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fifth expedie tion beyond

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History. Empire, holding, as represented by paintings, the horn his infancy and education." An orphan !" (cried the Constantius.

of abundance, and complaining that he had long waited indignant Julian,) " does it become the assassin of my From at his door, and had often been forced to retire. On father and of all my family, to reproach me that I was

From hearing the clamours of the soldiers, he besought left an orphan ? Does he wish to reopen wounds 323. Jupiter to signify his will, and he was directed by which are scarcely closed ?" The assembly being dis

323. an omen to yield to the entreaties of the army. In missed, Leonas, who had been treated with the atten361. these instances may be discerned that bias towards tions due to his rank and merit, was sent back with a

361. superstition, which is so rarely untinctured by du- letter, in which Julian expressed without disguise the plicity.

feelings which he had long smothered. The resolution with which Julian rejected the advice In the mean time, while the Emperor was engaged Julian's of his soldiers to put to death the partisans of Con- in the Persian war, Julian passed the Rhine at Tricesi- fourth and stantius who had opposed his elevation, and the gene- ma,* and fell suddenly on the Attuarii, a Tribe of rosity with which he forgave an Eunuch, who, it is Franks, inhabiting the present Countries of Cleves and the Rhine. said, was bribed to murder him, are traits calculated to Munster, who had repeatedly invaded the Gallic fronconfirm the high opinion entertained of his character. tier. He slaughtered great numbers of them, and 360, 361. No blood was shed : Florentius fled from Gaul; Lupi- compelled the rest to submit. Having spent three cinus, on returning from Britain, was arrested, but months in this expedition, he visited the fortresses along experienced humane treatment.

the Rhine as far as Basle, recovered and fortified some His letter to

After having assembled his troops, and exhorted them places which were still in the power of the enemy, passed

to protect him whom they themselves had exalted to the through Besançon, and took up his winter-quarters at
Imperial dignity, he wrote, in his name and that of the Vienna. Here he celebrated the fifth year which had
army, a conciliatory epistle to the Emperor, which he elapsed since his elevation to the rank of Cæsar, and
sent by two of his chief officers, Pentadius and Euthe- assumed the diadem, adorned with pearls and precious
rius. Assuming only the name of Cæsar, he detailed stones, which was borne by the Emperors since Con-
the circumstances of his promotion, and solicited that stantine.f But the Alemanni, though subdued by
he might be permitted to enjoy the tiile which he had arms and bound by Treaties, still evinced a disposition
been forced to accept; he allowed the supremacy of to avail themselves of every opportunity to frustrate
Constantius, to whom he promised to send yearly his design of imparting permanent tranquillity to
Spanish horses and some foreign troops, and to leave Gaul. They again broke into that Province on the
the nomination of the Prætorian Præfect. But he re- side of Rhætia, and recommenced the work of devas-
served to himself the appointment of the other officers; tation. Radomarius, one of their Kings, (whose
and, at the same time, represented that the state of Country lay near Basle,) an extremely crafty and
Gaul was such, that so far from being able to spare any dangerous man, pretended to feel the deepest respect
of the inhabitants of her wasted regions, she needed the for Julian, on whom he lavished the most lofty titles,
assistance of the other Provinces. *

and, at the same time, holding communications with Negotiation

The ambassadors of Julian met the Emperor at Constantius, secretly fomented the hostilities of which he between

Cæsarea, in Cappadocia. The letters, with which they affected to complain. Julian, having intercepted a letter
Julian and

were charged, transported him with inordinate rage, which disclosed his dissimulation, resolved to use artifice
and he dismissed them, trembling, from his presence, against artifice, caused him to be arrested at a ban-
without interrogating or listening to them. In the quet, which he imprudently accepted, and banished him
height of his fury he hesitated whether he should pro- into Spain. Julian had already despatched against the
secute his expedition against the Persians, or march Alemanni, Lebano, one of his commanders, who was
without delay against his rival. On calmer thoughts, killed, and his troops routed. He advanced, therefore,
he despatched Leonas, his Quæstor, into Gaul, with a in person, passed the Rhine for the last time, surprised
threatening letter, in which, after annulling Julian's the Barbarians, destroyed great numbers, and obliged
Civil and military appointments, and nominating new the rest, after having restored their booty, to receive
officers, he required hiin to lay down the title which had Peace on the conditions which he chose to prescribe,
been conferred by rebels, and, as he valued his own and which they durst not violate during his lifetime.
safety and that of his friends, to rest satisfied with the In the mean time, the active and formidable prepara- Open rup-
rank of Cæsar, which he was permitted to retain. tions of Constantius indicated, in a manner not to be ture with

