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tween two Grobic

History and incapable of self-defence; and, in such circumstances, channel by an immense colony of the inhabitants, rather Romana the safety of the Romans depended much more upon than by a select body of warriors. A hundred and

Empire. From the divisions of their domestic foes than upon their own thirty thousand males and upwards of seventy thousand

From vigour or patriotism. The Goths, who were strangers to females are said to have passed over on that occasion, 363. concord in their own Country, did not learn to cultivate and hence the origin of Brittany, a Province which

363. it during the first years of their residence in the Empire. owed its name and population to the revolt of Maximus.*

On the contrary, they were divided into two factions ; The rapidity of this movement completely disconcerted 395. one of which, under Fravitta, professed to love Peace, the Emperor, who was pursuing at Paris the pastimes

395. and to have a common interest with the Romans ; to which he had too long sacrificed the highest interests Gratianus while the others, led by Eriulphus, studied only the of his Government. When roused from his fatal security expelled, independence of their Tribe, and the most favour- by the intelligence that a hostile force had established able opportunities for securing the sovereignty of a footing in Gaul, he made an effort to assemble the

the land which they had been permitted to occupy. Legions, and to inspire them with a resolution which he Dispate be

A brawl between these Chiefs, which took place at himself did not feel. But the troops, alienated by
the Imperial table, disclosed to Theodosius the mo- neglect, and disgusted by his preference of the Barbarian

tives by which they were severally actuated. Fravitta, Guards, whom he had introduced into the palace, joined Caes.

incensed and alarmed at the violence of his rival, with loud acclamations the standard of Maximus, and
followed him on his retreat from the palace, plunged a avowed their resolution to support the usurper. Even
sword into his breast, and thereby allayed for a time the cohorts which were stationed in the Capital, and
those warm contentions which threatened a Civil war, appointed to the duty of protecting his person, refused
in the first instance, and finally the dismemberment of to obey his orders. Deserted by the army, Gratianus Pursued,
the Eastern Provinces. *

fled towards Lyons, attended only by about three hunThe prudence of Theodosius pointed out to him the dred horsemen; and he was doubly mortified to find, path which might most beneficially be pursued in such as he hastened his retreat, that the disaffection which delicate circumstances, and enabled him to preserve had seized the military, was equally prevalent among that just balance between the hostile parties, which pre- the peasants and the inhabitants of the towns. Every vented both from acquiring a dangerous ascendancy. gate was shut against, and every voice was lifted up to By these means, as well as by an unremitted attention accuse or to insult him. Had he, however, continued his to the fortifications of his principal towns, and to the flight until he reached the confines of Italy, where the efficiency of the frontier garrisons, he succeeded in power of his brother Valentinianus remained unshaken, maintaining Peace at home, and in deterring the hordes he might have retrieved at once his fortune and his of Scythia from accomplishing any new invasion. We character; for it is not denied by the worst enemies of return, therefore, to the affairs of the West, where the Western Emperor that he possessed an ample share Gratianus, during the latter years of his reign, forfeited, of individual courage, as well as considerable talent and by his caprice and trivial pursuits, the reputation which experience in war. But he trusted to the ignorance or he had gained in carly youth.

perfidious professions of the Governor of Lyons, who The dissatisfaction which was very generally felt in induced him to halt, and make a stand for his life and Revolt of Gaul broke out in Britain, where Magnus Clemens

Whether he fell the victim of treason or of
Warimas in

Maximus, whose rank in the Province has not been inconsiderate zeal must for ever continue doubtful; but

ascertained, was induced to countenance an insurrection, it is certain, that he had not long intermitted his retreat 383. and finally to aspire to the throne. This Commander, when he was overtaken by Andragathius, the Cavalry And

who was a native of Spain, had formerly served under General of Maximus, and almost instantly put to death. assassinated, the same standard with Theodosius ; and it is imagined, Several of his Officers and attendants shared the same August, that certain feelings of envy or of disapprobation, which fate ; but the only circumstance of any importance conrespected his ancient fellow-soldier, had no small influ- nected with this shameful catastrophe, is the refusal of

383. ence in determining his conduct when about to declare the rebels to deliver the body of his brother to Valenhimself a rebel against the Emperor of the West. It tinianus, who, after a lapse of three years, employed St. appears not, however, that his views were originally Ambrose to make the request.f. directed towards the Purple. On the contrary, if we

