From A. D.


From A. D.

Biography. revenge the death of Pertinax, disbanded their several to the faithful Germans who were in attendance, M.C.P. Cohorts; a measure of which they apprehended the dragged them both into the street, naked and man

Maximus, repetition under the auspices of Maximus, who was gled, and at length put an end to their sufferings by a D. C.

known to dread their power and condemn their preten- cruel death. The fears of Maximus, from the first Balbinus. 235.

sions. They imagined, moreover, that they could per- moment of his accession, predicted this fatal issue. 238.

ceive in the German troops whom this Emperor had “What reward,” said he to Balbinus, “shall be beassembled to oppose the inroad of Maximinus, the stowed upon us, if we succeed in delivering the Roman intended successors of the Imperial Guards. Deter- world from the tyrant who now domineers over it ?" — 235 mined, therefore, to anticipate the designs of their new “We may,” replied the other, “ depend upon the grati

238. masters, they took advantage of the Capitoline Games, tude and esteem of the Senate, of the People, and

which engrossed the attention of nearly all the inhabi- of the whole Earth.”—“Yes," rejoined Maximus," and
tants of Rome; proceeded to the Palace where the two upon the hatred of the Soldiers, which will bring us
Emperors, already alienated from each other, occupied both to an untimely end."*
remote apartments; and before an alarm could be given



FROM A. D. 238 to 244.

A. D.


Froma A. D.

The young


Biography. No sooner had the Prætorians accomplished their nations were determined by caprice or money, without Marcus

design against Maximus and Balbinus than they hur any regard to the merits of the case; the public trea- Antoninus From ried the young Cæsar into the Camp, where he was

Gordianus sures were plundered by designing knaves, who agreed

III. proclaimed Emperor, and forthwith recommended to in nothing but their resolution to deceive their master. 238.

the loyalty and affection of the People. The murder The Prince, in reply, acknowledges the accuracy of the 244.

of the reigning Prince had now become an event of picture which was presented to his recollection ; but, in
such frequent occurrence, that it ceased to create in the apology for himself

, he entreats his monitor to call to

238. Gordianus public mind any feeling of horror, or desire of punish- mind the hard fate of an Emperor, from whom truth is raised to ment. Hence, we find that the multitude, who had studiously concealed, and who, as he cannot see every 244. the Throne. scarcely concluded the festivities with which they thing with his own eyes, is compelled to listen to the

greeted the victorious entrance of Maximus, joined in reports of others, whether honest or deceitful.t
the clamorous joy which proceeded from the Camp Mysithæus, raised by his son-in-law to the office of Administra-
when Gordianus III. was invested with the Purple. Prætorian Præfect, proved himself a wise counsellor in tion of
In the space of a few months, six Emperors were cut peace, and an able Commander in war. The Govern- Mysithæus.
off by the sword; and the boy who was now raised to ment immediately assumed a new aspect : grievances
the Throne was selected by the Army, not so much, were redressed, merit was rewarded, the idle were
perhaps, because his name was dear to the Senate and dismissed, and the factious were punished. To use the
Roman People, as because his tender age promised a words of Capitolinus, it was no longer either puerile or
long impunity of Military licence, and an undisputed contemptible. An insurrection fomented in Africa by
ascendency to the household troops.

an obscure soldier, whose name was Sabinianus, was
Of this Prince, History has preserved so few particu- suppressed with so much decision and lenity, that the
lars, that it still remains doubtful whether he was the intelligence of it did not disturb for a day the tranquil-
son or only the nephew of the younger Gordianus, who lity of the Capital. I
fell in the insurrection at Carthage. His early years A more formidable contest for the Roman arms was State of
are praised for docility, talent, and application ; but his about to take pla in the East. The Persians, since Persia, an
Biographer adds, that he had not the good fortune to the revival of their nation under the dynasty of Sassan, accession

of Sapor. possess a mother like Mamæa, the judicious parent and had assumed a commanding attitude in Western Asia; guardian of Alexander Severus. Under the influence they claimed the territory which belonged to them in of Mætia Faustina, the Government passed into the the days of Cyrus, and even announced their intention hands of eunuchs, and other unprincipled retainers of of reestablishing that powerful Empire which had the Court, who made a traffic of the honours and emo- fallen before the genius of Alexander the Great Artaluments of the Empire, and prostituted on all occa- xerxes, the first of the new race of Kings, had shown, as sions the name of the Sovereign to accomplish their we have seen above, equal ambition and talents as a own nefarious purposes. This condition of affairs soldier; and although he retired across the Euphrates is well described in a Letter from Mysithæus, the preceptor and father-in-law of Gordianus, written to

