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History bodies, kept up a series of the most harassing attacks. easily destroyed, had not the cavalry immediately per- Julianus.
The Romans were soon reduced to the utmost distress. ceived and baffled their design.
From A. D.
horrors of famine menaced them. The gleam of distant regular combat. Their immense army, commanded by 361.
361. armour gave evidence of the approach of an enemy, two sons of the King and several Nobles of Persia, was A. D.
against whom they were unable to rush. Discourage- drawn up in a place called Marenga. The aspect of 363. ment fell upon them, which Julian tried every resource troops completely locked in iron armour, admirably
363. to dispel. He ordered the Persian prisoners to be adjusted to their limbs; their faces hidden by casques, Battle of brought out as a specimen of the adversaries with whom shaped like human visages, which admitted but the
Marenga they had to contend. Their tawny or livid bodies, na- smallest apertures for their eyes and nostrils; the spearturally lank and meagre, were now wasted to the bone men, standing so immovable that they seem rivetted by by long abstinence. Behold,” he cried, pointing with chains to the spot ;* near them the archers, dreaded for contempt to the skeleton figures which stood before their destructive skill in the management of the bow ; them, “ behold the forms which your warriors take for and next, the elephants, scaring with terrible noise men-mere goats-squalid, deformed, hideous—and, the Roman horses, and mounted by riders, ready as experience has often proved, cowards, who, before with drawn knives to destroy the unwieldy animals they close hands in battle, cast away their arms, and the moment they became unmanageable ; all, says the turn to fight.”But neither the spectacle, nor the military narrator,t presented a scene which it was imspeech, could reconcile the Romans to their disastrous possible to view without alarm. Julian ranged his situation. A Council was summoned, and long discus- army, with its wings bent in the form of a crescent, sions ensued. The army, giving license to its feelings, and, lest the archers should throw it into confusion, he called loudly to be led back by its former route. Bit advanced, when within reach of the arrows, with the the Emperor strongly resisted the measure, and many utmost rapidity up to the hostile front. The shock was joined with him to demonstrate its impracticability. long and bloody. But the Persians, little accustomed Almost every thing in the immense plain before them to close conflict, at length gave way, discharging in was destroyed; the few huts, which still remained, were their flight showers of darts, which precluded pursuit. wholly deserted; snow and melted ice had inundated The loss on their side was far more considerable than all the roads, and the swollen torrents already caused on that of the Romans, who, fatigued, but revived in the rivers to overflow. It was that season, moreover, in spirits, returned to their camp, there to find a very difwhich the oppressive heat drew forth from marshy lands ferent, but a more dreadful, evemy. clouds of insects, which in a manner darkened the sky. Want of food was now felt in a degree scarcely Want of' Indecision prevailed. Victims were butchered, and tolerable. Harvests and pastures had been wasted by provisions. their entrails consulted; but no guidance could be fire, and men and cattle were alike reduced to the last elicited from their appearances. The necessity of coming extremity. It became necessary to distribute among to some conclusion, rather than the conviction of the the lowest ranks of the army the provisions which the expediency of the scheme, induced the Emperor to fix Counts and Tribunes had destined for their own use.
upon proceeding to Corduene, a small Province, sub- Alive to the state of suffering which surrounded him, Jaze 16. ject to the Romans, in the South of Armenia. The the Emperor claimed no exemption from the hardships
army had just begun to march, at daybreak, when a and privations of his subjects. In a small tent, he not
which grew denser till the evening. Filled with anxiety, in literary composition, for even at this critical season Sirmisbes
they passed the night, without daring to close their the Soldier never dropped the character of Sage, while
the mind is most open to superstitious influences,-ne
previously to his assumption of the title of
+ Ammian. lib. xxv. c. 1. They imitated the speedy manner of to transport. The next day the Persians made an ab.