Maximus was no sooner on the throne of Gaul than Maximus may believe Orosius and Sulpicius Severus, he was he sent an ambassador to Theodosius to acquaint him sends an compelled by the soldiers to assume sovereign power, with his elevation, and to offer him the alternative of embassy to

Theodosius. in opposition not only to a sentiment of duty but to his friendship or of war. He desired his representative to personal inclination.

assure the Emperor of the East that the murder of Having displayed the flag of rebellion, he resolved Gratianus was perpetrated by the soldiers without his forthwith to carry the war into Gaul, and to anticipate knowledge; that he had not thirsted for the distinction any offensive movement on the part of Gratianus. So which had been conferred upon him by the Legions of popular was his cause among the British Provincials of Britain ; but that, as fortune had placed him at the head all ages and both sexes, that he was followed across the of the most warlike Provinces of the Empire, he was

determined to maintain his rank by force of arms, should

his title be disputed by either of his colleagues. * Zos. lib. iv. c. 56. Themist. Orat. xvi. Eunap. in Ercerpt. Theodosius, however much disposed to avenge the Leg. p. 21. Claud. de Bello Get. 166. Jornand. 20. 29. It ought death of his patron, and the breach of fidelity which to be observed, that this event is by Zosimus placed in the year 392, had led to it, found it convenient to temporize. He instead of 386, and that he names the Gothic Princes Fraoustus and Prioulus. The Ostrogoths, who are called Gruthungi by others, are by him called Prothingi.

* Zos. lib. iv. c. 36. † Zos. lib. iv. c. 35. Pacat. Panegyr. lib. xii.c. 23. Sulp. Sever. Pacat. Panegyr. lib. xii.c. 28. Socrat. lib. v. c. ll. Sozom. lib. Dial, ii, c. 7. Oros. lib. vii. c. 34.

vii, c. 13. Zos. lib. iv. c. 35.


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Roman History. could not shut his eyes to the precarious condition of In the presence of his illustrious guests the great ques.

Empire. his own dominions, surrounded by enemies to whom the tion of Peace or of War was freely agitated, and it is From fatigues of war were the most agreeable relaxation, and not concealed by the friends of Theodosius that, though

From possessed by allies, whose faith could not be expected he was alive to every sentiment of gratitude, of patriot363, to resist an opportunity of procuring plunder, or of ism, and of generosity, he hesitated some time whether

363. extending the limits of their territory. He resolved, he should draw the sword or listen to terins of ac

therefore, to prefer the alliance of Maximus to the commodation with the tyrant of Gaul. It is insinuated 395.

chances of a bloody and protracted quarrel with him, by Zosimus that the mind of the Emperor, which could 395
reserving, by a distinct and specific condition, the sove- not be swayed by considerations of policy or of honour,
reignty of Italy, Africa, and the Western Illyricum, for yielded at last to the softer impulse of love. The sister
his brother, and confining, by a stipulation equally of Valentinianus pled the cause of the West and of the
explicit, the new Monarch to the countries beyond the Imperial family with so much effect, that he could no
Alps. The image of Maximus was immediately added longer refuse to take up arms in their defence. He
to ihose of Theodosius and Valentinianus, and exhibited made haste to solemnize his nuptials with the eloquent
in public for the recognition of the people; but, amidst Princess ; after which he issued orders to the Legions
these demonstrations of harmony and confidence, a on the Danube, the Euphrates, and the Nile, to make
discerning eye might discover tokens of suspicion on the preparations for war.*
one side, and of hatred on the other, and, on all hands, On no occasion did the military talent of Theodosius
the elements of a convulsion which could not long be appear to greater advantage than in his arrangements

for the campaign against Maximus. Expecting, from Maximus

Four years passed away without any actual rupture the experience of the latter in the management of an invades Italy.

between the Emperors of the East and of the West. army, and more especially from the great interest which

This interval, however, had not elapsed in total inactivity he had at stake, a formidable resistance, he brought 387.

