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Biography. the public peace, there was devolved upon the Em- substantiate their allegations, should be put to death; Marcus

perur the odious duty of receiving in person charges and that those who did produce sufficient evidence, Opilius From against the loyalty of his subjects, of investigating the should receive, indeed, the pecuniary reward usually

Macrinus. grounds upon which they rested, and even of ordering allowed in such cases, but that, in return, they should

From punishment, without allowing the accused an opportu- be branded with perpetual infamy. The effects of this

nity of confronting the witnesses, or of making a defence. rule were very soon apparent in the mutual confidence 218.

217 In such a state of things no life was safe, and more and safety of all ranks of the People. Peace and especially under a weak or jealous Monarch. His tranquillity, says Herodian, reigned throughout the

218. fears and interests were arrayed against the most Empire ; and the Citizens, who in the time of Carapowerful persons in the Country; and no rumour was calla saw a naked sword continually suspended over likely to be disregarded which respected, however in- their heads, enjoyed under his successor the inestimable directly, the character or the safety of the Head of the blessing of personal security. It is, therefore, to be Government. Besides, as was to be expected, those presumed, that if this Emperor had been endowed with who watched for the preservation of the Emperor did an ordinary degree of courage and Military talent, his not perform an unrequited labour. The trade of In- Administration would have proved exceedingly popuformer became a lucrative calling; and many indi. lar; but his marked deficiency in nearly all the quaviduals, who had no other means of living, supported lities which make a Soldier, brought him into contempt an enviable establishment upon the wages of falsehood with those who placed him on the Throne, while his and blood.

attempt to restrict their privileges and diminish their General To check this dangerous practice, Macrinus enacted, pay, turned decidedly against him the only power which bappiness that such Informers as could not by reasonable proof could have perpetuated his reign.* of the Empire in his

MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS HELIOGABALUS.

FROM A. D. 218 to 222.

A. D.

222.

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Bacgraphy, The combined Army having vowed their allegiance utterance to the strong feelings of malignity which Marcus

to the new Antoninus, solicited, as their reward, a full inflamed his heart against the memory of Macrinus, Aurelius From

Antoninus permission to plunder Antioch, the Capital of the Syrian whom he loaded with every species of abuse and in

HeliogabaProvinces. Unwilling that the beginning of his reign vective. He put to death, at the same time, every lus. 218.

should be disgraced by an act of violence and perfidy person of rank or influence in Syria who was supposed
against a city which had not given him any real cause to have been attached to that unfortunate ruler; and From
of offence, he purchased its redemption from the hands he even sent private orders to Rome to despatch several
of his own followers, at the price of two thousand ses- individuals whose names alone were known to him, 218.
terces to every individual soldier.*

merely because they had been faithful in the discharge
It has been justly observed, that History affords no of their duties towards their late master. Meanwhile 222
example which can show more impressively the nume- his letters to the Counsellors of the Nation were filled
rous evils inseparable from a Military domination than with professions of affection and respect, and of his
the election of Heliogabalus to the Throne of the unalterable love for the virtuous part of Mankind. He
Cæsars. A child not more than fourteen years of age, declared that the examples of Augustus and of Marcus
a Syrian by birth, and whose strongest recommenda- Aurelius should ever be the model of his Government
tion was his supposed relationship to one of the worst at home and abroad. He took pleasure in drawing the
Sorereigns that ever existed, was, by the unbounded attention of the Patricians to the resemblance between
licentiousness of the Soldiers, placed at the head of the his own age and fortunes, and those of the first Roman
Roman Empire, and thereby had committed to his Emperor, who in early youth revenged, by a successful
charge the most important section of the habitable war, the murder of his father. The name and style
globe. The results which followed dernonstrated the indeed which he adopted, indicating that he was the
imprudence of the choice. The young Emperor soon son of Antoninus Caracalla and grandson of Severus,
showed himself such a monster of wickedness, that asserted his hereditary right to the Empire: but he
even at the present day his name conveys to the mind gave still greater offence to the Senate by assuming,
of the reader those gross conceptions of voluptuousness, without their concurrence, the Proconsular and Tribu-
extravagance, and cruelty, which we find it difficult to nitian powers; a stretch of prerogative which the
express in words, and which the modern Historian boldest of his predecessors had not dared to exercise,
would rather allude .o than describe, even in the most and proving either his ignorance of the Constitution
guar led language.

