A. D.


A. D.


Biography. To such a person the patience and self-command ancient and in modern times. We allude to the decree

Marcus necessary for the administration of justice must have by which he threw open the rights and privileges of Aurelius From

been extremely irksome. We find, accordingly, from Roman Citizens to all the inhabitants of the Empire. Caracalla.

Dion Cassius, that he avoided as much as possible this The pride of the Commonwealth had long restricted 211.

important part of his duty, and never, indeed, engaged this honour to the native subjects of the original State, From

in it but with reluctance and disgust. This Historian, and it was not granted to the rest of Italy until after 217.

who was Præfect of the City, and hence officially bound the struggle of a long and bloody war. The first Em- 211. Neglect of his Civil

to assist the Emperor in his decisions, tells us, that perors, Augustus and Tiberius, were equally sparing of duties. Caracalla frequently sent notice to the Judges that he this envied distinction; and it was not until the weak 217.

would be ready to hear causes, or hold a Council, early and mercenary reign of Claudius had raised the Pro-
in the morning. We failed not, says he, to be punctual vincials to an unwonted pitch of authority, that Citizen-
to his orders, but he made us wait till afternoon, and ship could be obtained with nearly an equal facility on
sometimes till the evening. We remained without both sides of the Alps. During the same administra-
doors, not being permitted to enter even into the ante- tion the Gauls were admitted into the Senate; a
chambers. At length, when we were called in, it was privilege which they ever afterwards retained: and at
only to be informed, that it was no longer time to do a later period, when the Sovereigns themselves were
business; and, indeed, we were often sent away without chosen from among the colonists of Spain, and even
having had an opportunity of making the customary of Africa, the line which separated the descendant of a
salutations. Whilst we were thus losing our time in Roman in foreign parts from an aboriginal native of
waiting to no purpose, the Prince was amusing himself the same country, became more and more evanescent,
with trifles, driving a chariot, fighting with wild beasts, and at length entirely disappeared. Then it became
or drinking, perhaps, with a gladiator. Dishes of customary to admit not only individuals, but whole
meat and great vessels of wine passed before our eyes Provinces, to the freedom of Rome; and Consuls who
for the use of his Guards, while it was manifest that drew their origin from Germany, Syria, and the various
he enjoyed a secret pleasure in the fatigue and delay districts of Asia Minor, were not unfrequently seen
which we were compelled to endure.

invested with the robes and the power which had Affectation Did not the history of Human Nature abound with awakened the ambition of Julius Cæsar and of Cneius of zeal for similar examples, we should be surprised to learn that Pompeius. Still there was a certain distinction beMorality

Caracalla, amid his rank debaucheries, affected a great tween Citizen and Subject even in the Colonies, till it
and Relie

zeal for purity of morals. He punished adultery with was abolished by a solemn edict issued by Caracalla;
death; and condemned to be buried alive four Vestal after which, all persons not in a state of servitude
Virgins, one of whom himself had attempted to seduce. acquired the rights and privileges of the former class,
Nay, he attempted to set himself up not only as a and there was no longer in the Empire any denomina-
reformer of Religion, but even as a pattern of piety and tion of People but Slaves and Roman Citizens.
godliness. He mistook, indeed, belief in magic for The motive assigned by Historians for this unprece. His sup-
trust in Divine Providence, and his fear of punishment dented extension of a privilege once so highly valued, posed mo-
for a reverential awe towards the Supreme Ruler of the is the increase of revenue which the Emperor expected live for that

world. A slave to superstition himself, he denounced to arise from the vast augmentation of taxable sub-
it as an unpardonable offence in all others; and Spar- jects. Perhaps he was incapable of taking such a step
tianus records, that several individuals during his reign on any generous principle; but it is more probable
were put to death for wearing round their necks a charm that this unpopular resolution was adopted from a
against intermittent fever. *

wish to mortify the inhabitants of the Capital, all deHis exten- The Government of Caracalla was rendered remark- scriptions of whom he most cordially hated, than to sion of the able by a measure, the Policy of which has been greatly enlarge the income of the State, which he knew how to privileges questioned by writers on Constitutional Law, both in improve by more compendious means. of Roman Citizens to all the subjects of the Empire.