Julian gave audience to Leonas, sitting on his tribunal, mistaken, that he was unalterably determined on war.
surrounded by the soldiers and people, purposely Julian, after the failure of several messages, hopeless
assembled, and the Quæstor read with a loud voice the of effecting by negotiation any amicable settlement of
letter of Constantius. Julian then declared that he
was willing to resign his new dignity, if he obtained

Tricesima is supposed by some to be Cleves, by others Kellen.

† About this time died Helena, his wise. Her pregnancy had been
the consent of the soldiery, by whom it had been be- rendered fruitless, and her days abridged, by the detestable arts
stowed. The words were scarcely uttered, when reite which Eusebia, it is said, (though the assertion is irreconcilable with
lated acclamations confirmed to him the title of Augus- the known character of the Empress,) caused to be employed, when

delivered of a son. Obstetrix corrupta mercede, mor nalum præsecto
tus. When that part of the letter was read, in which
Julian was accused of ingratitude towards the Empe- When she accompanied to Rome the Emperor and his wife, the latter

plusquam convenerut umbilico n-cavit. (Ammian. lib. xvi. c. 10.) ror, who observed, that he found him an orphan, and quæsitum venenum bibere per fraulem ille.rit, ut quotiescunque concewith all the tenderness of a father had taken care of pisset, immaturum abjiceret partum. (16.) Her body was sent to

Rome, and interred near that of her sisier Constantina. (Id. lib. xxi.

c. 1.) She is styled on medals Flavia Julia Helena, and on some has Ammianus adds, that besides this public letter, Julian added a the title of Augusta. Julian did not re-marry. Pagan writers speak private one, filled with cutting reproaches, which he had not seen, of his chastity in a tone of panegyric, which seems to derive confirand would have thought it unbecoming to insert in his History. (lib.xx. mation from the silence of the Christians. See La Bleterie, rue de

Julien, p. 109.


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History. their dispute, ventured at length to throw off the mask commanded the military in Illyricum, and intended, in Constantius.

which he had hitherto worn, and openly committed the consequence of certain confused reports, to assemble From care of his life to the (iods. At this critical period he his forces. Suddenly roused from repose, seized, and

From bent his mind towards the most effectual means of thrown upon a horse, he was brought, stupified with 323. securing his newly acquired power. He perceived the terror, into the presence of Julian. But no sooner

323. high importance of seizing by a sudden movement the had he recovered his self-possession and bewildered

A. D. Province of Illyricum, which was able both to furnish senses, than with singular imprudence he ventured to

361 361. his army with recruits, and to enable him to sustain the remark to Julian, that he had rashly thrown himself

, expenditure of the war, by the resources which its with a small number of men, into the midst of his admines of gold and silver might supply. Accordingly versaries. “ Reserve for Constantius these prudent he opened this design to his assembled troops, and, counsels, (replied the conqueror with a bitter smile,) after expatiating on the advantages which would result when I gave you my Purple to kiss, I wished not to from the attempt, however daring, conjured them to be receive your advice, but to dispel your fears.” Senmindful of that strictness of discipline, and that regard sible that his fortune, and perhaps his life, was placed for moderation towards the people, which had reflected on a desperate cast, Julian continued with undiminished upon them more lustre than the most splendid military speed, energy, and boldness, to urge on the execution achievements. No sooner was his animated address of his project. As he approached the suburbs of Sirconcluded, than the same soldiers, whom the prospect mium, he was received with every demonstration of joy of leaving Gaul had roused to rebellion against Con- by the soldiers and a promiscuous crowd of people, stantius, now, filled with enthusiasm, evinced by their who led him, with due honours, to the Imperial palace. unanimous acclamations, and by the loud clashing of Departing on the dawn of the third day, he seized their shields, their readiness to follow the fortunes of without opposition the important pass of Succi, a very Julian to the farthest extremities of the world. They narrow and precipitous defile between Mount Hæmus then proceeded to take the oath of allegiance to his and Mount Rhodope, which separates the Provinces of person, and, pointing their naked swords to their throats, Thrace and Illyria. Having intrusted the defence of swore with dreadful imprecations, that, devoted to his this post to Nevitta, who, with the other commanders, service, they would shed for him, if necessity should had ably effected, in ten or eleven days' time, the derequire it, the last drop of their blood. Nebridius signed junction at Sirmium, he returned to Neissus, alone, who held at that time the office of Prætorian where he employed his time in levying fresh troops Præfect, courageously refused to enter into this engage- from all quarters, and in writing to several cities of ent Raised to his dignity by the sole favour of Con- Greece, among the rest, Athens, Lacedæmon, and stantius, he had the nobleness of mind to declare, that he Corinth, to explain and justify, with a degree of study would not bind himself to act against his benefactor and and solicitude which evinced the weight he attached to master. It was with difficulty that he escaped falling a public esteem, the motives which induced him to revolt sacrifice to the armed crowd, from whose fury he was against Constantius.* The power of Julian soon bescreened by Julian, who threw over the Præfect his Im

