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rence to his
Biography. honoured it in the living, but did all in his power master of several instruments, on which, however, he Marcus
to commemorate its happy effects in the men of former never played except in private. Lampridius, who Aurelius From Ages. He collected in Trajan's Square the Statues charges him with an unbecoming anxiety respecting his
Severus. of all the deified Sovereigns of Rome, as, also, of the fame, accuses him of showing too much deference to 222. more celebrated Commanders who had distinguished learned men, and of regarding them as the arbiters of
From themselves and served their Country ; adorning them his reputation, of which, it is acknowledged, he was 235.
with inscriptions which set forth their exploits and extremely jealous. He granted pensions, it is true, to
undue defe Jesus Christ. * In the latter were Military heroes, and yielding a little too far to the caprice and avarice of his
character. He informs us, that Mamæa, after consentHis various
The greater part of his mornings was devoted to the ing that her son should marry the daughter of a Patripursuits.
despatch of business with his Ministers; for which cian, became jealous of the influence to which the
of credit ; but the unquestionable authority of Dion His learn. A life so regulated could not fail to be distinguished Cassius removes all doubt as to the fact, that Mamæa ing, and
by Knowledge as well as by Virtue; and we accordingly showed towards the wife of her son a degree of jealousy love for the find that Alexander had the
reputation of learning and and hatred for which the public eye could not discover .
of many accomplishments. From his Syrian extraction, any just cause."
* Christum, Abraham, et Orpheum, et hujusmodi ceteros hnbebat, ac majorum effigirs, rem divinam fucicbut. Lamprid. in Alex, Serer. c. 29.
* Mulier sancta, sed avara, et auri el argenti cupida, c. 14.
† Dion Cassius, lib. lxxx. Lamprid. in Aler. Sever. c. 49. Herodian. lib. vi.
Biography. with lenity. The Provinces, relieved from the taxes sedition which ended in the murder of Ulpian. He Marcus which had been drawn from them by the two preceding removed him from Italy to Egypt, under the pretext of Aurelius
administration of Magistrates who were convinced by whence he was, in due time, brought back to Crete,
of his coolness and determination. When at Antioch, on a memo-
was elevated by his grateful pupil to the rank of Præ- tain number of the men belonging to a particular Clpian. torian Præfect. The fame of Ulpian as a Jurist has legion. The Cohorts became mutinous, and demanded
reached even to our own times, but he did not display back their comrades with seditious cries. Alexander
sense of their duty, and to make them respect the au- rupted his mild expostulation. “Forbear that noise," Danger of thority of their superiors. It was the apprehension that he exclaimed; “ such outeries may be suitable enough Doa
this example might be extended to themselves also, which in the field of battle, but they become you not when Cassias.
excited the wrath of the Guards against the Pannonian listening to your Emperor. Preserve your warlike
our Country.” This threatening inflamed the resentThese facts leave no doubt upon the mind of the ment of the mutineers to a still higher pitch. Their act of reader, that the Emperor did not feel his power or his murmurs were louder, and expressed more audaciously :
resolution equal to the object which he was so desirous they even proceeded so far as to brandish their arms. to accomplish,--the reformation of the Military Order. Alexander, still unintimidated, resumed his address. This impression is still further confirmed by the indirect “ Those weapons," said he, “were given you to be method which he was compelled to adopt for the pu- employed against the enemies of Rome; prove them nishment of Epagathus, the principal author of the in that service, if ye be men of true courage.
Your menaces have no effect upon me. In taking my life, * Lamprid. in Aler. Sever. c. 21, 22.
you will remove but one individual, whom the Republic † Dion Cassius, lib. Isxx.
can well spare. Our Country will still remain identified
Biography. with the exertions of the Senate and Roman People, questioned, he at length fell a victim to the turbulent Marcus and the hand of National justice will not fail to avenge and licentious spirit which he had in vain attempted to
Aurelius From its own cause. The seditious legion became now
Alexander more outrageous than ever ; upon which the Emperor, But the course of events calls us from the considera222.
who seems to have been prepared for all extremities, tion of private character and domestic arrangements to From
pronounced the decisive sentence, “ Citizens ! lay down follow him into the East, where, about the tenth year 235.
your arms, and depart from a camp which no longer of his reign, he conducted a successful war against the 222. acknowledges you.'
Persians. There are, indeed, in the Augustan History, The success
The voice fell on their ears like thunder, and it was obscure hints of hostile movements said to have taken 235 wbich attended it.
instantly obeyed. Those very men who had so obsti- place at an earlier period, among the Barbarians of the He prepares nately opposed the punishment of their comrades, Northern frontiers; and we find allusions to triumphs for an
years. Artabanes, the last Monarch of the House of the
condition to resist their efforts to recover their just
independence. In three battles he so completely de-
feated the Parthians, that he forthwith transferred to
a paramount sway over all the nations of Western † Nec exercitum unquam timuerit, idcirco, quoil in vitam suam
Asia. * nihil dici posset, quoil unquam Tribuni vel duces de stipendiis militum quidynam accessissent: dicens, Miles non timet, nisi vestitus, armatus, calceatus, et salur, et habens aliquid in zonula. Lamprid. in Alex, Sever, c. 52.