FROM A. D. 217 TO 218.


Opilius Macrinus.

Biography. It has been already stated, that the death of Caracalla fanaticism, had announced, as the will of the Gods,

proceeded from the fears and ambition of Macrinus. that the Præfect just named and his eldest son were From

An African Soothsayer, impelled either by malice or by destined to reign over the Roman People. The preA. D.

diction created so much uneasiness in the Province, that 217

the Seer was immediately carried to Rome ; where he to * Damnuti sunt eo tempore qui urinam in eo loco fecerunt, in

was examined with the greatest care by those trusty 218. quo statuæ, aut imagines erani Principis : Damnati sunt et qui remedia quartanis tertianis que collo annera gestarent, Spartian, in

persons whom the Emperor had charged with the duty Caracall, c. 5.

of discovering the favoured individual whom the stars

Frona A. D. 217.


A. D.

A. D,



br the


Biography. had fixed upon for his successor. A regular report of rating his son with the name and rank of Cæsar. Ma. Marcus

Opilius this singular investigation was forwarded to the Im- crinus, indeed, owed the accomplishment of his wishes to

Macrinus. From perial Court, then resident at Antioch ; but Caracalla the detestation with which every one not of the military being engaged in a chariot race when the messenger profession regarded the son of Severus. Even the

From 217. arrived, the packet was handed to Macrinus, who pre- Senators did not conceal their deep aversion to his

sided over the Civil department of State affairs. The memory. “We would have preferred any one,” said 217. 218.

intelligence with which he was thus supplied, acted they, “ to the parricide from whose hands we have just
upon his mind in two different ways ; for he saw been rescued, the encourager of all crime, the murderer 218.
thereby placed before him the alternative either of of all classes of the People.” The Popular voice was
wearing a Crown, or of falling a speedy victim to the equally loud in terms of execration. The Festivals
jealousy of his master. The choice he made, and the instituted in honour of the late despot were instantly
result of his decision, have been already recounted. He abolished; his statues were thrown down and melted ;
used the hand of Martialis to assassinate his Prince, the praises of the assassin were proclaimed in the streets,
and to secure for himself a seat on the Throne which and the resemblance of his name to that of Mars, the

neither Nature nor education had qualified him to fill. founder of their State, was hailed as the presage of His election Macrinus is greatly blamed by Dion Cassius for not returning liberty. Had not the fear imposed upon the

using the influence which belonged to his office, in Senate by the presence of a large military force checked
order to guide the election of the Army to a proper the current of their indignation, they would at once
person as the successor of Caracalla. But it ought have declared Caracalla a public enemy, and loaded his
not to be forgotten, that the Prætorian Præfect, in all memory with the curses of the nation.
probability, had not less confidence than his Sovereign But the reputation which this unhappy ruler left Caracalla
in the efficacy of magic, and in the revelations of Judicial among the Soldiers, led to results of quite a different raised to the
Astrology. At all events, instead of opening a path nature. To gratify the affection of the Prætorians, rank of the

for the ambition of others, he made haste to gratify his upon whose favour his own power depended, Macrinus
own. Concealing from the Soldiers the share he had found it indispensable to confer upon Caracalla a place
in the murder of their leader, he endeavoured to recom- among the Gods. The Senate was desired to record
mend himself to their choice as the Commander of the the Apotheosis of a tyrant, for whose murder it had
Imperial Guards; his colleague, who, indeed, was secretly offered up its thanks to Heaven, and to set
senior to him in rank, being rendered unfit by his age apart a Temple and a Priesthood to commemorate the
and infirmities for the labours of the high office to name and the virtues of a monster, whom in its heart
which he aspired. But the Troops, who neither loved it detested and abhorred.
por esteemed him, seemed to wait for the appearance This involuntary compulsion employed by the new Macrinus
of a more worthy candidate, when, on the fourth day, Emperor diminished the confidence which the first acts makes inju-
intelligence that the Parthians were on their march of his reign had tended to inspire. He soon afterwards