* Quid tu, Balbine, et ego merebimur, cum hanc tam immanem congratulate him on his escape from the disgrace and belluam exitio dederimus ? Cumque Balbinus dixisset, senatus popuruin which must have resulted from the administration lique Romani ferventissimum amorem et orbis terrarum: dirisse of such sordid wretches. Military commands, says fertur. Maximus, Vereor, ne militum odium sentiamus et mortem.

Herodian. lib. viii.
he, were given away upon the mere recommendation of

Herodian. lib. vii. Capitolin. in Gord. Terl.; in Jaxim, et
the Eunuch of the Chamber; the services of the best Balb, c. 3.
Officers remained unrewarded; pardons and condem- August. Hist, vol. ii. p. 50, 51.

From A. D.


A. D.


ment of

Biography. When the son of Mamæa advanced to attack him, it the father of their Emperor than as the guardian of Marcus does not appear that his Army was broken, or that his their Commonwealth.*


Gordianus views of conquest were in any degree relinquished. On That Mysithæus deserved all the honour which was

III. the contrary, he seems to have renewed the invasion of conferred upon him, was but too soon proved by the 238. Syria as soon as the Romans withdrew to celebrate their melancholy events subsequent upon his demise. The From

triumph; and hence the reason why Maximinus was disease which put an end to his valuable life is said to 244. preparing to march against him from the banks of have been rendered more malignant than usual, by 238.

the Danube, when he was diverted from his purpose by injudicious treatment on the part of his attendants;
the change of affairs which had just occurred in Italy. ascribed, as is common in such cases, to the envy or 244.

The death of the Persian ruler, which must have ambition of a rival. Philip, who was soon afterwards Death of
taken place at no great distance of time from the siege on the Throne, and who certainly at that time aspired


and prefer of Aquileia, occasioned a pause in the course of hos- to the office of Prætorian Præfect, is accused of having tilities; and it was not until Gordianus had been tampered with the fidelity of the physician, or with the Philip, three years on the Throne, that Sapor, the son of honour of the person who administered the drugs to Artaxerxes, made such demonstrations of war on the his patients, and of having thereby procured the death eastern frontiers of the Empire, that an expedition of Mysithæus. Whatever truth may be in this charge, into Asia could be no longer delayed. He had al- there is no doubt that the ambitious soldier obtained ready, indeed, entered Mesopotamia, taken Nisibis and the object on which he had set his heart. He was Carrhæ, and even laid siege to the Imperial city of elevated to the dignity of the Præfecture, which he Antioch. His progress was everywhere marked with soon allowed himself to regard as only a convenient that rapidity and determination which distinguished his step to the Throne. An Arab by birth, and in the future campaigns, and which enabled him, during a earlier part of his life a robber by profession, he thought reign of thirty years, to keep the field on equal terms no means unlawful by which he might supplant his with the ablest Generals of the West. Italy itself master and patron. He contrived that an artificial heard the sound of his menaces; for his plans of con- scarcity should irritate the minds of the Soldiers, who quest were not, like those of his father, bounded by were taught to ascribe it to the youth and incapacity of the Ægean Sea and the Hellespont, but stretched to their leader. From that moment the fate of Gordianus the Alps, and even to the shores of the ocean.

was determined. The circumstances which attended who Eredition

In the spring of the year two hundred and forty-two, his death are, indeed, variously related; but it admits murders
Gordianus opened the Temple of Janus for the last time, not of any doubt that he fell a victim to the intrigues Gordianus.