* Herodian. lib. vi. Lamprid. in Alex, Sever. c. 50, 55.
Bastaphy. Encouraged by this brilliant success, he resolved to avoided, made his final preparations for carrying it Marcus turn his arms immediately against the Romans. He on with vigour. As he had a numerous army, drawn
Alexander advanced into Mesopotamia, threatened Syria, and even from different nations, and trained to fight according Severus.
laid claim to the whole of Asia Minor; asserting, that to the various systems of tactics which at that time 222.
these countries had been conquered by Cyrus, and prevailed among the Romans, the Greeks, and the From
governed for centuries by Persian Satraps, under the Asiatics, he was advised by the ablest Generals who 235,
authority of the Great King, whose glory, he added, he followed his banners to divide his followers into three 222. attacks the himself had in some measure retrieved, and whose great bodies, and to attack the Persian Empire in Rodans,
territories he was determined to repossess. When in three vital points at the same moment. One of these 235. who attempt telligence of the Parthian revolution reached Rome, detachments was to cross Armenia, a country still in And invades
Persia, tə Legociates together with the pretensions founded upon it by the alliance with the Romans, and to pass from thence into
victorious rebel, the pacific Government of Alexander Media; the second was to march southwards into the was not a little disturbed. On all occasions the son of Province of Susiana, and to ravage the Capital of the Mamæa was more inclined to have recourse to reason rising Empire ; and the third or main division, with the than to force. Herodian, indeed, takes pleasure in re- Emperor at its head, was to take the middle road through presenting him as smitten with grief and consternation; Mesopotamia, and at once to carry the weight of Alexshuddering at the fatigue and danger of so distant a ander's vengeance into the heart of the enemy's herewar against so powerful an enemy. It is certain, that ditary dominions. The plan of the campaign likewise he sent ambassadors to the Persian Chief, with the required that all the Troops should afterwards meet at view of dissuading him from his projected invasion of one point, and cooperate together for the final reduction the Roman Provinces, by exhibiting the evils which of the Persian confederacy.* must result from the conflict of two such mighty Em- In regard to the details of the actual warfare which He gains a pires. He reminded him at the same time of the ensued, we have, as usual, to reconcile as well as we signal vicrepeated victories which had been gained over the can the conflicting statements of Herodian and Lam- tory, and
obtains a Parthians by Trajan, Severus, and other Commanders, pridius. The Greek Historian insinuates, that the
Triumph at when the whole power of Persia was included in that timidity of Alexander and the terrors of his mother Rome. of a single Province of the great Kingdom which owned retarded the progress of the main division of the Army, the Sovereignty of the Arsacidæ.
and rendered useless the success of the other two, Artaxerxes, as might have been expected, paid no which were conducted with greater resolution. But regard to those remonstrances. Haughty by nature, whatever occurrences may have diversified the opening and elated with prosperity, he answered the embassy of of the campaign, it is admitted on all hands, that the Rome by the commencement of actual hostilities. 'lle grand Armies came at length to an engagement, in entered Mesopotamia with an increased armament, laid which the Romans carried away a signal advantage. siege to its principal cities, routed some legions which Artaxerxes is reported to have entered the field with he attacked in their separate camps, and gained a seven hundred elephants, a thousand armed chariots, temporary possession of the whole country.