pointments. to attack them with a powerful army, quickened alienated to a greater extent the minds of the more their deliberations, and induced them to commit the reflecting among the Patricians, by the injudicious destiny of the Empire into the hands of the junior appointment of certain Magistrates. Desirous to be Præfect. *

freed from the society of his former colleague, the PræThe usages of Government required that the suffrages fect Adventus, he sent him to Rome, gave him a high of the Soldiers should be confirmed by the Senate. To office in the City, and even nominated him to the Conobtain this confirmation, Macrinus addressed a letter to sulship for the following year. This promotion was that illustrious assembly, in which he informed them of extremely disagreeable to the Public, for the Consul the two great events which had just taken place, and elect was not only arrived at a very



modestly requested their approval of the choice which unfitted him for the duties of his new station, but he
had been made by the Army. He promised that no mea- was likewise so ignorant that he could not read, and
sure of importance should be undertaken without their so little acquainted with business, that he did not know
advice and approbation; that his administration should even its customary forms. Other instances of prefer-
revert to the more liberal maxims of the Common- ment, equally undeserved and unsuitable, increased the
wealth; and that all Orders of the Citizens should enjoy dissatisfaction of the Citizens. They saw the bravest
their full rights, fortunes, and privileges. He condemned and most experienced Generals set aside to make way
the Policy which had involved the Empire in a war with for favourites who had no qualification to recommend
Parthia, which he knew to be disliked both at Rome them but their subserviency to the Emperor, who
and in the Camp; and, in particular, he blamed the seemed, in his choice of Public servants, to avoid
practice introduced by his predecessor, of granting large courage in the Army, and talent in all the other de-
sums of money to Barbarian nations, with the view of partments of Government.f
securing their forbearance or neutrality.t

In conferring the rank of Cæsar upon Diadumenus, His son'
The Senate, delighted with their deliverance from the son of Macrinus, the Senate had been anticipated by proclaimed

Cæsar by the tyranny of Caracalla, sanctioned, with loud accla- the Army, who, in the expectation of a more abundant

the name of
mations, the proceedings of the Syrian Army. They largess, lost no time in gratifying their master with a Antoninus.
overlooked the obscurity of birth in Macrinus, his want of compliment which custom had now established as a
military talent, and even the doubtful affections of the general rule. To render this ceremony more striking,
very Body which had elected him, and forthwith they the father proposed that the popular name of Antoninus
enrolled him in the Order of Patricians, decreed to him should be revived in the person of the young Prince,
all the titles of Imperial power, and concluded by deco- who was not more than nine years of age. The sug-

gestion was received with the loudest expression of joy:
* Dion Cassius, Epitom. Xiphilin. p. 361.
† Capitolin, in Macrin. c. 5, 6. Herodian. lib. v.

Capitolin. in Macrin. c. 2. * Ibid. c. 5.

dicious ap

He appies to be Senate,

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Biography. praises and vows were lavished upon the Emperor and finding that he had to negociate with a pusillanimous Marcus the youthful Cæsar; and the name of Antoninus upstart, rejected the proposed terms with disdain ; and Opilius

Macrinus. From Diadumenus was reechoed throughout the Camp. insisted that the Romans should, moreover, rebuild all

Macrinus was willing that the Senators and Roman the fortresses which they had destroyed in their repeated 217. People should, in like manner, share the happiness of invasions of his Country, and embellish the cities which

greeting another Prince by a name which they so much they had plundered of their ornaments and wealth. 218.

217. loved and admired. He therefore wrote to the former, He demande restitution of all the territory which giving notice of the auspicious event which had been had belonged to him in Mesopotamia, an equivalent 218. so enthusiastically celebrated by the Army; and pro- for all the losses which his subjects had sustained in mised to the latter a splendid donative, to welcome the that part of his Kingdom, together with an ample satisreturn of better days, and the restoration of justice, faction for the indignity which had been offered to the peace, and security, among all Orders of the Republic. sepulchres of his fathers.* The multitude, which gladly embraces every opportunity Desirous as Macrinus was of peace, he was not Concessions of amusement and hilarity, was easily impressed with allowed to accede to such disgraceful conditions in rejected, the joy which it was meant it should express; but order to obtain it. The two Armies met at Nisibis, where and war the Senate, displeased at finding its prerogative in- an engagement soon took place, in which the Romans