killing them followed by Hasdrubal, the brother of Hannibal, and rupt attack on the rear-guard, which would have been thus described by Livy: Elephanti plures ab ipsis rectoribus,
quam ab hoste interfecti. Fabrile scalprum cum malleo habebant : id, uoi savire belluæ ac ruere in suos cæperunt, magister inter aures
positum ipsd in compage, quá jungitur capiti cervix, quanto maximo • Has ob res ut solaretur anxios milites Princeps, captivos poterat ictu adigebat. Ea celerrima via mortis in tantæ molis graciles suapte natura, ut penè sunt Persæ, et macie jam confectos bellua inventa erat, ubi regendi spem vicisset; primusque id Haso jussit in medium duci : nostrosque respiciens, “ En," inquit, “ quos drubal institu-at. (lib. xxvii. c. 49.) Martia ista pectora viros existimant, difformes illuvie capellas et Illatis concitatius signis spiculorum impetum fregit. The lætras, utque crebri docuerunt eventus, antequam manus conferant, same manœuvre had been adopted by Miltiades at the battle of abjectis armis vertentes semet in fugam." Ammian. lib. xxiv. c. 7. Marathon. (Herod. lib. vi. c. 112.) So also Ventidius against the A similar expedient was tried by Agesilaus. See Plutarch in Agesil. Parthians. (Frontin. lib. ii. c. 2.) + Ammian. lib. xxiv,
$ See above, p. 189.
History and its horn of abundance were covered with a veil, and edged weapon, he fell from his horse, and was carried Julianus
it retired with an air of melancholy from the Imperial by his followers into the tent. No sooner was the From pavilion.* Recovering from a momentary impression of wound probed, than gradually recovering from the pain, From
amazement, he arose, and offered to Heaven his midnight he called for his horse and arms, to return to the 361. sacrifice to avert the impending misfortune. While per field and to restore the courage of his men. But his
361. forming this rite, he beheld a furrow of light, which, strength, ill responsive to the mighty spirit that yearned A. D.
like a falling meteor, traversed the air and vanished. for the onslaught, forsook him, and, exhausted with loss 363. His excited imagination, gathering the most sinister of blood, he found himself unable to move his limbs.
363. presages from this phenomenon, viewed in it the me- The sight of Julian, the idol of the army, borne back The baille nacing constellation of Mars.f Before dawn, Julian, in bleeding to the camp, filled the soldiers with the liveliest terminates the greatest haste, sent for the Tuscan haruspices, who, emotions of grief mingled with revenge. Striking doubtfully. having declared that the fatal sign had warned him their spears upon their bucklers, they resolved to inflict against undertaking any enterprise, conjured him, if signal punishment on the authors of their distress, not to abandon, at least to postpone, his march. Heed- Chiefless,--blinded with clouds of dust, -oppressed by less of advice, which his active temperament must the excessive heat,—they fought with the frantic courage have found unpalateable, and the existing emergency of desperation. The Persians, on the other hand, sluwly might have rendered dangerous, he ordered his tents to preceded by their elephants, which alarmed both men be struck as soor as day appeared.
and horses by their enormous masses and waving trunks, The Persians, taught by frequent disasters that they rendered themselves almost invisible by the dense were but an unequal match with the more practised showers of arrows which they discharged. The clash troops of the Romans in regular conflict, contented of arms, the snorting of steeds, and the groans of the themselves with the devices of stratagem, in which their wounded, continued, says the narrator, * to be heard proverbial subtilty was more likely to ensure them suc- afar, till night put an end to the conflict and separated cess. Keeping to their heights, they watched and fol- the two parties, wearied out with fatigue and sated lowed the advancing enemy, ready to take advantage of with vengeance. Fifty Lords and Satraps, with two any opportunity of successful annoyance which might principal Generals and a great number of inferior rank arise.
among the Persians, left dead on the field, attested the
serried, but still were well protected in flank; and Julian, wound as mortal, because, according to his account,
when sudden information arrived that the rear of on learning that the spot on which he lay was so called,
an animating cry to the pursuit, and mingled with head- me from fainting under the pressure of difficulties, and
. I wounded. against exposing himself thus rashly to a throng, most have observed of all pains, that as they triumph over the
formidable in flight. Just then a javelin, shot by some weak and impatient, so they yield to those who resist them
life or since the assumption of the Purple. I have re-
garded the Imperial authority as an emanation from the
Gods, which I trust I have preserved pule and unsul.
to embark in war without mature deliberation.
