, the panic inspired into them by the cohorts of Balista, and made himself master of Tarsus. Thence he gained a decisive advantage over their main body. He advanced against Cæsarea, one of the principal towns burst into the camp, seized the treasure and the concuin Cappadocia, and supposed to contain not fewer than bines of the Prince, dispersed the intimidated soldiers, four hundred thousand inhabitants. Demosthenes, a and in short time restored Carrhæ, Nisibis, and all General much esteemed for his patriotism and profes- Mesopotamia to the possession of the Romans. Trebelsional knowledge, assumed the command of the garri- lius Pollio informs us, that he even proceeded so far as son, and would, it is probable, have baffled all the to lay siege to Ctesiphon, with the view of liberating efforts of the Persians, had not a Physician, who seems Valerian, who was still alive, but that neither his arms to have been taken prisoner in a sally, revealed to them nor his entreaties could effect his benevolent object. * the means by which the walls might be ascended. The The events now mentioned took place in an early The usurscene which ensued disgraced the triumph of Sapor. part of the reign of Gallienus; immediately after which pers who He is accused of treating his prisoners with wanton there follows a scene of confusion into which no dili. disturbed cruelty; enraged, it was thought, at the escape of the gence or arrangement can introduce the light of Histo. the reign of

Gallienus. Roman Commander, who bravely cut his way through rical order. In almost every Province of the Empire, a thick body of the assailants. Aware, perhaps, that the Commander of the Legions was raised by his men to he could not make any permanent establishment in the the rank of Augustus ; and hence, at one period in this Empire, he sought only to leave behind him a wasted troubled era, there were as many Emperors as armies. desert, whilst he transported beyond the Euphrates the Posthumus reigned seven years in Gaul; Macrian was people and the wealth of the conquered Provinces. But acknowledged Sovereign in Asia ; Valens assumed the his career was checked by two of the Imperial Lieute. Purple in Achaia ; and Ingenuus was hailed Ruler of nants, who, finding that the interests of the State were Pannonia. Macrian fell in Illyricum, whither he had abandoned by their profligate Prince, took upon them- gone to vanquish a rival, leaving his youngest son in selves the exercise of a discretionary power, in the em- the East to adıninister the Government. Quietus, the ployment of the forces committed to their charge. name of this Prince, was attacked by Odenatus, (who

The Persian Monarch laid siege to Pompeiopolis, acted as a Lieutenant of Gallienus,) and slain at Emesa.
Hd by Bao which he threatened, in case of a protracted resistance, Balista assumed the vacant sceptre, which he succeeded

to visit with all the horrors of war. Balista, who had in retaining three years, either by the sufferance, or in
risen to the highest honours under the personal com- defiance of the Palmyrian General. The affairs of
mand of Valerian, assembled such troops as could be Syria being thus restored to some degree of tranquillity,
drawn together without loss of time, and attacked the Odenatus was elevated to the authority of a Sovereign,
invaders with so much skill and resolution, that he and Gallienus took the honours of a Triumph for the
compelled them to relinquish that undertaking, and victories gained by the former in the war with the
break up their camp. The retreat of an Eastern army

Persians.t
soon degenerates into a rout. The Romans, pressing It is a fancy of the Historian Trebellius Pollio, that as
upon the rear of the fugitives, gave them no opportunity Greece had to bewail the domination of Thirty Tyrants,
to rally, and at length had the satisfaction of seeing so the Romans, in the time of Gallienus, were visited
them recross the Euphrates, enriched indeed with spoil, with a similar calamity in the persons of those military
but stripped of all the warlike honours which they had usurpers to whom we have already made allusion. But
derived from their late successes.t

the number fixed upon cannot be completed unless we But Sapor encountered a still more formidable enemy include in it the names of certain women and children, feated by on Odenatus, a noble Senator of Palmyra, who, amidst who were, in a moment of disaffection or sport, raised Osenatus. all the vicissitudes of their fortune, remained faithful to to the Imperial title. Instead, however, of tracing the

Valerian and to Gallienus. The zeal of this Chief was, progress and suppression of every separate revolt, we
moreover, not a little sharpened by a personal insult shall hold it sufficient to specify the names of the leaders,
inflicted upon him by the Persian King. Desirous to and of the Countries wherein they respectively arose.
secure at least the forbearance of that conqueror, Ode-
natus sent to him a maguificent present, accompanied In Illyricum there were Decius Lælius Ingenuus, A. D. 260.
with a letter full of respect and submission : but the

Quintus Nonus Regillianus
In the East

M. Fulvius Macrianus haughty Monarch, instead of being softened by this ex

Servius Anicas Balista

262. pression of good will, ordered the gift to be thrown into

la Greece

Lucius Valerius Valens the Euphrates, and returned an answer breathing the

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi

Åre repuls.

And de.

261.
260.

261. 261.

Trebell. Poll. in Gallien. Euseb. Hist, Eccles. lib. vii. Zonar, lib. xii. c. 24. p. 631.

* Trebell. Poll. Trigint. Tyran. 13. Zonar. lib. xii. c. 23. Agath. + Trebell. Poll. Trigint. Tyran. 18. Syncell. Chronograph. p. 382. lib. iv. Zosim. lib. i. p. 661. Zonar. lib. xii. c. 24.

+ 'Trebell. Poll. Trigint, Tyran. passim ; et Vita Gallien. c. 10. VOL. XI.

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