menced. vaded by the Soldiers, contented itself with announcing with difficulty kept their ground. A second action a sullen acquiescence in an arrangement which it had ensued, the result of which was again favourable to not been asked to promote, and which it could not have Artabanes. But as his Parthians never carried with

them any large store of provisions, and were in other His affected The higher Orders of the People had not forgotten respects unaccustomed to protracted or regular warfare,

the low extraction of their Emperor, which, unfortu- he was now more willing, though in fact a conqueror, bring him into con

nately for his own peace, he himself endeavoured to to listen to an accommodation than he was before he tempt.

forget. A haughty demeanour and an affected address drew the sword. He accepted from the Emperor two
were not well received by men who were better born, hundred millions of sesterces, in name of compensation,
and of whom many must have known him in the for all the losses and injuries which had been inflicted
humble condition from which he rose, and in the sub- upon his Kingdom by the Roman arms, and imme-
ordinate offices which he successively filled: while diately withdrew his impatient followers from the scene
no crime, it is said, was more severely punished than of contest.
the imprudence of comparing his entry into life with The Armenians were induced to abstain from hosti- He restores
the splendid rank to which he had now attained. He lities by means not more honourable to the military the King-
soou found, however, that by following the dictates of reputation of the Empire. Macrinus gave the Crown

his ambition, he had ascended a height on which he of that Kingdom to Tiridates, the lawful claimant;
could neither stand with safety, nor from it attempt to re- released the Queen-mother, who had been detained at
trace his steps without the hazard of instant destruction. Antioch by Caracalla during the space of a whole year;
Trained in the Arts of domestic society and the forms of repaired the damage which the Roman Troops had
Civil business, he trembled in the presence of the fierce occasioned in various parts of the Country; restored
and undisciplined multitude over whom he had assumed all the places which former Armenian Princes held in
the command: his Military talents were despised, and Cappadocia; and even promised to renew the subsidy
his personal courage suspected; while a whisper that which his predecessor had sometime paid to his Eastern
circulated in the Camp disclosed the fatal secret of the allies.
conspiracy against the late Emperor, aggravated the Having sacrificed every thing to the love of tran- His luxury
guilt of murder by the baseness of hypocrisy, and quillity, he communicated to the Senate an account of and affecta-

heightened contempt by a just feeling of indignation.t his triumphs over the ancient enemies of the Republic.
His timidity Had Macrinus possessed any spark of enthusiasm for The leading men at Rome, either deceived by his re-
in negocia: military exploits, or even known how to reward the presentations, or wishing to complete the ridicule which

zeal of others, he might have retained the affection of began to thicken round his character, ordered Feasts
the Soldiers. But the coldness of his temper, which and rejoicings for the victories which had crowned the
approached to timidity, disgusted the hardy veterans labours of the Emperor, and even decreed to him the
who had been formed by the discipline of Pertinax, surname of Parthicus. Macrinus declined, indeed, this
and accomplished in the Arts of war by their long ser- ambiguous honour; but upon his return to Antioch
vice under Severus. Such troops were ashamed when he determined to remunerate himself for all the pri-
they saw a Roman Emperor bastening, by concessions vations which he had endured while in the field, and
to a Barbarian Prince, to avoid the toils and dangers to enter upon the full enjoyment of the ease and luxury
of a campaign. When Artabanes had advanced to the which his high rank enabled him to command. He
frontiers, at the head of the mixed host with which he resigned bimself to pleasure in all its forms, decked
intended to oppose the designs of Caracalla, he was his person in the most gorgeous robes that Asiatic
met with propositions which savoured strongly of taste could supply, and in all things affected a degree
cowardice. Macrinus restored all the prisoners who of magnificence which disgusted even the corrupted
had been taken the former year, acknowledged that the Prætorians.f
guilt of infringing the Treaty between Parthia and His cowardice and effeminacy soon withdrew from Attempts to
Rome was chargeable upon his predecessor, and ended him the allegiance of the soldiers, and brought reform the
by soliciting the renewal of amity. The Barbarian, them to the very brink of revolt. The firmest ruler,

Ariny, and

provokes perhaps, that ever placed himself at the head of the their resent

ment. * Dion Cassius, Epitom. p. 362. Herodian. lib, y Capitolin, in Macrin. c. 6.

