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fifth expedie tion beyond
History. Empire, holding, as represented by paintings, the horn his infancy and education." An orphan !" (cried the Constantius.
of abundance, and complaining that he had long waited indignant Julian,) " does it become the assassin of my From at his door, and had often been forced to retire. On father and of all my family, to reproach me that I was
From hearing the clamours of the soldiers, he besought left an orphan ? Does he wish to reopen wounds 323. Jupiter to signify his will, and he was directed by which are scarcely closed ?" The assembly being dis
323. an omen to yield to the entreaties of the army. In missed, Leonas, who had been treated with the atten361. these instances may be discerned that bias towards tions due to his rank and merit, was sent back with a
361. superstition, which is so rarely untinctured by du- letter, in which Julian expressed without disguise the plicity.
feelings which he had long smothered. The resolution with which Julian rejected the advice In the mean time, while the Emperor was engaged Julian's of his soldiers to put to death the partisans of Con- in the Persian war, Julian passed the Rhine at Tricesi- fourth and stantius who had opposed his elevation, and the gene- ma,* and fell suddenly on the Attuarii, a Tribe of rosity with which he forgave an Eunuch, who, it is Franks, inhabiting the present Countries of Cleves and the Rhine. said, was bribed to murder him, are traits calculated to Munster, who had repeatedly invaded the Gallic fronconfirm the high opinion entertained of his character. tier. He slaughtered great numbers of them, and 360, 361. No blood was shed : Florentius fled from Gaul; Lupi- compelled the rest to submit. Having spent three cinus, on returning from Britain, was arrested, but months in this expedition, he visited the fortresses along experienced humane treatment.
the Rhine as far as Basle, recovered and fortified some His letter to
After having assembled his troops, and exhorted them places which were still in the power of the enemy, passed
to protect him whom they themselves had exalted to the through Besançon, and took up his winter-quarters at
and, at the same time, holding communications with Negotiation
The ambassadors of Julian met the Emperor at Constantius, secretly fomented the hostilities of which he between
Cæsarea, in Cappadocia. The letters, with which they affected to complain. Julian, having intercepted a letter
were charged, transported him with inordinate rage, which disclosed his dissimulation, resolved to use artifice
Tricesima is supposed by some to be Cleves, by others Kellen.
† About this time died Helena, his wise. Her pregnancy had been
delivered of a son. Obstetrix corrupta mercede, mor nalum præsecto
plusquam convenerut umbilico n-cavit. (Ammian. lib. xvi. c. 10.) ror, who observed, that he found him an orphan, and quæsitum venenum bibere per fraulem ille.rit, ut quotiescunque concewith all the tenderness of a father had taken care of pisset, immaturum abjiceret partum. (16.) Her body was sent to
Rome, and interred near that of her sisier Constantina. (Id. lib. xxi.
c. 1.) She is styled on medals Flavia Julia Helena, and on some has Ammianus adds, that besides this public letter, Julian added a the title of Augusta. Julian did not re-marry. Pagan writers speak private one, filled with cutting reproaches, which he had not seen, of his chastity in a tone of panegyric, which seems to derive confirand would have thought it unbecoming to insert in his History. (lib.xx. mation from the silence of the Christians. See La Bleterie, rue de
Julien, p. 109.
History. their dispute, ventured at length to throw off the mask commanded the military in Illyricum, and intended, in Constantius.