Ammian. lib. xxv. C: 3
History. because success is at the disposal of a higher power. was but weak and abject to grieve over a Prince who was Julianus.
Convinced that the interest and happiness of his sub- about to be united to the Heavens.* While they strove Fram jects ought to form the sole object of a good Prince, to stifle their emotions, he entered into a subtle dispute
From I have always, as you know, leaned to tranquil and with Maximust and Priscus, the Philosophers, on the
A. D. 361. pacific views,* and I have banished from my con- excellence of the Soul. But, as his wound reopened
to duct that licentiousness which is destructive alike of the and the inflammation increased, his breathing became
A. D Moral Principles and of the prosperity of States. But embarrassed. He called for a draught of cold water, 363.
963. whenever the Republic, whom I venerate as a mother, and had no sooner drunk it, than, about the middle of
His death. has called me to open dangers, I have encountered them the night, he expired without pain.
June 26. with the firmness of one accustomed to trample under He was then in the thirty-second year of his age, foot the varied accidents of fortune. I will not conceal having reigned seven years and a half from his elevafrom you that it had been predicted to me that I should tion to the dignity of Cæsar, three years since his asfall by a violent death. I offer thanks to the Ever- sumption of the title of Augustus, and one year, eight lasting Deity that I do not terminate my days through months, and twenty-one days since he had enjoyed the secret treason, or by the protracted torture of disease, undisturbed possession of supreme power. or after the manner of condemned criminals;t but Thus perished, in the vigour of his age, after a brief Remarke, that I have earned a great and glorious end in the but eventful reign, one of the only Princes who appeared mid-career of brilliant achievements. In the opinion of capable, by the rare endowments which the vicissitudes all just judges, it is equally pusillanimous to long for of his checkered life developed, to call again into exdeath when it behoves us to live, or to regret life when istence the ancient discipline of Rome, and to maintain it is time to die. My failing strength prevents me from the character of the Empire on the precarious elevation speaking longer. I purposely abstain from naming my which it had reached. " It has been justly remarked successor. My choice might be erroneous, and if re- that his last moments were a copy of the death of jected, it might perhaps expose to peril the person to Socrates, but without the ease and natural simplicity whom it pointed. But as a faithful son of the Republic, of the original. There is, indeed, in the whole scene I hope she may obtain after my death a virtuous ruler.”I a certain self-complacent, theatrical air, not very con
Having thus spoken in the most composed manner, sonant with true greatness. It does not bear the be ordered that his body should be removed to Tarsus gentle character of resignation. It exhibits itself too in Cilicia, and distributed his private property among ambitiously by a studied display of phrases.
And the his most intimate friends. On learning the death of visible effort to produce, as it were, the striking and one of these, Anatolius, whom he had desired to see, the sublime of some grand catastrophe, tends to deprive he gave way to his affliction. Yet the same man had the situation of the essential qualities of earnestness and forbidden lamentations for himself, remarking to the solemnity. melancholy circle by which he was surrounded, that it In person Julian was of the middle size, but of a robust His charac
make, and thoroughly well-proportioned frame. His eyes ter. The insincerity of this assertion is obvious. Lituos somniabat were full of fire, and his eyebrows handsome. His hair et præla. (Animian. lib. xxii.) Ver damnatorum fine. Florent; MS. The common reading in a point. His nose was straight; his mouth rather
was peculiarly smooth; his beard long, and terminated " delicatorum" is not inconsistent with the character of Julian.