* Dion Cassius, Epitom. Xiphilin. p. 363. + Capitolin, in Macrin. c. 4.

+ Herodian. lib. v. Dion Cassius, Epitom. Xiphilin. p. 362.

A. D.

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Biography. Legions, would have found much difficulty in satis- the Throne. Soæmis was married to Varius Marcellus, Marcus fying the demands and repressing the extravagance of by whom, or by Caracalla, she had a son, who is Opilius

Macrinus. From such disorderly troops ; it is not wonderful, therefore, known to History by several names, but who subsethat Macrinus, whom they despised, should have failed quently rose to the head of the Roman world under the

From 217. of success. In his first attempts at reform he proceeded, appellation of Heliogabalus.* indeed, with much caution, and without directly alarm- The reader will remember that the father of Julia,

217. 218.

ing the jealousy of his mutinous Cohorts. To the men (the wife of Severus,) and consequently of Julia Mæsa,
already in the service he confirmed the privileges and was High-priest of the Sun in the Temple of Emesa. 218.
high pay which Caracalla had bestowed upon them; When, therefore, his granddaughter found herself History of
but he declared that, with regard to such as should necessitated to return to the city of her kindred, she Heliogaba-

afterwards join the Legions, the establishment should obtained for her son, who was then only thirteen years
be reduced to the more moderate footing on which it of age, the Priesthood, which appears to have been
had been placed by Severus. But to render this ar- hereditary in the family. A numerous body of troops
rangement efficacious, he ought to have dispersed his was stationed at Emesa : and as the severe discipline
troops through the several Provinces of the East, to which Macrinus had thought proper to adopt constrained
which, in fact, their ordinary duty was confined, instead them to pass the winter in Camp, they waited with
of allowing them to remain in Syria, where their united eagerness for an opportunity to revenge what they
strength encouraged disaffection, and their ready means

esteemed an unnecessary hardship. The Soldiers, of communicating with one another supplied an oppor- who were accustomed to resort in great numbers to tunity for maturing the revolution upon which they had the Temple of the Sun, beheld with veneration and already fixed their thoughts. The veterans, instead of delight the rich vestments and the fine figure of the being flattered by the distinction which was made in young Pontiff; in whose countenance they imagined their favour, persuaded themselves that the concessions they could recognise the features of Caracalla, whose of the Emperor were extorted from him by fear; and that memory they were more than ever disposed to adore. he would unceremoniously revoke them as soon as he Mæsa, who was naturally ambitious and impatient Supposed to should find himself in a condition to quash their resist- of the private condition to which she had been forced be the son ance; and the young soldiers entered with reluctance to descend, no sooner perceived this favourable dispo

of Caracalla. into a service of which the labours were increased, while sition on the part of the Military, than she resolved to the rewards were greatly and systematically diminished. turn it to the best advantage. Regardless of the repuA few attempts to enforce discipline among the more tation of her daughter, she eagerly confirmed the conseditious bands which were scattered over Mesopotamia, jecture that Heliogabalus was indeed the son of Caracompleted the irritation of the Syrian Legions, and calla; and distributing her bounties with a liberal prepared them for the most desperate resolutions. hand, she silenced every objection which might have Seditious murmurs, from time to time, were heard in been raised to the alleged paternity of the youthful the Camp; the mutinous spirit which pervaded the Priest. She was greatly assisted in the execution of whole Army was with difficulty suppressed; and symp- her designs by Eutychianus and Gannys, the latter of toms were everywhere manifest of a rooted disaffection whom had been tutor to her grandson while resident at and contempt of authority, which, on the slightest occa

Rome and Antioch. These two individuals, whose dission, would infallibly burst out into a general rebellion positions inclined them to Political intrigue, practised against the unwarlike Monarch. As it was to be ex- upon the fidelity of the Troops so successfully, as to pected, troops so disposed soon found or created an prevail upon them to receive the young Prince into incident which afforded them an opportunity for realizing their camp during the night, and to proclaim him their all their views,*