on either side ; for each, knowing the power and ambi- into the field a large body of his finest troops, while he
tion of the other, was exerting all the while his utmost employed several detachments to threaten the Gallic
endeavours to augment his military establishment, and Provinces near the source of the Rhine, and thereby to Armies
to increase his warlike resources. Maximus enlisted a distract the attention of the invader. The two Em- meet at
numerous body of Germans, whose licentious habits perors at length came in sight of each other near Siscia, Siscia.
and fierce tempers rendered them fit instruments for a town of Pannonia, and prepared to decide the fate of
the destructive campaign which he meditated; and as the Roman Empire in a general action.
he wished to get possession of the passes of the Alps, The heavy Legions of Germany and Gaul viewed
without awakening the fears of the young Valentinianus, with contempt the Barbarian array of the Scythian
he pressed him to accept a reinforcement of troops from cavalry and mounted archers whom Theodosius had
Gaul, to assist the Pannonian Legions in the defence of trained to the regular movements of war ; but the first
their frontier. The ambassador of this Prince, alto- charge of these furious horsemen threw them into such
gether unsuspicious of the design to which he was disorder, that the plan adopted by Maximus was im-
induced to lend himself a tool, consented to conduct mediately disconcerted, and his strongest positions
the soldiers of Maximus to the borders of Italy; and transferred to the possession of his enemy. As the
the stratagem succeeded so far, that the mountain fort- battle began late in the day, the conflict was interrupted Maximus ir

defeated, resses were delivered into the hands of the auxiliaries; by the approach of night; but, on the renewal of the

and after the passes were secured for the march of a larger force fight in the morning, the tide of success ran so de- wards put which followed in their footsteps; and the Emperor cidedly in favour of the Eastern army, that the best of to death. himself, with the flower of his army, pushed on with so the Gallic and German troops threw down their arms much speed that he was within sight of Milan before and acknowledged the conqueror. Theodosius, eager

any intelligence could be given of his approach.t to terminate the war by the death of his antagonist, Justina and The Empress Justina and her son had no resource pursued him with so much speed that, on the second ner son fly but in flight. They directed their course to the strong day, he reached Aquileia, almost at the very moment to Thessa- city of Aquileia, which they reached in safety; but when the other entered its gates. A vigorous siege

womanly apprehensions soon urged a further retreat, soon made him master of the fortifications; and the
upon which the royal fugitives embarked on the Adriatic, place was saved from military execution on the promise
and sailed round to Thessalonica. Maximus meantime that Maximus should without delay be delivered up to
entered Milan in triumph; and the subjects of Valen- his clemency. It is said that policy, or the natural ten-
tinianus, finding that no claim was made upon their alle- derness of his heart, withheld, for a brief space, the
giance, submitted without a struggle to the Government

sentence which Theodosius was expected to pronounce.
of the conqueror.

After this momentary hesitation, however, he resigned Theodosius

No sooner did Theodosius learn that the brother of him to his fate; when he and his son Victor, whom he resolves on Gratianus had taken refuge in his territory than he re

had raised to the dignity of Augustus, were put to
paired, attended by his counsellors, to the port of Mace. death by military executioners.f
donia, at which the outh and his parent had landed. The conqueror spent the remaining months of the

year 387 at Milan, with the view of reforming the * It deserves notice that Orosius and some other writers do not abuses of Government, of giving vigour to the adminisreceive Maximus into the number of Emperors, but represent Theodo- tration of law, and, above all, of reviving the sources of sius as reigning alone after the death of Gratianus. Anno ab urbe condita 1138, Theodosius quadragesimus primus, interfecto per Max: mum Gratiano, Imperium Romani orbis solus obtinuit, mansitque in eo

* Zos. lib. iv. c. 46. Oros. lib. vii. c. 35. Pacat. Panegyr. lib. xii.

c. 30–47. annis undecim, cum jam in Orientis partibus sex annos, Graliano Zos. lib. iv. c. 47. states that Victor was slain in the Alps by Arbovivente, regnasset. Lib. vii. c. 35.

gastes ; and that Andragathius threw himself into the sea.

Socrales, † Sulp. Sever. Dial. iii. Pacat. lib. xii. c. 25, 26.

lib. v. c. 14.