and began his march towards his Asiatic dominions. of the new Præfect, who corrupted the Army, and even Persia25. Whilst passing through Mæsia and Thrace, he had to employed against him the hand of a conspirator. Capi

contend with some detached bodies of the Barbarians, tolinus informs us, that at first Philip was appointed
over whom he gained a succession of easy victories. colleague to the Emperor, on the ground that the inex-
But the Alani, a more warlike tribe, whom he en- perience of the latter might derive assistance from the
countered on the plains of Philippi, are said to have skill of a veteran, who had served in different climates,
checked his progress, and even to have inflicted upon and to whom he wants and habits of military life
one of the wings of his Army a considerable loss. were perfectly familiar. He adds, that the Prince soon
Without spending upon the conquest of wandering became impatient of the control under which he was
hordes the time which he meant to devote to more placed, and that the other, who was not less desirous
important ends, he at once conducted the Legions into to reign alone, dreading the effects of his resentment
Syria, already wasted and alarmed by the inroads of should he accomplish his object, formed the resolution
Sapor, resolved to effect, at whatever cost, the recovery to remove him by violent means. The third Gordianus
of a Province which the Empire had always valued was put to death in the month of March, in the year
Fery highly. No record has been preserved of the two hundred and forty-four, after having reigned five
battles which ensued ; but it is not doubtful that the

years and eight months.
Romans conducted the war with the greatest spirit and The assassin who succeeded him on the Throne
success, for in the course of the first campaign they affected to bewail his loss, gave orders that his obse-
drove the invading Army out of Syria, pursued them quies should be performed with the greatest magnifi-
over the Euphrates, retook the several towns which cence, sent his ashes to Rome, and employed the Army
had fallen into their hands, and concluded by punishing in erecting a splendid mausoleum on the spot where
Sapor with a signal defeat near the city of Resæna. he fell, near the city of Circæsium, at the confluence of

In his Letter to the Senate, the young Emperor the Haboras and the Euphrates. An inscription, re2 stk. acknowledged that he owed his great victories to the markable for a play upon the word Philippi, continued

admirable arrangements of Mysithæus, and requested for some generations to record his exploits, and in-
that thanks might be returned first to the Gods, and sinuate the manner of his death ; and at a still later
next to the Prætorian Præfect. A Triumph was decreed period, a mound of earth still remained to inform the
to the Prince, in which it was intended that his car passing traveller that the head of the Roman world
should be drawn by four elephants, to denote the had perished in the neighbourhood. The epitaph is as
conintry and people which had witnessed the success of follows:
Orders were given at the same time, that

Divo Gordinno l'ictori
the Præfect should be rewarded with a triumphal

ersarum, Victori Gothorum,

Victori Sarmatarum, Depulsori Romanarum Seditionum,
chariot, drawn by four horses, bearing an inscription Victori Germanorum ; sed non Victori Philipporum.
that he was beloved by the Roman People, not less as

Capitolin. in Gord. c. 34.

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his arms.

* Capitolin, in Gord. Tert. c. 27, 28,

* Capitolio, in Gord. Tcrt. c. 29, 30.




FROM A. D. 244 to 249.

A. D.


A. D.


them to sus

Family of

Biography. Enjoying no longer the assistance of Herodian, nor Macedonia to his father-in-law, Severianus; while he Marcus the light which was supplied by the earlier Authors of prepared to take the field in person against some war

Julius From the Augustan History, we feel ourselves becoming more like tribes who occupied the mountains which divide


Augustus. and more destitute of those characteristic details which Modern Hungary and Transylvania from Poland.* 244. give the chief interest to Biography. From the middle The Carpi, who appear to have given their name to

From of the IIId century we are compelled to trust for many the Carpathian range, first disturbed the administration 249.

facts to the accuracy of the Ecclesiastical writers, in of Alexander Severus, and afterwards provoked the re 244.
whose eyes, as the affairs of State possessed only a sentment of Maximus and Balbinus; the latter of whom
secondary importance, the course of Civil and Military was on the point of marching against them at the 249.
events did not assume its full magnitude. The scanty period when he was put to death. Availing themselves He defeats .
notices of Eutropius, accordingly, receive no material of the confusion and rapid changes in the Govern- them and
addition from the incidental remarks of Eusebius, or of ment which had recently prevailed at Rome, they ad-

his contemporaries among the Church Historians. On vanced into the Provinces watered by the Danube, for peace.
the other hand, the strong prejudices of Zosimus where they committed great ravages. Philip defeated
against our holy Faith, as well as his general scepticism them in a pitched battle, slew an immense number of their
as to the credibility of human testimony and the purity warriors, and shut up the remainder in a strong for-
of human motives, create in our minds suspicions ex- tress, to which they had fled for refuge. Determined
tremely unfavourable to the authority of that Annalist. not to submit, they made an attempt to cut their way
Nor can we have a greater degree of confidence in the through the Roman army, by which they were now
fragments collected by Zonaras; who, though his honesty completely surrounded; but, failing in this desperate
and diligence have never been impeached, has not ac- expedient, they relinquished all confidence in arms,
quired the respect of more enlightened times for wise and sued for Peace.t
selection or critical discernment.