Sovereign. At an appointed hour, Heliogabalus made
The fate of Macrinus was accelerated by a conspiracy his appearance, dressed in a robe like that which Cara-

of women and Priests. The Empress Julia, whose calla used to wear in his youth. His resemblance to Hacrinus. powerful influence over a husband and a son had been

the son of Severus was thus rendered very striking ; experienced during two reigns, was compelled, upon

and being accompanied by a band of Soldiers who were the accession of the new Sovereign, to relinquish all

in his interest, he had no sooner presented himself at concern in Public affairs. But notwithstanding the the gate than it was opened for his reception, and he respectful civility expressed by the usurper to the widow was instantly saluted, amidst a thousand acclamations, of Severus, she descended with a painful struggle into by the name of Antoninus, and the title of Emperor.t, the condition of a Subject; and is said to have soon This step committed beyond retrieve the fidelity and Revolt in afterwards withdrawn herself from a state of anxious character of the Legions at Emesa. They accordingly his favour at dependence by a voluntary death. Her sister, Julia strengthened their fortifications, added to their stores, Mæsa, had experienced similar varieties of fortune. and made all other preparations for a regular siege. On the death of her nephew she was ordered to leave Macrinus, who did not at first allow himself to see the the Court, and even the city of Antioch, wherein it had evil in its full magnitude, sent against the rebels one been sometime held. She retired to Emesa with great of the Prætorian Præfects, Ulpius Julianus. This riches, accumulated during twenty years of Imperial Commander had in his little army a body of Moorish favour; for Macrinus, although he hated the whole auxiliaries, extremely attached to the Emperor, as house of Severus, did not disgrace himself by plunder their countryman, and quite devoted to his cause : ing the establishment of an unprotected female. As

and had he availed himself of the ardour with which the wife of Julius Avitus, she had two daughters, they assailed the camp of the insurgents, he might, it Soæmis and Mamæa; the latter of whom became the mother of Alexander Severus, who afterwards ascended

* Capitolin. in Macrin.c. 9. Dion Cassius, Sprtom. Xiphilin.p.363.

+ Dion Cassius, Epitom. Xiphilin. p. 364. Lamprid. in Heliogab, * Capitolin. in Macrin. c. 12.

c. 1, 2. Capitolin. in Macrin, ubi suprà.



From A. D.


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Biography, was thought, have suppressed the rising before its Troops abandon his ranks, and pass over to the enemy. Marcus abettors could have gained additional strength from Terrified by this desertion, he set the example of a Opilius'

Macrinus. other quarters. But unwilling, perhaps, to originate precipitate retreat, which he did not attempt either

a Civil war and to shed the blood of Citizens, he to direct or to justify. The Prætorians, meanwhile, 217.

From had recourse to delay; until at length his men, shaken ignorant of the cowardly resolution adopted by their 218. in their fidelity, joined the party which they had been master, continued the battle some time after he was

217. commissioned to chastise, and concluded by assassina- gone; till at length the young Antoninus sent mesting their Officers, and by sending the head of Julianus sengers to inform them that they were fighting for no 218. to his irresolute master.

object, that their Prince had already provided for his Macrinus The defections from Macrinus, although numerous, own safety, and that the Sceptre of Rome had now prepares to still left to him a Body of troops upon which he could passed into another hand. The Guards, who had take the

sufficiently rely for restoring the balance of affairs. He sacrificed enough to honour, listened to the terms profield.

wrote to the Senate, and that Body, at his request, de- posed by the conqueror; and upon finding that their
clared Heliogabalus, Julia Mæsa, Soæmis, and Mamæa, rank and privileges were to be respected, that their
Public enemies; and proclaimed an unconditional pardon influence in the State was not to be diminished on
to all who, having espoused their cause, should return account of the part which they had just taken, and that
to the standards which they had deserted. But decrees they were understood to have submitted without being
of the Senate were no longer of any importance when vanquished, they readily acknowledged the claims of
weighed against the sword, which both parties had Antoninus, the son of Caracalla.*
already drawn. Macrinus himself saw clearly that his Macrinus pursued his flight to Antioch, where he Dlacrinus
claims must be determined in the field of battle; for announced that he had gained a splendid victory over pursued
which reason, having assembled all his forces, he the forces of Heliogabalus. But his first care, notwith- and put to
marched to attack Heliogabalus, who was already pre- standing, upon his arrival in that city, was to provide
pared to meet him, within twenty miles of Antioch. for the safety of his son, whom he resolved to place

