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tween two Grobic
History and incapable of self-defence; and, in such circumstances, channel by an immense colony of the inhabitants, rather Romana the safety of the Romans depended much more upon than by a select body of warriors. A hundred and
Empire. From the divisions of their domestic foes than upon their own thirty thousand males and upwards of seventy thousand
From vigour or patriotism. The Goths, who were strangers to females are said to have passed over on that occasion, 363. concord in their own Country, did not learn to cultivate and hence the origin of Brittany, a Province which
363. it during the first years of their residence in the Empire. owed its name and population to the revolt of Maximus.*
On the contrary, they were divided into two factions ; The rapidity of this movement completely disconcerted 395. one of which, under Fravitta, professed to love Peace, the Emperor, who was pursuing at Paris the pastimes
395. and to have a common interest with the Romans ; to which he had too long sacrificed the highest interests Gratianus while the others, led by Eriulphus, studied only the of his Government. When roused from his fatal security expelled, independence of their Tribe, and the most favour- by the intelligence that a hostile force had established able opportunities for securing the sovereignty of a footing in Gaul, he made an effort to assemble the
the land which they had been permitted to occupy. Legions, and to inspire them with a resolution which he Dispate be
A brawl between these Chiefs, which took place at himself did not feel. But the troops, alienated by
tives by which they were severally actuated. Fravitta, Guards, whom he had introduced into the palace, joined Caes.
incensed and alarmed at the violence of his rival, with loud acclamations the standard of Maximus, and
fled towards Lyons, attended only by about three hunThe prudence of Theodosius pointed out to him the dred horsemen; and he was doubly mortified to find, path which might most beneficially be pursued in such as he hastened his retreat, that the disaffection which delicate circumstances, and enabled him to preserve had seized the military, was equally prevalent among that just balance between the hostile parties, which pre- the peasants and the inhabitants of the towns. Every vented both from acquiring a dangerous ascendancy. gate was shut against, and every voice was lifted up to By these means, as well as by an unremitted attention accuse or to insult him. Had he, however, continued his to the fortifications of his principal towns, and to the flight until he reached the confines of Italy, where the efficiency of the frontier garrisons, he succeeded in power of his brother Valentinianus remained unshaken, maintaining Peace at home, and in deterring the hordes he might have retrieved at once his fortune and his of Scythia from accomplishing any new invasion. We character; for it is not denied by the worst enemies of return, therefore, to the affairs of the West, where the Western Emperor that he possessed an ample share Gratianus, during the latter years of his reign, forfeited, of individual courage, as well as considerable talent and by his caprice and trivial pursuits, the reputation which experience in war. But he trusted to the ignorance or he had gained in carly youth.
perfidious professions of the Governor of Lyons, who The dissatisfaction which was very generally felt in induced him to halt, and make a stand for his life and Revolt of Gaul broke out in Britain, where Magnus Clemens
Whether he fell the victim of treason or of
Maximus, whose rank in the Province has not been inconsiderate zeal must for ever continue doubtful; but
ascertained, was induced to countenance an insurrection, it is certain, that he had not long intermitted his retreat 383. and finally to aspire to the throne. This Commander, when he was overtaken by Andragathius, the Cavalry And
who was a native of Spain, had formerly served under General of Maximus, and almost instantly put to death. assassinated, the same standard with Theodosius ; and it is imagined, Several of his Officers and attendants shared the same August, that certain feelings of envy or of disapprobation, which fate ; but the only circumstance of any importance conrespected his ancient fellow-soldier, had no small influ- nected with this shameful catastrophe, is the refusal of
383. ence in determining his conduct when about to declare the rebels to deliver the body of his brother to Valenhimself a rebel against the Emperor of the West. It tinianus, who, after a lapse of three years, employed St. appears not, however, that his views were originally Ambrose to make the request.f. directed towards the Purple. On the contrary, if we
Maximus was no sooner on the throne of Gaul than Maximus may believe Orosius and Sulpicius Severus, he was he sent an ambassador to Theodosius to acquaint him sends an compelled by the soldiers to assume sovereign power, with his elevation, and to offer him the alternative of embassy to
Theodosius. in opposition not only to a sentiment of duty but to his friendship or of war. He desired his representative to personal inclination.