Upon his return to Rome, the Emperor, trusting to He celcFor these reasons it cannot appear wonderful that the favourable impression which his success had made brates the Philip considerable obscurity should still hang over the origin on the public mind, and actuated by the desire of esta


Games. of the Emperor Philip. That he was a foreigner by blishing his family on the Throne, adopted his son as birth, is admitted on all hands ; but whether he drew his colleague in the Consulship, and soon afterwards his lineage from an indigenous Arabian, or was entitled declared him Augustus. But a more interesting cereto boast of a descent from one of the noble families mony ere long invited his attention, and signalized his of Rome, is a point which still remains undetermined. reign. It was now a thousand years since Romulus The same doubts exist in regard to his Religion. It laid the foundations of the Eternal City; and it became has been customary, among writers connected with the alike the piety and the gratitude of the Romans to disChurch, to claim this barbarous soldier, not only as a tinguish this remarkable epoch by the celebration of believer in the Gospel, but as a dutiful son and an exem- their Secular Games. This solemnity had been obplary penitent; an opinion which appears to have no served by Augustus, to whom is due the merit of its other foundation besides the weak conceit of an ancient revival, or, perhaps, its institution; by Claudius, by author, and the boundless credulity of subsequent com- Domitian, and by Severus. It has been well observed, pilers.*

that every circumstance of those Games was skilfully He marches Philip was in the East when the last of the Gordians adapted to inspire the superstitious mind with deep and

Desirous to establish his power at Rome, he solemn reverence. The long interval between them
Carpi. .

hastened to make peace with Sapor, the King of Persia; exceeded the ordinary term of human life; and as none
immediately after which he withdrew his army into of the spectators had already seen them, none could
Syria. Upon his arrival in the Capital he announced flatter themselves with the expectation of beholding
to the Senate that he had associated in the Government them a second time. Mystic sacrifices were per
his son, who was only seven years of age, whom at the formed, during three nights, on the banks of the Tyber;
same time he had decorated with the title of Cæsar. and the Campus Martius resounded with music and
He spent several months in endeavouring to gain the dances, and was illuminated with innumerable lamps
affections of the higher order of the citizens, who sus- and torches. Slaves and strangers were excluded from
pected, and were very slow to pardon, the share which any participation in these National ceremonies.

he was supposed to have had in the death of their chorus of twenty-seven youths, and as many virgins, 'of
youthful Sovereign. But he did not in the meantime noble families, each of whom had both parents living,
neglect the more important concerns of the Empire. implored the propitious Gods in favour of the present,
He committed the command of the Legions in Syria to and for the hope of the rising generation; requesting,
his brother Priscus, and of those serving in Mæsia and

* Zonar. lib. xii. c. 19. p. 624. Edit. Paris.

f Zosim. lib. xi. Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus. Eutrop. lib. ix. Eutrop. Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus.

Zosiin. lib. xi.

against the expired.

A. D.


A. D.


Troops in

Masia rerolt and

to the

Biography. in religious hymns, that, according to the faith of their foreseeing the danger of presenting a popular leader to an Marcus ancient Oracles, they would still maintain the Virtue, army the angry passions of which had not yet subsided,

Julius From the Felicity, and the Empire of the Roman People. and which had much to fear from a Sovereign whom


Augustus. The magnificence of the shows and entertainments they had attempted to degrade. His anticipations were 244.

given by Philip dazzled the eyes of the multitude. again fulfilled." He no sooner appeared in Mæsia, than From

The devout were employed in the rites of Superstition, the soldiers proclaimed him Emperor, and invested 249.

whilst the reflecting few revolved in their anxious him with the usual ensigns of Imperial authority ; 244.
minds the past history or the future fate of the threatening, at the same time, that if he refused to
comply with their views, they would instantly plunge