which he had bound himself to protect, or his conbizations

The passions assumed at an early period the com- tempt for the illustrious persons by whom it was usually di ba fierce plete mastery of this Prince's mind. In the first Letter administered.

which he wrote to the Senate from Antioch, he gave tenpes.

The first months of his reign were disturbed by
Dion Cassius, Epitom. Xiphilin. lib. lxxix. Herodian. lib. v. Capitolin. in Macrin. c. 13. Lamprid. in Diadumen. c. 5-8

VOL. XI.

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Biography. rumours of intrigue and conspiracy. The example precluded. He gave orders that a Picture of himself at Marcus

afforded by his own elevation gave ground for hope to full length should be executed, in the sacerdotal robe Aurelius From

many individuals who would not otherwise have and ornaments, and associated with a representation of Antoninus aspired to supreme power. It could be no longer con- the God to whom his services were consecrated.

Heliogaba

He 218.

cealed, that the gift of the Crown was in the hand of was accordingly drawn in robes of silk and gold, after
the Soldiers; and, also, that no one had reason to the loose, flowing fashion of the Medes and Phæni.

From 222.

despair of obtaining that splendid but fatal prize, who cians : his head was covered with a lofty tiara, and his Conspiracies against had sufficient resolution to ask, and presumption enough numerous collars and bracelets were adorned with gems 213. the new

to promise. Dion Cassius mentions no fewer than five of an inestimable value. His eyebrows were tinged Emperor, attempts of this nature, made by men of no importance with black, and his cheeks painted with an artificial 222. and his

in the State or influence in the Army. Suspicions, at the red and white. This Picture he sent to Rome, with cruelty in suppressing

same time, were not unnaturally directed towards others orders to hang it up in the most conspicuous part of the them.

who might have disputed the government of a boy, had Senate-house, over the Statue of Victory, that the
their inclinations led theni to covet the Imperial purple; Senators might present to it, as they entered, libations
and several individuals of Senatorial rank accordingly of wine, and offerings of frankincense.*
fell under the sword of the executioner, merely because The Solar orb was worshipped at Emesa under the Introduces
their power was supposed to render them dangerous. form of a black conical stone, or aërolite, which it was the worship
Silvius Messala and Pomponius Bassus were condemned maintained had fallen from Heaven on the spot where of the Sun, als
to die, on the sole ground that their general principles the Temple stood. As the son of Soæmis ascribed to ciates in
were likely to create in their minds disaffection to the this Deity his elevation to the Throne of the Cæsars, person.
young Emperor, or a desire, perhaps, to restrain the he lavished upon the expressions of his superstitious
excesses of his tyranny.*

gratitude the wealth and time which ought to have Murder of But the determination of the Prince to admit no rival been devoted to the prosperity of his People. He deGannys. and to endure no control, was soon rendered manifest termined to establish the worship of his favourite idol