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History. prosperity in all the branches of national industry and removed his Court, reproached him with his treason- Roman

public wealth. After making a few examples of just able intentions, and finished by depriving him of all his Empire. From severity, in the case of the most atrocious criminals, he offices. The Barbarian smiled at the impotent resent

From A. D. directed his whole attention to console and relieve the ment of his Sovereign; and, in a few days, the latter 363. afflictions of the Province. He not only restored their was found strangled in his apartment. As there was

363. lands to the husbandmen who had been deprived by no one to bear witness to the manner of his death, the usurper, but also made ample compensation for the the emissaries of the traitor laboured to impress losses which they had sustained in the course of the upon the public mind that it was voluntary; an argu- 395.

His generosity was further manifested in con- ment which the Master-General of the Gallic armies Corrects

ferring a yearly allowance upon the mother of Maximus, afterwards employed, through the medium of the Imabuses in and a good education upon his daughter ; both of perial ambassador, when he communicated to Theothe Govern- whom were rendered destitute by the fatal issue of the dosius the demise of Valentinianus.* ment, and battle of Siscia, and who, under the reign of a less hu- Arbogastes chose to govern the Empire under the Eugenius Compen mane Prince, would have been left to their miserable

name of a dependent whom he had resolved to elevate raised to the saits the frases of the fate. Theodosius, in short, has deserved the singular to the throne. Eugenius, originally a Professor of Empire of Previacials. commendation, that his virtues always scemed to ex- Rhetoric, was first employed by the Governor of Gaul the West.

pand with his fortune ; the season of his prosperity was as his private secretary, and subsequently appointed
that of his moderation ; and his clemency appeared by him to the duties of Master of the Offices. To the
most conspicuous after the danger and commotions of still higher rank which was destined for him by his
a Civil broil,*

patron, he is said to have acceded with reluctance;
In the Spring of 389, the Emperor inade a solemn entry being aware that, although clothed with the Purple, he
into the ancient city of Rome, where he was received must still continue the servant of Arbogastes, and be
at once as a conqueror and a deliverer. Various abuses exposed at the same time to all the odium and danger of
which had crept into the Government, during the suc- Government. Theodosius, on the other hand, could not
cessive usurpations which had alarmed Italy since the be ignorant of the motives which had guided the conduct
days of Julian, were corrected with a gentle hand; but; of the Barbarian General in his selection of an Emperor;
such was the delicacy of Theodosius, that, although he while he had grounds for the justest resentment against
was now, in fact, the master of the Roman world, he him, as the author of his colleague's death, and of all
gave orders that every public measure should be pur- the confusion and distress which were likely to result
sued in the name of Valentinianus, and that his au- from it. His indignation was further stimulated by
thority should be recognised in every legal deed and the grief of his wife, who, with tears, deplored the
enactment. As soon, too, as the power of law was unhappy fate of her brother, and urged him to take up
again sufficiently established, he invited the young arms to punish the rebellious murderers, and reduce to

monarch to return to Milan ; when, besides restoring obedience the monarchy of the West. After due pre- Theodosius Valentini. to him the dominions which had been wrested from paration, therefore, he took the field ; having under his prepares for

his authority by Maximus, he subjected to his rule all command the troops of all the allied or tributary na-
the countries beyond the Alps.t

tions which had flocked to his standard from the East 391.

But the brother of Gratianus appears not to have and the North. Scythians and Arabians, Goths, Huns, possessed sufficient activity and resolution to govern a and Alani inarched under the banners of their native people, who wanted principle to be loyal, and courage leaders, among whom was the renowned Alaric, whose to oppose rebellion. His mild, virtuous, and pliant name is so closely associated with the downfall of Rocharacter, which would have adorned the intercourse of man independence.t

private life, served only to excite the contempt of rude Theodosius met with no resistance till he had deRevolt of

warriors, and to afford a pretext for their treachery. scended from the Julian Alps into the plain which Arbogastes,

Arbogastes, who had performed essential services in extends from their Southern limits. His opponent, the and death of the late war, was appointed Master-General of the wily Arbogastes, knew that the heavy troops of Gaul Kalentini. armies of Gaul; and it should seem that he availed and Germany would prove more efficient on level ground

himself of the iufluence afforded by his rank to weaken than among the narrow passes of the mountains; and

the interests of his Prince among all classes of his sub- moreover that, if he should gain a victory, the retreat of 392.