came widely felt. Taurus and Florentius, who were perial mantle, and afterwards allowed him to retire unmo- stigmatized in the public Acts of the year by the title of lested into Hetruria. His disinterestedness and loyalty, the “ fugitive Consuls,”+ abandoned the Præfectures of though infeelingly disparaged by an ancient Orator, Italy and Illyricum, over which they had been respectcannot but obtain their full meed of praise from the im- ively placed, and hastened to acquaint the Emperor partiality of the modern Historian. The office of Ne- with the imminent dangers which threatened his Embridius was afterwards conferred on Sallust, who had pire. The deserted Provinces submitted to Julian, the thus an opportunity of practically displaying, in his own master of Italy; he addressed to the Senate of Rome administration, those principles of moderation and jus- an epistle, which contained invectives so severe against tice which had before distinguished his instructions. the vices of Constantius, that the assembly exclaimed

Julian, now fully assured of the fidelity of his troops, with one accord, as if Julian had been present, “We makes him. divided them in such a manner, that their numerical beseech you to respect the author of your fortune :”. ei lyricum, strength might appear large beyond reality, and that

an expression which may, perhaps, be considered as they might spread the terror of their arms in a greater evincing their courage and gratitude, though it might variety of directions. Twenty thousand men were sent be interpreted to mean that the choice of Julian as into Pannonia, under the conduct of Nevitta, Jovius, Cæsar was a blessing conferred on them, and was and Jovinus, and ordered to march by different routes : sufficient to throw the many faults of Constantius into the remaining three thousand, which completed his the shade. I army, were commanded by Jwian himself; all were Constantius was no sooner apprized of the speed and Preparaappointed to meet at Sirmium, as the place of rendezsuccess of Julian, than, availing himself of the retreat tions of

Constantius. vous. At the head of his select band, Julian boldly of the Persian Monarch, against whom he w was engaged, penetrated into the Marcian Forest, advanced with he prepared to attack his rival-a task the difficulties rapidity over mountain and morass, careless whether of which he affected to treat with the utmost contempt. he passed the Country of the Romans or of the Barbarians; and pressing on with the greatest vigour

* The only one of these epistles which still remains is that written and secrecy by land and water, after a series of the

to the Athenians,—an eloquent composition. We have also a few most skilful manœuvres, arrived unexpectedly at Bo- lines of a letter addressed to the Corinthians, when he was already in nonia, which is but nineteen miles from Sirmium, possession of a great part of the Empire. before the enemy had any certain knowledge that he

+ Zosim. p. 712. had begun his 'march from the banks of the Rhine.

Quæ cùm, Tertullo administrante adhuc præfecturum, recita.

rentur in Curia, eminuit Nobilitatis cum speciosii fi luciii benignitas Dagalaïphus, one of his officers, hastening with a Body grata. Exclamatum est enim, in unam cunctorum sententia congresof light infantry, immediately surprised Lucilian, who " Auctori luo reverentiam rogamus."


enle :

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.to A. D.

to A. D.


History. The progress of Julian, hitherto so prosperous, was suggested or approved. His capacity was limited, his Constantius.

suddenly interrupted by an event, which seemed likely vanity inordinate. Jealous of his power, and suspicious From to be attended with considerable embarrassment and of danger, he lent a ready ear to informers, who

From danger. Having found at Sirmium two legions and a prompted him to acts of atrocious cruelty, to which he 323. cohort of archers attached to the cause of Constantius, appears not to have been naturally inclined. His prone

he had determined to remove them to Gaul : on the ness to mercy, except in cases of treason, where fear

march, however, they resolved, with common feelings smothered feeling, though generally believed to be sincere, 361.