But, although the Emperor conciliated the esteem or their swords into his body.
forbearance of his subjects in the Capital, he could The rebellious Legions having chosen a Sovereign, Philip is

employ no means for preventing the still greater dan- resolved to place him on the Imperial Throne, and with slain. raise Decius

gers with which he was threatened by the avarice and this view began their march towards Rome. Philip, Irode. sedition of the Provincial Legions. The troops sta- at the head of a more numerous body of forces, met

tioned in Mæsia revolted, and raised to the rank of his rival near Verona, where a battle ensued between
Augustus a Centurion whose name was Marinus, the two armies. The fortune of war determined in
Philip, alarmed at the intelligence, made haste to com- favour of the Provincials, who by a signal victory re-
municate it to the Senate; when Decius, a member of venged the death of Gordian, and, at the same time,
Consular dignity, who by his merits had elevated himsecured the Diadem for the Prince of their own elec-
self from a low condition through all the honours of the tion. Philip fell either on the field of battle, or imme-
State, rose to assure the Prince that there was no ground diately afterwards in the city of Verona ; and his son,
for apprehension ; and that the soldiers, ashamed of who appears to have been left in the Capital, shared
their inconstancy, would, of their own accord, depose the same fate at the hands of the Prætorian Guards.
their new-made Emperor, and return to a sense of duty. The name of this Monarch is associated with the
The event soon corresponded to this prediction. origin of a Colony at Philippopolis, which he founded
Decius, as a reward for his sagacity, was appointed to in Arabia Petræa, near Bostra; in which vicinity he is
the command of the mutinous cohorts; which he was said to have been born. He projected or completed
directed to visit with punishment, or with indulgence, several improvements at Rome; but the shortness of his
according to the part which they had severally taken in reign afforded no time for studying decoration, or for
the recent commotion. The prudent General is said cultivating the Arts of Peace.*
to have questioned the wisdom of this arrangement;


FROM A. D. 249 to 251.


A. D.


A. D.


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Biography, Decius was received with acclamations by the it; and Decius, accordingly, was hardly seated on the

Caius Senators, who, for the most part, respected his virtues Throne when he received information that Cniva, King Messius and admired his talents. But his reputation has been of the Goths, had a second time crossed the Danube, Quintus

Trajanus tarnished by the just indignation of the Ecclesiastical and was spreading desolation over the fairest fields of 249.

Decius writers, who could not be induced to regard the pru- Masia.t

Augustus 931.

dence of his Civil Government, or the splendour of his The events which marked the progress of the Gothic Decius

victories, as any atonement for his violent persecution war are perplexed with no small degree of inconsist. From 2. szed by of the Christians. He had not, indeed, employed ency. It should seem that the eldest son of the Empe the Gulbs, many months in the administration of affairs, when he ror was sent, in the first instance, to check the progress 249. burade was called to the banks of the Danube to oppose an of the invaders; and that he found them employed in

251. invasion of the Goths. This people, afterwards so the siege of Nicapolis, a town situated on the latrus.

Romans memorable for their conquest of the Western Empire, Breaking up at his approach, they directed their march

defeated. had at that period just approached the remoter Pro- towards Philippopolis in Thrace, a place of still greater vinces of the North-East. In the reign of Philip, a strength and riches than that which they had relinGothic Chieftain, followed by numerous and warlike quished. The young Decius pursued them through a hordes, passed triumphantly through Dacia, and at difficult country, anticipating an easy victory over their length planted his standard under the walls of Marcias- undisciplined ranks; when, on a sudden, the Gothic opolis, a principal city in Mæsia. The inhabitants, Chief, turning round upon the Romans, attacked them whose wealth had tempted the avarice of this roving with the utmost fury, compelled them to seek safety in enemy, consented to purchase repose by paying a large flight, and at length crowned his success by pillaging sum of money, as well as by supplying the camp of the invaders with the best of their cattle. The success of

* Zonar. lib. xii, c. 19. Aurel. Victor, de Casaribus. Eutrop. lib.ix, the Barbarians in the first inroad induced them to repeat + Eutrop., Zosim., and Zonar,


A. D.


A. D.


Biography. their camp. Philippopolis soon after fell into their once more to battle. The treachery of a rival, how- Caius

hands; the capture of which is said to have been stained ever, is reported to have again frustrated his plans. Messius From by the blood of a hundred thousand of the inhabitants.* Gallus, who succeeded him on the Throne, is repre


Trajanus These advantages, it was thought, were not gained by sented to have given such information to the enemy as Decius 249. the Barbarians without assistance from certain Roman enabled them to extricate their bands from the toils Augustus.

traitors. It is manifest, indeed, amid all the obscurity spread for their destruction by the Roman Commander. 251.