jects, and to pave the way for his own accession to his enemies would there be more easily prevented, or at
supreme power. He appointed his partisans to all least rendered more destructive. The event had nearly
offices of trust; officered the Legions with men who established the accuracy of his calculations. The
'were devoted to his cause ; and, in a word, usurped so Eastern army was repulsed with great slaughter, and
completely all the functions of State, that Valentinianus compelled to seek a refuge in the verge of the lofty
soon found himself stripped of the most important range over which they had recently passed, while the
privileges of royalty, as well as of the enjoyment of conqueror, anticipating such a result, threw a body of
personal freedom. The distance between Milan and light-armed men into their rear, to interrupt their flight
Constantinople increased the danger of his situation; towards Pannonia. The triumph of rebellion would Victory of
for although he apprized Theodosius of the perils by have been complete, had the soldiers of Eugenius con-


sius. which he was surrounded, he could not expect the tinued faithful to his interests. But the Legions of arrival of military aid in time to thwart the designs of Gaul, at the very moment when the fortune of the

394. his rebellious General. He therefore summoned Ar- Empire and the fate of Theodosius, were placed in bogastes into his presence at Treves, whither he had

• Zos: lib. iv. c. 47. says that he had the benefit of his mother's

advice; but she appears to have died immediately after his restoration. • Pacat. in Panegyr, Vit. lib. xii. c. 20. Ambros. vol. ii. Epist, xl. Oros. lib. vii.c.35. Soc. lib. v. c. 25. Zos. lib. iv. c. 53. † Zos, jid, iv, c. 47,

+ Zos. lib. iv. c. 54-58. Claud. III. Cons. Honor. 396.



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History. their hands, remembered the oaths which they had us that he embraced this opportunity to dissuade his Roman taken to support the house of Valentinianus, and offered Pagan subjects from persevering any longer in their Empire

. From

their services to the Prince whom they had been em- superstitious rites, urging upon them a cordial reception
ployed to cut off. Being thus unexpectedly reinforced, of the Christian Faith, and the more reasonable service

From 363. the Eastern Emperor renewed, or rather, perhaps, sus- which it enjoined; but he adds, with visible satisfaction,

363. tained the attack, on the following morning, when he that no one paid any respect to the harangue of their

gained a decided advantage over the diminished ranks Imperial master. * He did not live to witness the suc. 395. of his antagonist, and thereby quashed the insurrection. cess of his zeal; for, while preparing to return to Con

395. Eugenius fell into his hands, and was immediately be- stantinople, he was cut off by dropsy, in the fiftieth Dealk of Death headed by the indignant Guards. Arbogastes, who had year of his age. His body was embalmed, and sent to Theodosing , of Eugenius escaped from the scene of action, and wandered some the Capital of the East.t

January, and Arbo- time in the mountains, put a period to bis despair by Few of the Roman Emperors died more lamented gastes. the use of his own sword. *

than Theodosius the Great. His sincere attachment to 395.

Character Prodigies We have intentionally passed over all the supernatural Christianity, and the efforts which he made to further

of 'Theodoattending circumstances, as they were considered, which have its progress, contributed, it is true, very materially to the battle been preserved with so much care by the Ecclesiastical the advancement of his fame among a large and influ

writers of the IVth century, and which are faithfully ential class of his subjects ; but his character, on other
recorded in the several Works of Tillemont. The storm accounts, exhibited so many points deserving of applause,
in the Alps for example, which aided the arms of Theo. that even the most determined of his enemies among
dosius, could not be regarded as an unusual event by Pagan writers are compelled to acknowledge his merits,
the inhabitants of the mountains; while the miraculous and to praise the mild and impartial spirit in which he
intelligence of the victory, which reached Constantinople conducted his Government. The welfare of his people
long before the swiftest courier could have accomplished seems to have supplied the ruling motive of his policy
the journey from Aquilica, must be ranked with those in peace and in war; and, although bred a soldier and
numerous instances in which rumour anticipates the desirous of military glory, he, on all occasions, appeared
progress of authenticated fact. The authors of the more willing to sacrifice his reputation for courage,
Theodosian Age were credulous and superstitious to a than to earn the renown of a hero at the expense of life
very high degree; and we find, accordingly, that, in and property. In drawing the sword he never yielded
selecting materials for History, they exercised very little to the dictates of passion or of personal interests ;
of that discrimination which separates the fictions of a while, in conducting the details of a campaign, he
pious mind from the simple events which are brought afforded the most convincing proofs that his talents
to pass by Human agency and the operation of Physical qualified him to take a place in the list of the greatest
causes. We admit, however, the unimpeachable honesty Commanders, as well as in that of enlightened and
of the compilers, whose judgment or whose knowledge patriotic Statesmen.I
we find so little reason to extol ; and thus, while we The times, indeed, in which he lived were prone to General
dissent from the Philosophy of Ambrose, Augustin, corruption, and disfigured with much ignorance, super- reflections
Socrates, and Theodoret, we have the utmost confidence stition, and crime. The spirit of the ancient Roman
in their narratives, so far as they themselves were wit- Constitution had almost entirely evaporated; the love
nesses of the facts which they have embodied in their of Country had been succeeded by avarice, luxury, and