which he had hitherto worn, and openly committed the consequence of certain confused reports, to assemble From care of his life to the (iods. At this critical period he his forces. Suddenly roused from repose, seized, and
From bent his mind towards the most effectual means of thrown upon a horse, he was brought, stupified with 323. securing his newly acquired power. He perceived the terror, into the presence of Julian. But no sooner
323. high importance of seizing by a sudden movement the had he recovered his self-possession and bewildered
A. D. Province of Illyricum, which was able both to furnish senses, than with singular imprudence he ventured to
361 361. his army with recruits, and to enable him to sustain the remark to Julian, that he had rashly thrown himself
, expenditure of the war, by the resources which its with a small number of men, into the midst of his admines of gold and silver might supply. Accordingly versaries. “ Reserve for Constantius these prudent he opened this design to his assembled troops, and, counsels, (replied the conqueror with a bitter smile,) after expatiating on the advantages which would result when I gave you my Purple to kiss, I wished not to from the attempt, however daring, conjured them to be receive your advice, but to dispel your fears.” Senmindful of that strictness of discipline, and that regard sible that his fortune, and perhaps his life, was placed for moderation towards the people, which had reflected on a desperate cast, Julian continued with undiminished upon them more lustre than the most splendid military speed, energy, and boldness, to urge on the execution achievements. No sooner was his animated address of his project. As he approached the suburbs of Sirconcluded, than the same soldiers, whom the prospect mium, he was received with every demonstration of joy of leaving Gaul had roused to rebellion against Con- by the soldiers and a promiscuous crowd of people, stantius, now, filled with enthusiasm, evinced by their who led him, with due honours, to the Imperial palace. unanimous acclamations, and by the loud clashing of Departing on the dawn of the third day, he seized their shields, their readiness to follow the fortunes of without opposition the important pass of Succi, a very Julian to the farthest extremities of the world. They narrow and precipitous defile between Mount Hæmus then proceeded to take the oath of allegiance to his and Mount Rhodope, which separates the Provinces of person, and, pointing their naked swords to their throats, Thrace and Illyria. Having intrusted the defence of swore with dreadful imprecations, that, devoted to his this post to Nevitta, who, with the other commanders, service, they would shed for him, if necessity should had ably effected, in ten or eleven days' time, the derequire it, the last drop of their blood. Nebridius signed junction at Sirmium, he returned to Neissus, alone, who held at that time the office of Prætorian where he employed his time in levying fresh troops Præfect, courageously refused to enter into this engage- from all quarters, and in writing to several cities of ent Raised to his dignity by the sole favour of Con- Greece, among the rest, Athens, Lacedæmon, and stantius, he had the nobleness of mind to declare, that he Corinth, to explain and justify, with a degree of study would not bind himself to act against his benefactor and and solicitude which evinced the weight he attached to master. It was with difficulty that he escaped falling a public esteem, the motives which induced him to revolt sacrifice to the armed crowd, from whose fury he was against Constantius.* The power of Julian soon bescreened by Julian, who threw over the Præfect his Im
came widely felt. Taurus and Florentius, who were perial mantle, and afterwards allowed him to retire unmo- stigmatized in the public Acts of the year by the title of lested into Hetruria. His disinterestedness and loyalty, the “ fugitive Consuls,”+ abandoned the Præfectures of though infeelingly disparaged by an ancient Orator, Italy and Illyricum, over which they had been respectcannot but obtain their full meed of praise from the im- ively placed, and hastened to acquaint the Emperor partiality of the modern Historian. The office of Ne- with the imminent dangers which threatened his Embridius was afterwards conferred on Sallust, who had pire. The deserted Provinces submitted to Julian, the thus an opportunity of practically displaying, in his own master of Italy; he addressed to the Senate of Rome administration, those principles of moderation and jus- an epistle, which contained invectives so severe against tice which had before distinguished his instructions. the vices of Constantius, that the assembly exclaimed
Julian, now fully assured of the fidelity of his troops, with one accord, as if Julian had been present, “We makes him. divided them in such a manner, that their numerical beseech you to respect the author of your fortune :”. ei lyricum, strength might appear large beyond reality, and that
an expression which may, perhaps, be considered as they might spread the terror of their arms in a greater evincing their courage and gratitude, though it might variety of directions. Twenty thousand men were sent be interpreted to mean that the choice of Julian as into Pannonia, under the conduct of Nevitta, Jovius, Cæsar was a blessing conferred on them, and was and Jovinus, and ordered to march by different routes : sufficient to throw the many faults of Constantius into the remaining three thousand, which completed his the shade. I army, were commanded by Jwian himself; all were Constantius was no sooner apprized of the speed and Preparaappointed to meet at Sirmium, as the place of rendezsuccess of Julian, than, availing himself of the retreat tions of
Constantius. vous. At the head of his select band, Julian boldly of the Persian Monarch, against whom he w was engaged, penetrated into the Marcian Forest, advanced with he prepared to attack his rival-a task the difficulties rapidity over mountain and morass, careless whether of which he affected to treat with the utmost contempt. he passed the Country of the Romans or of the Barbarians; and pressing on with the greatest vigour
* The only one of these epistles which still remains is that written and secrecy by land and water, after a series of the
to the Athenians,—an eloquent composition. We have also a few most skilful manœuvres, arrived unexpectedly at Bo- lines of a letter addressed to the Corinthians, when he was already in nonia, which is but nineteen miles from Sirmium, possession of a great part of the Empire. before the enemy had any certain knowledge that he
+ Zosim. p. 712. had begun his 'march from the banks of the Rhine.
Quæ cùm, Tertullo administrante adhuc præfecturum, recita.
rentur in Curia, eminuit Nobilitatis cum speciosii fi luciii benignitas Dagalaïphus, one of his officers, hastening with a Body grata. Exclamatum est enim, in unam cunctorum sententia congresof light infantry, immediately surprised Lucilian, who " Auctori luo reverentiam rogamus."
.to A. D.
to A. D.