and a hundred and twenty thousand cavalry. The Aander
The deliberations which preceded the departure of Emperor is said to have displayed great firmness, zsters bis Alexander from his Capital indicated, without doubt, skill, and the utmost contempt of death; moving
that he regarded war in general as a great calamity, from point to point with the coolness of an expeand looked forward to that upon which he was about to rienced Commander, encouraging his men, and setting enter with the serious conviction, that before it could an example of every military excellence. The victory be brought to a close, much time and treasure, and is described as having been most complete. In his many valuable lives, must be sacrificed to the ambition address pronounced before the Senate, Alexander stated, of an upstart. He levied, indeed, a powerful army, that, of the seven hundred elephants, the Romans had selected brave and skilful officers, and provided them killed two hundred and taken three hundred; that with supplies adapted to the service in which they they had captured a great many of the chariots, and put were to be employed. Still, he did not despair of to flight sixscore thousand horse; that they had slain obviating the necessity of a direct appeal to arms. two thousand men armed in coats of mail, and made as When he arrived at Antioch, he despatched a second many captives as uld enrich by their ransoms the message to the Persian King, exhorting him to mode- whole Army which had been collected round the Imperial rate his views, and listen to equitable terms of accom- standards at Antioch. “We have put to flight,” says he, modation. He had hoped that his presence in Syria, at “ Artaxerxes, denominated by the Eastern world the the head of a large army, might induce his rival to Great King, and who, if we measure his title by his withdraw his pretensions, and retreat beyond the power, is not unworthy of that distinction. He has reTigris ; but Artaxerxes, on the contrary, esteeming tired, defeated and disgraced, into his native dominions ; these repeated attempts to avoid a war as proofs of and the Provinces which, in days not long gone by, saw weakness or of fear, received every overture with scorn, our captive Eagles carried in triumph by an insulting and became more unreasonable in the conditions which
conqueror, have recently witnessed the flight of that he proposed. He returned an answer to the Emperor presumptuous Chief, who left in our possession the by four hundred of his Lords, magnificently dressed, national standard of his confederated Tribes. Our armed with bows, and mounted upon fine horses ; in- Soldiers return rich and happy. The benefits which forming him, that the Great King demanded that the have crowned their victory have made them forget the Romans should without delay relinquish all Syria, as fatigue and peril with which it was purchased ; and all well as the countries situated between the sea of Cilicia, that now remains is the duty of returning thanks to the Ægean Sea, and the Euxine, as belonging to the ancient dominions of the Persians.
* Lamprid. in Alex. Sever. c. 55. Herodian. lib. vi. Aurel. Alexander, finding that war could be no longer Vict.
Biography. the Gods, by whose favour our exertions have been power ; for it is clear that Alexander found it neces
Marcus rewarded with this triumphant issue."*
sary to winter on the German frontiers, where he Aurelius From The Triumph which was decreed to Alexander did not employed the interval in reforming the Gallic Legions, Severus.
detain him long at Rome. He endured, indeed, the and in attempting to revive among them the spirit of 222.
fatigue of the usual display, exhibited his prisoners, ancient discipline. These stubborn cohorts, long ac- From
and set forth to public gaze the variety of his spoils. customed to unbounded licentiousness, opposed the 235. The Ger
He conferred the accustomed largess on the Military, patriotic designs of the Emperor, and even became 222. mans invade and gratified the luxurious idleness of the Citizens with seditious; and the Officers who were employed to Gaul. Games and theatrical amusements. He founded Schools second the efforts of their Prince, instead of following
235. for the gratuitous education of the poorer classes, and up his instructions with firmness, listened to the comdedicated them in honour of his mother, whose name plaints of the men, and studied to turn their disaffecthey bore; but his chief attention, meanwhile, was tion to the furtherance of their personal ambition. directed to a rising storm on the frontiers of Germany Among these, Maximinus held a distinguished place. and Gaul, which threatened to lay waste the fairest He was appointed to the command of the new levies, parts of Italy.
which he undertook to form after the model of the fine Alexander Several of those fierce Tribes which dwelt beyond troops who under Severus had conquered the East and marches to the Rhine, taking advantage of his absence in the West. One day as he approached their lines to resume
of the Rhine.
East, had invaded the Roman Provinces on the South, the usual exercises, the Soldiers, either from a sudden
CAIUS JULIUS VERUS MAXIMINUS: MARCUS ANTONINUS GORDIANUS, SENIOR
FROM A. D. 235 to 238.
From A. D. 235,
The troubles which followed the mild reign of competitors, who fell on the field of battle, and finally Caius
Verus page of Roman History. Native authors have com- which closed his bloody career.f
Maximinu pared the change which took place at his death to the The personal history of Maximinus, while it presents fabled transition from the Golden Age to that of Iron; some striking incidents as a separate narrative, tends
From for the Sceptre then passed from the hands of a gentle, to throw considerable light on the degraded condition pacific, and truly patriotic Prince, into those of a cruel of the Civil authority at Rome, and on the complete 235. barbarian, who took pride to himself for governing the ascendency which had been acquired by the Military Empire by means of terror and brutal force. The fury power in the Provinces not less than in Italy. The 238. which he manifested against every person distinguished adventurer now named appears to have been a native The early either by his birth or by his services to the State, soon of Thrace, and is first noticed on an occasion of festi- history of
Maximinu exhausted, indeed, the endurance of the Senate, and vity, celebrated by Severus, when marching through that induced that illustrious Body to supersede him by the country, on his return from the East. During the appointment of men more worthy to rule ; but so great military Games which were given on the birth-day of was his interest with the Army, as well as the means Geta, the attention of the Emperor was attracted by which he possessed for carrying on war, that before he the boastful manner of a gigantic barbarian, who was expelled from the Throne he triumphed over two
Lamprid. in Alex. Sever. c. 59. Herodian. lib. vi. Capitolin.
in Maxim. c. 7. * Lamprid, in Alex. Sever. c. 56, 57
+ Herodian. lib. vii