by a very atrocious murder. Gannys, who was the upon the ruins of every other Religion ; and for this
instructor of his infancy, and the most active instru- purpose he removed to the Temple which he built for
ment of his elevation to the Throne, excited, by his him on Mount Palatine, all the sacred relics and
zeal for the public welfare, the wrath of his peevish emblems of divine things which were employed by the
and ungrateful pupil. Assiduous himself as a Minister, Romans in the service of their principal Divinities. The
and vigilant as a military Chief, he exhorted Helioga- famous Stone of Pessinus or Statue of Cybele, the
balus to attend to the business of the State, and to Palladium, the Fire of Vesta, and the Shield of Numa,
regulate his conduct by the rules of justice and modera- were all deposited in the fane of Heliogabalus. To
tion. The worthless youth, insensible to every generous these he meant to add the Religious ceremonies of the
emotion, plunged his dagger into the heart of his best Jews, and even the rites of Christianity, in order that
friend, and commanded some soldiers who stood by to the magnificent superstition of Syria, now transported
complete the assassination which himself had begun. to the Capital of the greatest Nation upon earth, might
Even his mother and grandmother narrowly escaped the comprehend and supersede all other forms of adoration.
effects of his resentment, when they ventured to remon- In a solemn procession through the streets of Rome,
strate with him on his absurd and pernicious conduct the path was strewed with dust of gold; the Black
He devoted himself entirely to a miscreant, whose Stone, set round with precious gems, was placed on a
name was Eutychianus, originally a buffoon in the car drawn by six milk-white horses, richly caparisoned.
Circus, and who to the frivolity which belonged to his The Emperor himself held the reins until he reached
profession, added a thorough acquaintance with every the Palatine Mount, where sacrifices to the new God
form of vice. This wretch, to the great scandal of were celebrated with the utmost solemnity and bound-
virtue and propriety, was raised to the high rank of less expense. The most costly wines, the most precious
Prætorian Præfect, assumed by the Emperor as his incense, and victims of extraordinary value, were con-
colleague in the Consulship, and three times appointed sumed on the altar; while a Chorus of Syrian damsels
Governor of Rome.t

performed their lascivious dances to the sound of their Effeminacy The young Priest of the Sun, ignorant or regardless native music, and the noblest persons in the State, of the of the manners of the Country which he had under- clothed in long Eastern robes, officiated in the meanest Prince.

taken to govern, continued to wear the splendid but duties with outward gravity and inward resentment.
fantastic dress which distinguished him as a Syrian The Emperor himself, in his Priestly robes, danced in
Pontiff. Julia Mæsa, whose quick sense of decorum the presence of his tutelar Divinity, moving, whenever
suggested the fatal consequences that would arise from he retired, with backward steps, that he might not fail
insulting the eyes of the Romans with such vestments, in respect to the Lord of Heaven, nor forfeit the benefit
alike unbecoming the dignity of a man and the gravity of the Celestial countenance.t
of an Emperor, entreated him to lay them aside before But the absurdity of the scene was not completed Celebrates
he should enter the Capital of the Western world. He until a consort was chosen for this powerful God, and the marri
admitted the justness of the remarks which were thus the union celebrated with suitable demonstrations of age of the

Sun and addressed to him, but instead of complying with the joy. The Prince first thought of selecting Pallas, the Moon, advice which was founded upon them, he proposed an patroness of wisdom and of war, as a proper wife for expedient whereby all the disadvantages which his his Divinity; but upon reflection, he rejected this idea, grandmother anticipated would, he thought, be entirely on the ground that a female so stern and active would

* Dion Cassius, apud Vales. p. 761. Lamprid. in Heliogab.c. 3,4 Herodian. lib. v. p. 560—568.

† rierodian. lib. v. p. 567. Dion Cassius, p. 368, 369.

* Dion Cassius, Epitom. Xiphilin. lib. lxxix, Herodian. lib. v.p.578. + Dion Cassius, lib. lxxix. Herodian. lib. v. Lamprid. in Heliogab. c. 3.

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Biography, pot prove agreeable to the soft manners of his volup- Syrian voluptuary. To soothe the public indignation, Marcus

tuous master. He therefore fixed upon the Moon, therefore, Julia Mæsa, whose powerful mind still re- Aurelius From adored by the Phænicians under the name of Astarte, tained a considerable influence over the passions of her

Antoninus

Heliogabaand adopted by the People of Carthage as the Goddess dissolute grandson, suggested to him the expediency of

lus. 218.