assure the Emperor of the East that the murder of Having displayed the flag of rebellion, he resolved Gratianus was perpetrated by the soldiers without his forthwith to carry the war into Gaul, and to anticipate knowledge; that he had not thirsted for the distinction any offensive movement on the part of Gratianus. So which had been conferred upon him by the Legions of popular was his cause among the British Provincials of Britain ; but that, as fortune had placed him at the head all ages and both sexes, that he was followed across the of the most warlike Provinces of the Empire, he was
determined to maintain his rank by force of arms, should
his title be disputed by either of his colleagues. * Zos. lib. iv. c. 56. Themist. Orat. xvi. Eunap. in Ercerpt. Theodosius, however much disposed to avenge the Leg. p. 21. Claud. de Bello Get. 166. Jornand. 20. 29. It ought death of his patron, and the breach of fidelity which to be observed, that this event is by Zosimus placed in the year 392, had led to it, found it convenient to temporize. He instead of 386, and that he names the Gothic Princes Fraoustus and Prioulus. The Ostrogoths, who are called Gruthungi by others, are by him called Prothingi.
* Zos. lib. iv. c. 36. † Zos. lib. iv. c. 35. Pacat. Panegyr. lib. xii.c. 23. Sulp. Sever. Pacat. Panegyr. lib. xii.c. 28. Socrat. lib. v. c. ll. Sozom. lib. Dial, ii, c. 7. Oros. lib. vii. c. 34.
vii, c. 13. Zos. lib. iv. c. 35.
to A. D.
Roman History. could not shut his eyes to the precarious condition of In the presence of his illustrious guests the great ques.
Empire. his own dominions, surrounded by enemies to whom the tion of Peace or of War was freely agitated, and it is From fatigues of war were the most agreeable relaxation, and not concealed by the friends of Theodosius that, though
From possessed by allies, whose faith could not be expected he was alive to every sentiment of gratitude, of patriot363, to resist an opportunity of procuring plunder, or of ism, and of generosity, he hesitated some time whether
363. extending the limits of their territory. He resolved, he should draw the sword or listen to terins of ac
therefore, to prefer the alliance of Maximus to the commodation with the tyrant of Gaul. It is insinuated 395.
chances of a bloody and protracted quarrel with him, by Zosimus that the mind of the Emperor, which could 395
for the campaign against Maximus. Expecting, from Maximus
Four years passed away without any actual rupture the experience of the latter in the management of an invades Italy.
between the Emperors of the East and of the West. army, and more especially from the great interest which
This interval, however, had not elapsed in total inactivity he had at stake, a formidable resistance, he brought 387.
on either side ; for each, knowing the power and ambi- into the field a large body of his finest troops, while he
defeated, resses were delivered into the hands of the auxiliaries; by the approach of night; but, on the renewal of the
and after the passes were secured for the march of a larger force fight in the morning, the tide of success ran so de- wards put which followed in their footsteps; and the Emperor cidedly in favour of the Eastern army, that the best of to death. himself, with the flower of his army, pushed on with so the Gallic and German troops threw down their arms much speed that he was within sight of Milan before and acknowledged the conqueror. Theodosius, eager
any intelligence could be given of his approach.t to terminate the war by the death of his antagonist, Justina and The Empress Justina and her son had no resource pursued him with so much speed that, on the second ner son fly but in flight. They directed their course to the strong day, he reached Aquileia, almost at the very moment to Thessa- city of Aquileia, which they reached in safety; but when the other entered its gates. A vigorous siege
womanly apprehensions soon urged a further retreat, soon made him master of the fortifications; and the
sentence which Theodosius was expected to pronounce.