As a specimen of the style of Ammianus, the original speech is large, and his under lip hanging:S His neck short and subjoined : Advenit, o soci, nunc abeundi tempus è vitá impendio bent; his shoulders thick and broad; and his counteterrpestivum, quam reposcenti Naluræ, ut debitor bonæ fidei, reddi
nance neither regular nor remarkable for beauty.ll furus ersulto : non, ut quidam opinantur, adflietus et mærens : Phidosophorum sententia generali perdoctus, quantum corpore sit beatior His public life was one unremitting struggle against varmus, et contemplans, quoties conditio melior à deteriore secernitur, the degenerate habits of the Age, by the fatal influence of latandum esse potius, quam dolendum. Illud quoque advertens, which the sinews of Roman greatness were gradually quod etiam Dii cælestes quibusdam puissimis mortem tanquam sum
unstrung. Combining the utmost ability with heroic mum premium persolverunt. Munus autem id mihi delatum optimè scio, ne difficultatibus succumberem arduis, neve me projiciam unquam aui prosternum: expertus, quod dolores omnes, ut insultant ignavis, * Humile esse cælo sideribusque conciliatum lugeri Principem ita persistentibus cedunt. Nec me gestorum pænitet, aut gravis fla- dicens. (Ammian.) gitü recordatio stringit, vel cum in umbram et augulos amandarer, + This Philosopher, who had first inspired Julian with aversion for vel post principatum susceptum: quem tanquam à cognatione cælitum Christianity, had been invited to Court by him, and received with marks defluentem, immaculatum (ut existimo) conservavi, et civilia mode- of esteem, wbich Libanius has praised highly, (Orat. xii.) but which ratius regens, et examinatis rationibus bella inferens et repellens: Ammianus thought below the Imperial dignity. (Ammian. lib. xxii.) tametsi prosperitas simul utilitasque consultorum non ubique con- He was so baughty as to be less easy of access than the Emperor cordent, quoniam cæptorum eventus superæ sibi vindicant potestates. himself.(Eunap. c.5.) Julian's “ whole Court,” says Dr. Bentley, " in Repuians autem, justi esse finem imperii, obedientium commodum et a manner consisted of Haruspices, Sacrifieuli, and Philosophers." Resalutem, ad tranquilliora semper, ut nóstis, propensior fui, licentiam marks on a late Discourse on Free-thinking. Comp. Encyclopædia, omnem actibus meis exterminans, rerum corruptricem et morum: p. 115, note. gaudensque, adeo scions, quod, ubicunque me velut imperiosa parens | The above account rests on the testimony of the honest and consideratis periculis objecit respublica, 'steti fundatus, turbines well-informed Ammianus, with which the tales which are added by calcare fortuitorum adsuefactus. Nec fateri pudebit, interiturum Christian writers seem inconsistent. It is pretended, that when Julian me ferro dudum didici fide fatidicâ præcinente. Ideoque sempiter felt himself wounded, imagining he saw Jesus Christ, he filed his num veneror numen, quod non clandestinis insidüs, nec longá morbo- band with blood, and cast it towards heaven with the blasphemous rum asperitate, vel damnatorum fine decedo : sed in medio cursu exclamation : "Glut thyself. Thou hast conquered, Galilæan, but I forentium gloriarum hunc merui clarum è mundo digressum. Æquo still renounce thee,” &c. See Theodor. lib. iii.c. 20. Sozom. lib. vi. autem judicio, juxta timidus est et ignavus, qui, cùm non oportet, c. 2. See the different reports of his death in Le Beau, Hist, du mori desiderat : et qui refugiat, cùm sit opportunum. Hactenus Bas-Empire, tom. iii. p. 374. loqui rigore virium tabenle sufficiat. Super imperatore verò creando § Labro inferiore demisso, al. diviso. It was, probably, the cautè reticeo, ne per imprudentiam dignum præteream : aut nomina- pouting lip, like that of the Imperial family of Austria. See Valesius tum, quem habilem reor, anteposito forsitan alio in discrimen ultimum and Wagner, in loc. trustnim. Ut alumnus autem reipublicæ frugi, opto bonum post me || Ammian. lib. xxv. c. 4. Comp. Misop. See also Greg. Nazianz. reperiri rectorem. (lib. xxv. C. 3.)
in Juhan. Orat. ii.