of their ancestors. Her Statue was accordingly brought adopting his cousin Alexianus, and of investing him
from the latter city to Rome, and with it, as a becoming with the rank of Cæsar. She reminded him, that as From
marriage portion, all the wealth which had been col- the Priest of the Sun, he had many serious duties to
lected in her Temple. The Emperor forthwith celebrated perform, which would necessarily withdraw his atten- 218.
the nuptials of the two Astronomical Deities with the tion from secular affairs. She exhorted him, therefore,
greatest possible magnificence; having issued orders to assume a colleague, upon whom he might devolve 222.
to all the nations and cities which owned the sove- the weight of all worldly concerns ; securing thereby
reignty of the Cæsars, to send to the Capitol, on the to himself at once an exemption from the troubles and
day of the mystical wedding, offerings and gifts corre- cares of State, and all the splendour and enjoyment of
sponding to the dignity of the Celestial couple.

Imperial power. His shame- The luxury and extravagance of Heliogabalus have The Emperor, whose habits of thinking never led And raises ful extrava. been a theme for declamation from the days of Lam- him to anticipate remote consequences

, acceded without him to the grace and pridius down to the present times. The expense of his reserve to the proposal of his grandmother. Full of a Cæsar. lurury:

'table, and the caprice which he manifested in the choice scheme which promised to gratify his favourite inclinaof his food, have exposed his memory to just contempt. tions, he repaired to the Senate, accompanied by Mæsa A wasteful profusion supplied the place of taste and and Soæmis, and declared that he had adopted Alexelegance. The invention of a sauce, or the composition ianus, and bestowed upon him the dignity of Cæsar. of a new dish, conferred upon the fortunate artist a The apparent absurdity of a youth, who had scarcely degree of fame which was denied to the highest attained to seventeen years of age, adopting for his son eminence in the Sciences, and to the most brilliant a Prince not more than four years younger, gave way triumphs of Literature. It is said, that he never ate to considerations of greater importance; and the Senafish but at a great distance from the sea ; and then he tors were not disposed to interrupt Heliogabalus when took pleasure in distributing to the peasants of the in- they heard him congratulating the Empire upon the land country vast quantities of the rarest sorts; con- measure which he had just published in their hearing. veyed to him at an immense expense. We are assured, He pronounced himself happy in having been able to that not satisfied with having on his own table the most find such a son ; adding, that he had no desire to see costly viands that imagination could suggest, he fed his his family increased by the issue of his own body, bedogs on the livers of geese, and his lions with peacocks cause, from his experience of domestic life, he could and pheasants. Nor was his dress less extravagant only anticipate therefrom much dissension and rivalry. than his board. He wore garments formed of cloth of He assured his auditors, that the God in whose service gold, enriched with precious stones, so heavy that he he spent his days had inspired him with the patriotic himself could not refrain from remarking, that he almost resolution upon which he now acted; and that it was sank under the weight of his magnificence. Even the pleasure of the same Divinity that the young Cæsar his shoes were adorned with jewels of the most exqui- should thenceforth be called Alexander, in compliment site workmanship. The pavement of the porticues to the admiration of Caracalla for the Macedonian through which he passed, when about to mount his Conqueror. By the act of adoption, accordingly, he horse or step into his carriage, was strewed with the communicated to the son of Mamæa not only the name dust of gold or silver. His attendants imitated his just mentioned, but also that of Marcus Aurelius and luxury and applauded his spirit; and while he squan- Severus.* dered away the treasures of his People, they extolled The opening virtues of Alexander, fostered and pro- Repents, him as more beneficent than Augustus, and more tected by the excellent discipline of his mother, soon and wishes patriotic than Trajan.*

made a deep impression on the love and respect of all to degrade

him: Ha rices

His vices, we are inclined to believe, for the honour orders of the People. Heliogabalus, who soon repented porbably

of human nature, have been somewhat exaggerated. of the step which he had been induced to take, first nied Even Lampridius, who detested his character, seems tried to pervert his cousin, and failing in this, he next ready to admit