After this momentary hesitation, however, he resigned Theodosius
No sooner did Theodosius learn that the brother of him to his fate; when he and his son Victor, whom he resolves on Gratianus had taken refuge in his territory than he re
had raised to the dignity of Augustus, were put to
year 387 at Milan, with the view of reforming the * It deserves notice that Orosius and some other writers do not abuses of Government, of giving vigour to the adminisreceive Maximus into the number of Emperors, but represent Theodo- tration of law, and, above all, of reviving the sources of sius as reigning alone after the death of Gratianus. Anno ab urbe condita 1138, Theodosius quadragesimus primus, interfecto per Max: mum Gratiano, Imperium Romani orbis solus obtinuit, mansitque in eo
* Zos. lib. iv. c. 46. Oros. lib. vii. c. 35. Pacat. Panegyr. lib. xii.
c. 30–47. annis undecim, cum jam in Orientis partibus sex annos, Graliano † Zos. lib. iv. c. 47. states that Victor was slain in the Alps by Arbovivente, regnasset. Lib. vii. c. 35.
gastes ; and that Andragathius threw himself into the sea.
Socrales, † Sulp. Sever. Dial. iii. Pacat. lib. xii. c. 25, 26.
lib. v. c. 14.
History. prosperity in all the branches of national industry and removed his Court, reproached him with his treason- Roman
public wealth. After making a few examples of just able intentions, and finished by depriving him of all his Empire. From severity, in the case of the most atrocious criminals, he offices. The Barbarian smiled at the impotent resent
From A. D. directed his whole attention to console and relieve the ment of his Sovereign; and, in a few days, the latter 363. afflictions of the Province. He not only restored their was found strangled in his apartment. As there was
363. lands to the husbandmen who had been deprived by no one to bear witness to the manner of his death, the usurper, but also made ample compensation for the the emissaries of the traitor laboured to impress losses which they had sustained in the course of the upon the public mind that it was voluntary; an argu- 395.
His generosity was further manifested in con- ment which the Master-General of the Gallic armies Corrects
ferring a yearly allowance upon the mother of Maximus, afterwards employed, through the medium of the Imabuses in and a good education upon his daughter ; both of perial ambassador, when he communicated to Theothe Govern- whom were rendered destitute by the fatal issue of the dosius the demise of Valentinianus.* ment, and battle of Siscia, and who, under the reign of a less hu- Arbogastes chose to govern the Empire under the Eugenius Compen mane Prince, would have been left to their miserable
name of a dependent whom he had resolved to elevate raised to the saits the frases of the fate. Theodosius, in short, has deserved the singular to the throne. Eugenius, originally a Professor of Empire of Previacials. commendation, that his virtues always scemed to ex- Rhetoric, was first employed by the Governor of Gaul the West.
pand with his fortune ; the season of his prosperity was as his private secretary, and subsequently appointed
patron, he is said to have acceded with reluctance;
monarch to return to Milan ; when, besides restoring obedience the monarchy of the West. After due pre- Theodosius Valentini. to him the dominions which had been wrested from paration, therefore, he took the field ; having under his prepares for
his authority by Maximus, he subjected to his rule all command the troops of all the allied or tributary na-
tions which had flocked to his standard from the East 391.
But the brother of Gratianus appears not to have and the North. Scythians and Arabians, Goths, Huns, possessed sufficient activity and resolution to govern a and Alani inarched under the banners of their native people, who wanted principle to be loyal, and courage leaders, among whom was the renowned Alaric, whose to oppose rebellion. His mild, virtuous, and pliant name is so closely associated with the downfall of Rocharacter, which would have adorned the intercourse of man independence.t
private life, served only to excite the contempt of rude Theodosius met with no resistance till he had deRevolt of
warriors, and to afford a pretext for their treachery. scended from the Julian Alps into the plain which Arbogastes,
Arbogastes, who had performed essential services in extends from their Southern limits. His opponent, the and death of the late war, was appointed Master-General of the wily Arbogastes, knew that the heavy troops of Gaul Kalentini. armies of Gaul; and it should seem that he availed and Germany would prove more efficient on level ground
himself of the iufluence afforded by his rank to weaken than among the narrow passes of the mountains; and
the interests of his Prince among all classes of his sub- moreover that, if he should gain a victory, the retreat of 392.