History, courage, he displayed the various qualifications of a In a word, * had his virtues, flowing in a more natural Julianus.
consummate military commander no less in the conduct and equable course from genuine feeling, depende) less From of sieges, the disposition of marches, and the manage- on the forced and fitful 'suggestions of artificial self
From A. D.
ment of encampments,than by the skilfulness of his plans, schooling; had a proper sense of dignity imparted the 361. the fertility of his evolutions, and the boldness of his at minor attributes of grace to his de neanour, and true
361. tempts in the field of battle. The terror of his arms con- magnanimity enhanced the splendour of his exploits, by A. V. 363, tinued long after the blows which they had inflicted were withdrawing from them all appearance of vanity and
363. past; and the rugged Tribes, which he had quelled into ostentation it and, above all, had right views of Religion submission, remained tranquil until his death. Possessing inspired a more just and benign, as well as more rathat double art which both inspires affection and enforces tional, spirit, to his policy and conduct; his name, authority, he contrived to induce his troops, even uniting the military fame of Alexander with the virtuous without pay, to encounter the fiercest adversaries; and reputation of Marcus Aurelius, the two objects of his he succeeded in leading on bands of men, long accus- imitation, I would have shone among the most illustritomed and devotedly attached to the bleak regions of ous in the annals of History. Gaul, into distant Countries of vast extent, through His body was transported to Tarsus, and buried near the burning plains of Assyria to the very frontiers of that city. His monument, rising on the banks of the Media. So singular, indeed, was the ascendency which Cydnus, was regarded by the Pagans as a Temple, and he had acquired, that the mere threat of retiring into hore engraven on it the following simple distich: private life was sufficient, as it were, to silence the murmurs of the discontented. His well-built frame, hard
Julian, having passed the rapid-rolling Tigris, lies here.
He united the qualities of a good Prince and a brave warrior.|| ened by long practice, enabled him to brave the severest changes of climate and to sustain the most harassing fatigues. Requiring but little sleep or sustenance, he divided the period which others lost in rest, between
Thomas, after having shown the difference between the character the duties of personal vigilance and the pursuits of justly observes : Son extérieur étoit simple, son caractère ne l'étoit pas,
of Julian and that of Marcus Aurelius, whom he affected to initate, literary composition. Of the less brilliant, but far more
Ses discours, ses actions avoient de l'appareil el sembloient avertir qu'il solid, qualities which constitute true greatness, his love étoit grand. Suivez-le ; sa passion pour la gloire perce partout. Il of justice and moderation, with a few disgraceful excep
lui faut un théátre et des battemens de mains. Il s'incligne qu'on les tions, have appeared in the course of his History. irrité qui commanduit à cent mille hommes; mais il se venge
refuse. Il se venge, il est vrai, plus en homme d'esprit qu'en prince The greater part of his time, when at Antioch, was de
court à la renommée ; il l'appelle. Il flatte pour étre flatré. Il veut voted to judicial proceedings. Though he was apt during etre tout à la fois Platon, Alarc-Aurèle, et Alexandre. (Essai sur Trials to put irrelevant questions respecting the Sect to les Eloges, ch. xx.) which the parties before the Court belonged, his de
† His character, as drawn by Prudentius, is well known : cisions are said to have been free from the bias of re
Ductor fortissimus armis ; ligious prejudice. They were generally marked by
Conditor et legum celeberrimus ; ore manuque
Consultor patrice; sed non consultor habendæ precision, though sometimes grounded rather on natural
Religionis ; amans tercentúm millia Divúm. equity than on established Law. Taught by expe
Perfidus ille Deo, sed non et perfidus Orbi. rience the odious nature of calumny, he was slow to
Apotheos. 450, &c. attend to the charges of informers; and he displayed Ammianus has thus candidly mentioned his defects : Levioris ingethe most dignified contempt for points to which weak nii: verum hoc instituto rectissimo temperabat, emendari se, cum aud unjust Princes would have attached considerable deviaret à fruge bond, permittens. Linguæ fusioris et admodum raro weight. He rejected accusations, even when directed silentis: præsagiorum sciscitationi nimiæ deditus, ut æquiparare vide
retur in hac parte principem Hadrianum: superstitiosus magis, quàm against men for whom he entertained a personal dislike.