, that more has been said against him attempted to put an end to his life. He drove away than ought to be implicitly adopted; although that from the Palace all the masters who had been appointed Historian himself has, with a disgusting minuteness, to superintend his education; banishing some of them, related every anecdote of indecency and madness and putting others to death. But the just indignation which had reached his ears. Yet even if we confine of the Public would not allow him to proceed farther; our estimate of Heliogabalus to the public scenes for when he sent orders to the Senate and to the Præwhich were displayed before the Roman People, and torian Guards to divest Alexander of the title and digwhich have been attested by Writers who had the nity which he had lately conferred upon him, the former best opportunity of ascertaining their truth, we must Body hesitated, and the latter rose in open rebellion. pronounce, that their infamy surpasses that of any other Apprehensive for the safety of the Cæsar, a party of Age or country.

the soldiers seized their arms, and rushed towards the The patience of the Army, as well as that of the Imperial gardens, where it was understood that HelioAruander Citizens, was at length exhausted. However small gabalus was pursuing his pastimes, and waiting for the might be their reverence for virtue in the concerns of result of his machinations against his successor.

The private life, the Soldiers were ashamed to see the Throne interposition of Antiochianus, one of the Prætorian of Marcus Aurelius polluted by the studied vice of a

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* Lamprid. in Heliogab. c. 13. Herodian. lib. v. Dion Cassius, Lamprid. in Heliogab. c. 19-24.

lib. lxxix.

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Biography. Præfects, saved on this occasion the life of the Em- by his actual presence in their Camp. The Emperor Marcus

peror. The enraged veterans retired to their camp, was again forced to yield, Mounting a splendid car, Aurelius From but not before they had received a promise that he adorned with jewels and precious stones

, he presented Antoninus would follow them thither, and give satisfaction to the himself before his mutinous Guards, accompanied by

lus. 218.

Army, as to his designs, and particularly with respect his popular cousin ; but finding that while he himself

to the individuals who shared his counsels, and encou- was received with the utmost coldness and even con- From 222. raged his folly.*

tempt, the sight of his colleague drew forth acclamaThe son of Caracalla appeared among the Prætorians tions which rent the air, he lost command of his temper 218. vented by

like a criminal before his judges. He acceded to all so far as to order the punishment of the more zealous the Prætorians.

222. their demands; and when they insisted that he should among the disaffected Prætorians. This injunction was remove from about his person the companions of his the signal for a general revolt. Heliogabalus fled, and debauchery, the buffoons and charioteers, who disgraced even attempted to conceal himself; but he was soon the Palace and heaped ignominy upon its master, he discovered, put to death by the indignant Soldiers, promised to comply; entreating, however, that they dragged through the streets of the City, and finally would exempt from this proscription his favourite thrown into the mud of the Tiber. His mother, as well Minister Hierocles. The Soldiers, softened by the tears as the ministers of his tyranny and vice, shared the of their Prince, ceased to demand the death of that

same fate.

Hierocles atoned for his numerous crimes
infamous minion; but they made known, at the same by a violent death; and Eubulus, a native of Emesa,
time, their firm determination to check or to punish all and Superintendant of the Finances, was literally torn
abuses in the Government, by recommending to their in pieces by the Citizens and the Soldiers, who had
Præfects, in his own presence, not to permit him any suffered severely from his manifold exactions. The
longer to pursue the licentious life which he had Senate decreed that the name of this Emperor should
hitherto led; to watch over the safety of the young be erased from their annals, and condemned to eternal
Cæsar, whose preservation was dear to them ; and, infamy; a sentence which has been so faithfully exe-
above all, not to wllow the latter to be contaminated by cuted, that no Historian speaks of him by the appella-
the wicked society which crowded the rooms of the tion which he himself assumed, but always by some
Imperial dwelling.t

insulting allusion to the worst parts of his character, or
It was not to be expected that a reconciliation be- to his tragical end.*
tween two Princes, founded on such a basis as that now The absurd affectation of Heliogabalus to succeed
described, could be either sincere or lasting. Accord- immediately to his supposed father, the son of Severus,
ingly, as soon as the terror of the Guards passed away has led to a considerable difficulty in the chronology of
from before his eyes, Heliogabalus began once more to his reign. It is certain that he occupied the Throne not
plot against the life of Alexander. To clear the scene longer than three years, nine months, and four days,
for the miserable tragedy which he contemplated, he and yet medals are found which bear date the fifth year
gave orders that all the Senators should depart from of his Tribunitial power ; an apparent inconsistency
Rome. In the next place, to try the temper of the which can only be removed upon the ground already