History. The progress of Julian, hitherto so prosperous, was suggested or approved. His capacity was limited, his Constantius.
suddenly interrupted by an event, which seemed likely vanity inordinate. Jealous of his power, and suspicious From to be attended with considerable embarrassment and of danger, he lent a ready ear to informers, who
From danger. Having found at Sirmium two legions and a prompted him to acts of atrocious cruelty, to which he 323. cohort of archers attached to the cause of Constantius, appears not to have been naturally inclined. His prone
he had determined to remove them to Gaul : on the ness to mercy, except in cases of treason, where fear
march, however, they resolved, with common feelings smothered feeling, though generally believed to be sincere, 361.
361, of discontent, to occupy, in concert with the inhabitants, has been represented as feigned, but it has been so repreAquileia, a town of the greatest strength on the side of sented by an enemy. He was not, however, without Illyricum, and the key of Italy and Gaul. On the first virtues, which might have produced for him an intelligence of their refractory movenient, Jovinus was sullied reputation in private life, where his faults, ordered to lead back a part of the army into Italy, and perhaps, would not have been so glaringly exhibited, to form the siege of this almost impregnable post. But Frugal in his diet and temperate in his habits, he was whilst the legionaries defended themselves with obsti- remarkable for a chastity which suspicion has not nate courage, the forces of Julian were weakened by aspersed. His filial deference is also an amiable trait, this diversion, and his situation would have been ren- which redeems some of his failings. On the whole he dered perilous, had not the further progress of Civil swells the catalogue of Princes, whose good qualities war been unexpectedly prevented by the death of Con- have been repressed and whose defects elicited by the stantius. On his arrival at Tarsus he was seized with arts of evil counsellors. a slight fever, occasioned perhaps by intense mental Upon intelligence of the death of his rival, Julian Julian's en anxiety, which he thought might be reduced by exer- hastened to Constantinople, the place of his birth, into try into Cor cise. Accordingly he proceeded to Mopsucrene, a
which he entered in triumph amid general rejoicings. Dec. 112 small town on the borders of Cilicia, where, by the in- The crowds which gathered round him with all the
creasing heat and violence of his distemper, he was eagerness of curiosity were surprised at the small stature Death of
stop. All remedies proving ineffectual, he and youthful appearance of the conqueror of Barbarian Constantius expired in the forty-fifth year of his age and the twenty- Kings and nations, whose fame was diffused through Nov. 3. fourth of his reign. Before he closed his life, he is said the vast extent of territory which had witnessed his ex
to have wamed Julian his successor—a circumstance traordinary success. The attempt of the intriguer 361.
which is perhaps explicable on the supposition that his Eusebius and his adherents to oppose his career and
Church of the Holy Apostles. Julian accompanied the
The character of Constantius was marked by weak- funeral procession on foot, without a diadem, in a character.
ness which unfitted him for the station in which he was mourning habit. The tears which he shed seemed to
peror. inexpediency and injustice of the measures which they
FROM THE DEATH OF CONSTANTIUS TO THE DEATH OF JULIANUS.
FROM A. D. 361 TO A. D. 363
to A. D.
Julian no sooner found bis power established on a se- itself with measures of unquestionable utility. A thou. Julianus. History.
cure basis, than he applied himself to the correction of sand cooks, with as many cupbearers, and a still numerous abuses, against which the public voice had greater number of barbers, besides eunuchs as count- From
been raised, with a degree of zeal which appeared to less as swarms of summer insects,* drained, in haughty 361. have derived an additional stimulus from the remem- indolence, the public revenue. Julian, having occasion 361.
brance of private wrongs. A Chamber of Justice* was for a barber, one so splendidly arrayed presented hím
instituted and fixed at Chalcedon to investigate the self, that he exclaimed with astonishment, “ It was a bar363. conduct of such as were thought to have discharged ber I sent for, not a receiver-general of the finances.”+
363. Chamber of improperly the authority with which they had been This man, being asked the value of his appointment, reJustice.
intrusted under the preceding Emperor. But some plied, that he received a daily allowance for twenty per.
The conduct of Julian towards the Senate was equally Conduct of was in vain that the Emperor endeavoured to clear different from that observed in the preceding reign. Julian tohimself from the deep odium and execrations which so Constantius had never condescended to visit their as- wards the unjustifiable a sentence had excited, by denying that he semblies, to consult their opinions, nor even to offer Senate. had ever consented to his execution, and by restoring them a seat when summoned to receive his commands. to his daughter a part of his confiscated property. He Julian, on the contrary, who wished to appear obseryrepresented the unfortunate man as the victim of a ant of the forms of the old Republic, was assiduous in his soldiery, provoked at expressions which he had dropped attendance at their deliberations, allowed them to enjoy against their want of courage. A very different impres- the full liberty of discussion, and took pleasure in giving sion was produced by the signal punishment of some scope to the studied variety of his own oratorical talents. notorious informers. Paul, called the Chain, whose It has been incorrectly asserted, however, that he was very name could scarcely be uttered without a shudder the first and last of the Roman Emperors, since the of horror, was consigned to the flames. Capital punish- death of Julius Caesar, who made harangues in the ment was also inflicted on the Eunuch Eusebius, the Senate. Averse to the haughtiness of despotism, he Chamberlain of Constantius, who, raised from the most refused the title of Dominus, or Lord, ll to which abject condition, had exerted a complete and pernicious ascendancy over the mind of his master.