venality ; the Legions had contracted the habits of Accession The young Honorius had either accompanied his mercenaries and the feelings of slaves ; while the mass of Honorius. father in the campaign against Arbogastes, or he joined of the people, eager to purchase an exemption from the

the army immediately after the throne of the West was toils and peril of war, quietly permitted Barbarians to
rendered vacant by the death of Eugenius. Sozomen fight their battles and to elect their masters. The
and Socrates are of opinion that Theodosius did not Nobles, generally speaking, had ceased to take any
send for his son until he felt the ravages of the disease concern in the administration of public affairs. The
which soon afterwards terminated his life. It was at despotism to which, since the days of Tiberius, they
Milan that the Emperor placed in the hands of Hono- had been forced to submit, was wielded by the caprice
rius the sceptre of Rome, and with it the Sovereignty of and supported by the power of the army; and, in fact

Italy, Spain, the two Gauls, all Africa, and the Western for more than three hundred years prior to the accession
Illyricum. At the same time he nominated Stilicho of Theodosius, the seat of Government was in the camp,
as General-in-Chief of the Legions in those parts, re- and the Imperial Ministers were the Præfects of the
commending to him the care of the Prince, whose inex- Guards, or the Commanders of Cohorts. The power
perience he knew could not fail to encounter many of the Church, in some instances, began to supply the
difficulties in the government of nations so widely scat- deficiency of Law, and to give vigour to the principles
tered, and influenced by views of policy so extremely of Morality; but, at the end of the IVth century, the
different.f Having discharged this important duty, he impure tenets of Heathenism still divided the faith of
made arrangements for the festivity which usually ac- the Empire, both in the East and West, and counte-
companied the accession of an Emperor; and the lastnanced the loose maxims on which the intercourse of
effort of his strength was exhausted in returning life was generally conducted. Zosimus accuses the
acknowledgments to the people for the acclamations sloth and effeminacy of Theodosius as the cause of the
with which they had received his son. Zosimus tells corrupt habits which prevailed among his subjects ; but

it is obvious, that the example of a Monarch, whose
* Zos. lib. iv. c. 58. Ambros. vol. ii. Epist. lxii. August, de
Civit. lib. v. c. 26. Sozom, lib. vii. c. 24. Claud in IV. Cons. . Zos. lib. iv, c. 59.
Honor. 70.

+ Ibid,
+ Zos. lib. iv. c. 59.

Ambros, vol, ii. Epist. xl. Pacat. Panegyr. Veter, lib. xii. c. 20,

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History. residence varied with the exigencies of the State and sons, who were invited to the Theatre for the express pur- Roman

the change of the seasons, and who was half his life at pose of being put to military execution. It ought, how. Empire. From the head of an army in the field, could not be charge- ever, in justice to be remembered, that his resentment was

From able with the demoralization of all the nations from the inflamed by the misrepresentations of his Minister 363. Euphrates to the Atlantic. The greatest stain, perhaps, Rufinus; and also that, after the first burst of passion

363. which attaches to his character is the severity which he which accompanied the fatal order, he sent a messenger 395.

employed in punishing a popular insurrection at Thes- to countermand it, who, unfortunately, did not arrive salonica. In that city the death of a favourite General was until the repentance of his master could be of no avail.

395. revenged by the massacre of six or seven thousand per


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