The insurgent Army was commanded by Gannys, under the protection of Artabanes, the King of Parthia.
an eunuch, whose cares had been hitherto devoted to For himself, he determined to proceed without delay
the duties of the Palace, assisted by the mother and into Italy; where the favour of the Senate, and the
grandmother of the young Prince, who attended him to jealousy which already began to prevail at Rome re-
the field. Entirely ignorant of war, the preceptor of specting the views of the Eastern Army, presented the
Heliogabalus nevertheless displayed much ability in hope that he might yet retrieve his affairs in a more
the choice of his ground, in the distribution of the fortunate field. Disguising his person in the dress of
Troops, and above all in the eloquent address which he an Imperial Messenger, he succeeded in passing un.
delivered to the Soldiers, and in which he placed before molested through the several Provinces of Asia Minor;
them, in the most energetic language, the advantages but he was discovered at Chalcedon, where he had
of victory, and the horrors of defeat.

occasion to ask for a sum of money in the name of the A battle Macrinus, on the other hand, was well supported by Government. Hence he was carried back as far as ensues, in Officers of courage and experience. The Prætorians, Cappadocia, on his way to the Capital of Syria. Learnwhich he is too, who had just

been relieved from the more weighty ing in the district just named, that his son had been and cumbersome part of their armour, presented a for- intercepted and put to death, he threw himself

, in a midable array; and although they did not express that transport of despair, out of his carriage, and broke one enthusiastic ardour which they were wont to exhibit of the bones of his arm; and, as the wound thereby when about to engage under the eye of a spirited received left no hope of his being able to complete the Sovereign, their pride, their martial character, and journey, he was deprived of life in the city of Archelais, their excellent discipline, afforded an ample security for and his head sent forward to Heliogabalus. their good conduct in the presence of an enemy. In The character of Macrinus, as a Civilian and States. His chathe first onset, accordingly, these gallant Troops broke man, has usually been estimated rather from the things racler and

moderation, through the ranks of the rebel Army, and had almost which he meditated than from such as he actually perdecided the fortune of the day, when the two Princesses, formed. He is said to have expressed his resolution whose fate hung upon the issue of the contest, sprang to restore to the Laws of the Commonwealth the authofrom the chariots in which they had been concealed, rity of which they had been gradually deprived by the threw themselves before the flying Soldiers, and with introduction of Imperial rescripts; which documents prayers and tears endeavoured to check the disgraceful not only superseded the Law in the particular cases to rout. Heliogabalus, likewise, who on no other occasion which they were applied, but became, in fact, precedents of his life was distinguished for heroism, mounted his of so much weight as to interfere with the adminihorse, and at the head of a body of men who had rallied stration of justice in all parts of the Empire. In this round his person, charged sword in hand among the reserve he followed the excellent example of Trajan, thickest of the enemy. His example and exhortation who uniformly refused to employ his prerogative produced a great effect. Shame revived the courage wherever a Court of Law could determine the matter of the fugitives: they halted, returned to their standards, at issue. and prepared once more to dispute the sovereignty of There was another great abuse in the Criminal Juris- Laws Europe and of Asia.

prudence of Rome which he attempted to remove.

As against Heliogaba- The battle was resumed with a degree of obstinacy there was no Public Prosecutor, whose special office lus acknow, which rendered the result a long time doubtful. Ma- it would have been to receive informations and to colledged crinus, it is said, might

have again obtained the ascen- lect evidence for the punishment of all crimes against
Emperor on
the field.

dancy, had he not betrayed his own cause by a shameful
flight. Herodian, indeed, relates that the Emperor did • Capitolio. in Macrin. Dion Cassius, Epitom. Xiphilin. p. 364,
not leave the field until he saw a large body of his 365.


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