Eivoúrous, 'rig tås uvías rapà Toño Torpion is her. Liban. Comp.
Socrat. lib. iii. Zonar. lib. xii.
† " Ego," inquit, "non rationalem jussi, sed tonsorem acciri." Le Palace. dext extended to the Imperial household, into which the Ammian. lib. xxii
. c. 4. In Zonaras, Kougía 897sīv, sles åda'ou wasteful dissipation of Constantius had introduced every guysantinór. Lib. xiii. refinement of luxury. Yet here, as in other instances,
The officers called Agentes in rebus were reduced from ten an alloy of inconsiderate rigour is said to have mixed thousand to seventeen; (Liban. Orat. xii.) and the Curiosi, whose
employment was to give information to the Emperor of what happened
in the Provinces, were dismissed, and their office suppressed. (Am* Ammian. lib. xxii. c. 3. Liban. Orat. Parent. c. 74.
mian. lib. xxii.)
Gibbon, Decline and Fall, &c. c. 22.
ll Jul. Misop. p. 313.
From A. D.
History,, habit had at length familiarized the degenerate sons of in the conduct of which strength and clearness of judg. Julianus,
the Republic. So great was the reverence which he felt ment were so conspicuously manifested. From
or affected to feel for the office of Consul, that he fined After having conciliated, by his liberality, the inha
himself ten pounds of gold on being reminded that he bitants of Constantinople, for which city, as being his 361.
361, had trespassed on its jurisdiction by the manumission native place, he felt peculiar attachment, which he deof some slaves during the Circensian Games, in presence monstrated by conferring on its Senate the privileges and of that Magistrate.* His attention was also bestowed in authority enjoyed
that of ancient Rome, * he pro363.
363. Ameliorathe most useful manner on the simplification and improve- ceeded to visit Antioch, the pride of the East. On his
May 15, tion of the ment of the ancient Laws. Subtilties, the web of chi- way he arrived at Nicomedia, once famed for the numLaws. canery, were removed, and that degree of precision in- ber and magnificence of its public and private edifices,
362. troduced which might enable every citizen to ascertain the but then reduced, by the successive ravages of an earth- He sets out nature and extent of his public duties. His moderation quake and a conflagration, to a mournful heap of ashes. for Antioch. and disinterestedness towards the Provinces in refusing As he passed in silence through the ruins of seats, in to receive crowns of a value likely to prove oppressive, which he had spent a part of his early days, and caught evinced his sincerity in the contempt for riches which he the well-known features of some former friend, he was so was fond of expressing. He relieved, moreover, many much affected as to be unable to refrain froin tears. celebrated cities of Greece, and diminished the burthen Nor did he fail to manifest the sincerity of his affliction, of some grievous imposts.
by taking measures for the reparation of the wreck Military im
The cares of Julian in Civil matters, though eminently which he had witnessed. provements.
great and unremitted, proved no bar to his military exer- Arriving at the borders of Galatia, Julian, changing
armies and the territories of the Empire, was an object courted the suffrages of literary characters, whose eloPersian better suited to the loftiness of his views. Preparations quence could impart a durable circulation to their praises, invasion, were accordingly made in a manner commensurate with by investing them with honourable and important posts.
the extent of the undertaking; and neither the outcries It was shortly after, that, impatient to enjoy the advan-
in the opinion of the superstitious, when the seat of Antioch. Superstition Suddenly raised to the possession of supreme power Princes resounded with cries of lamentation and woe. of Julian.
and universally feared, if not admired, Julian was not His first act was calculated to inspire a favourable
His cle. nary minds, and his plans were laid out on a scale of sequence of his conduct towards Gallus. Many mean
* Multa quædam correrit in melius, ambagibus circumcisis, indi- you speak of has given me just cause of offence; but,
on this very account, it befits you to be silent till I have † Ab usque Divis et Serendivis, Amm. lib. xx. c. 7.; on which received satisfaction, who am his principal enemy.”+ see the note of Valesius. See also J. Vossius in Observ. ad Pompor. Melam. lib. iii. c. 7. Prosperis Julianis elatior, ultra homines jam spirabat. Ammian.
Zosim. lib. ii. ib. xxii. c. 9.
+ Ammian. lib. xxii. c. 9.