Soldiers, he caused a report to be circulated that the stated, the desire to obliterate the name and GovernInsurrection son of Mamæa was at the point of death. No sooner ment of Macrinus. The same notion of hereditary of the Præ, did this intelligence reach the Camp, than the Præ- right to the Empire, in virtue of his reputed paternity, torians, and torians, inflamed by the suspicion that the young Prince induced him to claim as his own the Consulate of his Emperor.

must have been murdered, became quite outrageous, predecessor, and consequently to reckon the first which
and declared that they would not perform any act of he actually enjoyed as a repetition of that high honour.
duty until they were assured of the safety of Alexander

MARCUS AURELIUS ALEXANDER SEVERUS. .

FROM A. D. 222 to 235.

Biography.

From A. D. 222.

to 235.

The accession of Alexander restored for a time the youth, he consented to the appointment of a Regency, Marcus credit of the Roman name, and the confidence of all consisting of sixteen of the gravest and most illustrious Aurelius classes of the People. Guided by the wise counsel of of the Senators, without whose advice no measure of

Severus. his mother, he waited until the Senate conferred upon any importance was adopted. It has been remarked, him the titles of Sovereignty before he presumed to too, of this virtuous Prince, that he resolutely refused From exercise any of its powers; and being still in very early to assume the name of Antoninus ; alleging, that as he

could not hope to equal the renown of so great an Em- 222. * Lamprid. in Heliogab. c. 14.

235. + Ibid. c, 16, 17. Herodian. lib. v. Dion Cassius, lib. Ixxx.

* Lamprid. in Heliogab. c. 14—16.

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Wise con

bis temper.

Biography. peror, he wished to avoid the disadvantage of a direct cruel or unjust is only to be negatively good, and in all

Marcus comparison. But the true reason, it is probable, was ordinary cases, rather exempts a Sovereign from blame

Aurelius From

Alexander founded on a determination to disclaim the ambiguous than entitles him to praise. Lampridius, accordingly, Severus.

honour of being the son of Caracalla; a distinction proceeding on this view, collects in his biography of 222.

which Julia Mæsa thought proper to insinuate in his Alexander a thousand minute circumstances which illus- From to

behalf, influenced rather by her own ambitious views, trate his diligence in business, his love of equity, his 235

than by a regard to her daughter's matrimonial reputa- merciful disposition, his self-denial, and the habitual 222. tion.*

command which he exercised over all the strong Purifies the The first cares of the new Government were directed passions. He paints him as a mild, amiable, and com

235. Religious to the purification of such Temples as had been pol- passionate Prince, accessible to good counsel, and rites of the luted by the Foreign worship, introduced into Rome by always more inclined to confer benefits upon others Country.

the Imperial Priest of Emesa. Attention was next than to secure to himself the enjoyment of pleasure, or
bestowed upon the character and qualifications of those an exemption from toil. His doors were ever open to
who had been raised to public employments during the every one who wished to approach him. No guard
late reign; many of whom were found unworthy to re- surrounded his person, or obstructed the entrance to his
tain their offices, and were accordingly compelled to Palace. He discouraged all adulation, and the use of
give way to men of ability and good principles. Elo- pompous titles, on the part of those who had occasion
quence, skill in the Law, and the love of justice, became to address him; forbidding expressly every free-born
the only recommendations to Civil preferment; while Roman to continue the practice, introduced by former
valour, experience, and regard to discipline, opened the Emperors, of falling upon the earth when introduced
path to promotion in the Army.