which covers this portion of History, that Priscus, a It is more probable, notwithstanding, that the triumph From
brother of the late Emperor, aided by his counsels, and of the Goths arose from their advantageous position be-
probably by his arms, the conquerors of Philippopolis. hind a marsh, and from the blind impetuosity of the 249.
It is even said that he accepted the purple at their assailants, who attempted to pass it, than from the in-
hands, and had determined to employ their valour for fidelity of Gallus, who had no inducement to betray the

cutting his way to the Imperial Throne; but his death, arms of his country. At all events, the defeat of the
which followed soon afterwards, at once defeated his Romans was complete ; and their loss was not a little
plans, and deprived Historians of the means of ascer- aggravated by the death of the Emperor and of his
taining the exact share which he had in the Gothic eldest son, both of whom were left upon the field of

irruption, as also the motives upon which he acted. battle amidst heaps of slain.* Decius and Alarmed at the defeat sustained by his son, the Em- The fortune of Decius, after he ascended the Throne, Character his son are peror himself proceeded to take the command of the was not in any degree commensurate with his care and of Decius slain.

troops in Illyricum. The length of time, as well as the abilities. Perceiving that his Countrymen no longer re-
great number of lives which had been lost by the enemy tained the virtuous principles by which they had risen
in the siege just mentioned, supplied ground for hope to power, he made an effort to revive the office of Cen-
that the affairs of Mæsia might yet be retrieved. If sor; hoping that, with a renovation of moral feeling, he
we may trust to Zosimus, the skill and bravery of Decius might confirm the foundations of that National pre-
were soon rewarded with several distinguished victories eminence which recent events had tended greatly to
over the Goths. He attacked in separate bodies the diminish. The Senate, to which the duty of election
various hordes of their German confederates, who were was intrusted, gave its suffrages in favour of Valerian,
hastening from their mountains and forests to share the who was afterwards raised to the Empire. This distin-
plunder of the Roman Provinces. He took possession guished soldier was with the army in Pannonia when
of the principal passes, repaired the strong holds on the the intelligence of his new honour was conveyed to
Danube, and adopted every expedient, as well for pre- him; the arduous duties of which appeared to his
venting reinforcements, as for cutting off their retreat. mind so oppressive, as to induce him to entreat the
The invaders, it is said, would have gladly consented Emperor to relieve him from an appointment to which
to purchase, at the expense of their richest booty, per- no subject was equal. But the disastrous issue of the
mission to withdraw unmolested from the country which war rendered abortive the benevolent purpose of Decius,
they had wasted. But the Emperor, eager to recover and also saved the Censor elect from the weight of
the reputation of his arms, and to inspire a salutary odium and responsibility prepared for him by the par-
fear into those rude warriors, resolved to bring them tiality of the Senatorial Order.

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FROM A. D), 251 TO 253.


A. D.


A. D.


Caius Biography. The Pannonian Legions, mortified by their defeat, Gothic invasion. Unwilling to hazard the interests of

Vibius did not at once exercise the right with which custom the Empire by prosecuting the war, Gallus entered into

Trebonianus had now invested the army, of naming a successor to a Treaty with the enemy; granting them permission to

Gallus the Throne. They even condescended to be in some retire with all the booty and prisoners that the fortune Augustus. 251. measure directed by the Senate in choosing a head to of battle had thrown into their hands, and promising, the Empire ; and the latter Body, influenced by a due besides, to make to their King a yearly present in gold,

From 253.

veneration for the patriotism of Decius, recommended on condition that he should not violate the integrity of Gallus

251. that his surviving son, Hostilianus, should be elevated the Roman dominions. named

to the vacant seat. The urgency of affairs, however, Emperor.

Having thus effected the object dearest to his heart,

233. required more vigour and experience than could be the Emperor repaired to Rome, where he soon gave him

Returns to expected in the character of so young a Prince; for self up to the pleasures which already occupied the

Rome. which reason the military leaders associated with him days and nights of too many of the higher classes of his in the Government one of their own Chiefs, whose con- Italian subjects. Hostilianus had fallen a victim to

duct or whuse promises had secured their approbation. disease, or to treachery, and no longer divided with his Makes a The first measure adopted by the latter Sovereign was colleague the honours and envy of Imperial power. treaty with to relieve the Mæsian territory from the pressure of Gallus raised his son Volusianus to a participation of the Goths.

* Zosim. lib, i. Zonar. lib, xii. c. 20.

* Eutrop. lib. ix. Aurel. Victor, de Cæsaribus.

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