jects, and to pave the way for his own accession to his enemies would there be more easily prevented, or at
sius. which he was surrounded, he could not expect the tinued faithful to his interests. But the Legions of arrival of military aid in time to thwart the designs of Gaul, at the very moment when the fortune of the
394. his rebellious General. He therefore summoned Ar- Empire and the fate of Theodosius, were placed in bogastes into his presence at Treves, whither he had
• Zos: lib. iv. c. 47. says that he had the benefit of his mother's
advice; but she appears to have died immediately after his restoration. • Pacat. in Panegyr, Vit. lib. xii. c. 20. Ambros. vol. ii. Epist, xl. Oros. lib. vii.c.35. Soc. lib. v. c. 25. Zos. lib. iv. c. 53. † Zos, jid, iv, c. 47,
+ Zos. lib. iv. c. 54-58. Claud. III. Cons. Honor. 396.
History. their hands, remembered the oaths which they had us that he embraced this opportunity to dissuade his Roman taken to support the house of Valentinianus, and offered Pagan subjects from persevering any longer in their Empire
their services to the Prince whom they had been em- superstitious rites, urging upon them a cordial reception
From 363. the Eastern Emperor renewed, or rather, perhaps, sus- which it enjoined; but he adds, with visible satisfaction,
363. tained the attack, on the following morning, when he that no one paid any respect to the harangue of their
gained a decided advantage over the diminished ranks Imperial master. * He did not live to witness the suc. 395. of his antagonist, and thereby quashed the insurrection. cess of his zeal; for, while preparing to return to Con
395. Eugenius fell into his hands, and was immediately be- stantinople, he was cut off by dropsy, in the fiftieth Dealk of Death headed by the indignant Guards. Arbogastes, who had year of his age. His body was embalmed, and sent to Theodosing , of Eugenius escaped from the scene of action, and wandered some the Capital of the East.t
January, and Arbo- time in the mountains, put a period to bis despair by Few of the Roman Emperors died more lamented gastes. the use of his own sword. *
than Theodosius the Great. His sincere attachment to 395.
Character Prodigies We have intentionally passed over all the supernatural Christianity, and the efforts which he made to further
of 'Theodoattending circumstances, as they were considered, which have its progress, contributed, it is true, very materially to the battle been preserved with so much care by the Ecclesiastical the advancement of his fame among a large and influ
writers of the IVth century, and which are faithfully ential class of his subjects ; but his character, on other
venality ; the Legions had contracted the habits of Accession The young Honorius had either accompanied his mercenaries and the feelings of slaves ; while the mass of Honorius. father in the campaign against Arbogastes, or he joined of the people, eager to purchase an exemption from the
the army immediately after the throne of the West was toils and peril of war, quietly permitted Barbarians to
it is obvious, that the example of a Monarch, whose
Ambros, vol, ii. Epist. xl. Pacat. Panegyr. Veter, lib. xii. c. 20,
History. residence varied with the exigencies of the State and sons, who were invited to the Theatre for the express pur- Roman
the change of the seasons, and who was half his life at pose of being put to military execution. It ought, how. Empire. From the head of an army in the field, could not be charge- ever, in justice to be remembered, that his resentment was
From able with the demoralization of all the nations from the inflamed by the misrepresentations of his Minister 363. Euphrates to the Atlantic. The greatest stain, perhaps, Rufinus; and also that, after the first burst of passion
363. which attaches to his character is the severity which he which accompanied the fatal order, he sent a messenger 395.
employed in punishing a popular insurrection at Thes- to countermand it, who, unfortunately, did not arrive salonica. In that city the death of a favourite General was until the repentance of his master could be of no avail.
395. revenged by the massacre of six or seven thousand per