sacrorum legitimus observutor, innumeras sine parsimonii pecudes Yet the impartial Historian has stated as a circum- mactans : ut æstimaretur, si revertisset de Parthis, boves jam defutu. stance which but ill accords with his character for equity, ros: Marci illius similis Cæsaris, in quem id accepimus dictum, oi that in his reign, persons who complained against λευκοι βόες Μάρκων το Καίσαρι. "Αν συ νικήσης, ημείς απωλόμεθα. Tulgi
plausibus lætus, laudum etiam ex minimis rebus intemperans adpetiMagistrates, however distinguished might be their own
tor, popularitatis cupiditate cum indignis loqui scepe adfectans, &c. privileges, connections, and services, seldom obtained (lib. xxv.) the redress they deserved, and found themselves com- Conip. Julian. Ep. ad Themist. pelled to purchase by secret bribes exemption from an- Š In this account of Julian, besides the original text of Ammianus, noyance. His chastity, * a virtue which he considered Additional information may be found in Jondot, Histoire de ! L'm
we have chiefly followed the elegant Work of La Bleterie, Vie de Julien. as shedding as fair a lustre on the mind as beauty con
pereur Julien, 2 vols. Paris, 1817. This latter Work, thougb it confers on the body, was not, even in the ardour of youth, tains many just strictures on the conduct of the Emperor, is for the exposed to the slightest suspicion from his most inti- most part written in a vein of declamatory detraction. The author is mate followers. When in Assyria, a Country no less fond of drawing
a parallel in huis Notes between the Russian expedition remarkable for the seductive beauty than for the pliant given an account of Julian in the Biographie Universelle, tom. xxii
of Bonaparte and the Parthian war of Julian. M. Jondot has likewise morals of the female sex,t he preserved unimpeached Heyler mentions the following Work also on the subject of Julian. the character of Stoical indifference by which he was Ueber den Kaiser Julianus und sein Zeitalter. Ein historisches distinguished, and refused even to venture ca the sight Gemälde, von A. Neander. Leips. 1812. of the fair captives whom the chances of war had placed AMHOTEPON BACIAETC T ACABOC KPATEPOCT" AIXMHTHC.
Η ΙΟΥΛΙΑΝΟ ΜΕΤΑ ΤΙΓΡΙΝ ΑΓΑPPOON ΕΝΘΑΔΕ ΚΕΙΤΑΙ in his possession.
Cedrenus says: Το δύστηνον σώμα αποκομίσθη εν Κωνσκαντινουπόλει
АМФОТЕРON ВАСІЛЕто т” АГАӨос КРАТЕРОСТ AIxмнтис.
See Lindenbrog. not. in Amm. Marcel. lib. xxv. c. 10.
History. The History of Ancient Philosophy may be divided commonly called Eclectic, * and also, perhaps with more Plotinus.
into the Age of Invention, and the Age of Illustration: propriety, by reason of its fundamental principles, Neo-
system, conversant with themes which exalt the mind Rise of Ec. Dogmatism, as we have already remarked, had pro- beyond“ this dim spot which men call Earth," attractive lecicism. duced, by a reaction natural to the human mind, its too by its Pantheistic nature no less than by its spiritual
opposite Pyrrhonism.* But the state of universal doubt ecstacies and Theurgic pretensions, exerted extraordi.
Religious opinions. The School of Aihens, he thinks, holds a middle
* Almost the only Sect with which the Alexandrian School could Arts of Theurgy. In this manner arose the School
not coalesce, was the Epicurean, which was fundamentally different
from the Platonic. It shrank from the contact of a scheme of morals • Encycl, Sext. EMPIRICUS.
which would degrade and deaden the feelings it was its aim to infuse, Cousin, Cours de ? Hist. de la Philosoph. tom. i. p. 317.
as well as from a system in which Man is but M. Degerando looks upon the School of the new Platonists as
“ the abandon'd orphan of blind chance
Dropp'd by wild atoms in disorder'd dance."