into his presence. The death of Mæsa, which took place soon after her Mildness and gentleness were, indeed, so strongly Mildness of doct of

grandson mounted the Throne, left to Mamæa an undi- imprinted in the heart of Alexander, that his Biographer Vanza, and care of

vided influence in public affairs. With the celebrated has bestowed upon him the enviable character of never ber soa's

Ulpian at the head of her Council of State, she con- suffering a single day to pass in which he did not pereducation, ducted the Administration with not less integrity than form some act of kindness or humanity. He is said to

judgment, and gave much satisfaction not only to the have expressed great veneration for the Christian pre-
Citizens, who were delighted with the peace and secu- cept, of doing unto others as we should wish that they
rity to which they had been a long time strangers, but would do unto us; to have caused it to be engraved in
even to the Soldiers, whose best feelings were gratified large letters in several parts of his Palace, and even to
with the prosperity of their Country. But her greatest have placed it as an inscription on several other public
anxiety was devoted to the right education of her son, buildings: and when any criminal was about to be
upon whose temper and dispositions, she well knew, the executed for violating those laws in particular which
ultimate success of all her labours must have its chief protect the peace of Society, he gave orders to the
dependence. She regarded it as her first duty to watch Public Crier to proclaim aloud the same sentence, as a
over the morals of the young Prince, that his innocence reason for the punishment which justice demanded. It
might not be corrupted. The fatal example presented is added, that he made the rule now mentioned the
in the history of her nephew's miserable reign, made a guide of his personal conduct; being always ready not
deep impression upon her mind; for which reason, she only to forgive an offence directed against himself

, but
suffered no one to approach her son whose character even to conquer malice by deeds of generosity.*
was in the slightest degree suspected. An exalted un- There are proofs of great wisdom as well as of bene- And true
derstanding soon convinced Alexander of the advan- volence in the arrangements which Alexander made for patriotism.
tages of virtue, the pleasures of knowledge, and the the behoof of the poor and the unfortunate. He ad-
necessity of labour ; while a natural mildness and mo- yanced money at a moderate interest, which he exacted
deration of temper, preserved him from the assaults of or not, according to circumstances, from the fruits of
passion and the allurements of vice. Thus Mamæa the labour which he had set in motion. He gave grants
found, what is not always to be expected in the character of land, and even of slaves and cattle to cultivate it;
of a young Prince, a ready and active cooperation with reserving to the national Exchequer a claim upon part
all her endeavours to promote in his mind the love of of the produce, which, however, was used rather as a
learning, and the power of self-command.+

pretext for stimulating the industry of the individuals Character

The character of Alexander presented so many points whom he had relieved, than for securing a stated reAleman- worthy of praise, that the Writer of his life in the muneration. But his patriotism and good sense shone Herodian

Augustan History exhausts all his powers of description with the greatest lustre in the distribution of public and Larse in the attempt to do it justice. Herodian contents employments. He never looked upon the disposal of

himself with saying, that this Emperor never shed the an office in the Army or in the Civil departments of the
blood of an innocent person, and never allowed even a Government as a favour which he could bestow, but as
criminal to be put to death until after a regular trial and a solemn duty with the obligations of which he could
formal sentence. After the horrible tyranny to which not dispense. To obtain a trust under his Administra-
the Romans had been subjected, during which the life tion, therefore, it was first necessary to merit the esteem
of the most illustrious men in the State was at the of the Country.t
mercy of a malignant informer or a suspicious despot, Lampridius mentions a circumstance which cannot Honours
the prudent clemency of the second Severus must, no be read without interest. The Emperor, he informs bestowed

on virtuc doubt, have appeared deserving of the eulogy which us, was so great a lover of Virtue, that he not only

and talent. the Historian has pronounced upon it. But not to be Herodian. lib.

* Lamprid. in Alex. Sever. c. 4–15. Lamprid. in Alex. Sever, c. 1. † Lamprid. in Alex. Sever. c. 3. Dion Cassius, lib. Ixxx.

+ Herodian. lib. vi. Lamprid. in Alex. Sever. c. 17–21. Dion Cassius, lib. Ixxx.

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