361, of discontent, to occupy, in concert with the inhabitants, has been represented as feigned, but it has been so repreAquileia, a town of the greatest strength on the side of sented by an enemy. He was not, however, without Illyricum, and the key of Italy and Gaul. On the first virtues, which might have produced for him an intelligence of their refractory movenient, Jovinus was sullied reputation in private life, where his faults, ordered to lead back a part of the army into Italy, and perhaps, would not have been so glaringly exhibited, to form the siege of this almost impregnable post. But Frugal in his diet and temperate in his habits, he was whilst the legionaries defended themselves with obsti- remarkable for a chastity which suspicion has not nate courage, the forces of Julian were weakened by aspersed. His filial deference is also an amiable trait, this diversion, and his situation would have been ren- which redeems some of his failings. On the whole he dered perilous, had not the further progress of Civil swells the catalogue of Princes, whose good qualities war been unexpectedly prevented by the death of Con- have been repressed and whose defects elicited by the stantius. On his arrival at Tarsus he was seized with arts of evil counsellors. a slight fever, occasioned perhaps by intense mental Upon intelligence of the death of his rival, Julian Julian's en anxiety, which he thought might be reduced by exer- hastened to Constantinople, the place of his birth, into try into Cor cise. Accordingly he proceeded to Mopsucrene, a

which he entered in triumph amid general rejoicings. Dec. 112 small town on the borders of Cilicia, where, by the in- The crowds which gathered round him with all the

creasing heat and violence of his distemper, he was eagerness of curiosity were surprised at the small stature Death of

stop. All remedies proving ineffectual, he and youthful appearance of the conqueror of Barbarian Constantius expired in the forty-fifth year of his age and the twenty- Kings and nations, whose fame was diffused through Nov. 3. fourth of his reign. Before he closed his life, he is said the vast extent of territory which had witnessed his ex

to have wamed Julian his successor—a circumstance traordinary success. The attempt of the intriguer 361.

which is perhaps explicable on the supposition that his Eusebius and his adherents to oppose his career and
extreme solicitude for the safety of Faustina, whom he maintain their own influence by electing another Em-
had lately married, on the death of Eusebia, and whom peror, were rejected by the army, who immediately ac-
he now left with child, may, in the moment of parting quainted Julian with their readiness to acknowledge his
anguish, have softened down into tenderness the angry authority, which was thus established without blood-
feelings, which it was become useless to indulge, and shed. The remains of the deceased Emperor were
urged him to assume the right of bestowing that which brought to Constantinople and solemnly interred in the
it was no longer in his power to refuse.

Church of the Holy Apostles. Julian accompanied the

The character of Constantius was marked by weak- funeral procession on foot, without a diadem, in a character.

ness which unfitted him for the station in which he was mourning habit. The tears which he shed seemed to
destined to move. The slave of his Eunuchs, who re- evince that reflections on benefits conferred, predomi-
tained their ascendancy over him from his earliest years, nating over the remembrance of past wrongs, bad drawn
he suffered desert to be neglected, whilst appointments forth the effusions of a feeling heart; yet, it cannot be
were bestowed on men, who purchased the favour of his denied, that policy, rather than sincerity, may have
Ministers, and who, in order to realize the profits which had dictated this apparent burst of grief. The legionaries
tempted them to incur this expense, grievously oppressed who occupied Aquileia, on learning the death of Con- Universal
the wretched people whom they were sent to govern stantius, submitted to tlie new Emperor and obtained acknow.
and protect. Surrounded by heartless flatterers, he had his pardon. Thus was Julian left in his thirty-second ledged E
not perhaps the opportunity of being convinced of the year sole master of the Roman Empire.

peror. inexpediency and injustice of the measures which they

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FROM A. D. 361 TO A. D. 363


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to A. D.

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Julian no sooner found bis power established on a se- itself with measures of unquestionable utility. A thou. Julianus. History.

cure basis, than he applied himself to the correction of sand cooks, with as many cupbearers, and a still numerous abuses, against which the public voice had greater number of barbers, besides eunuchs as count- From

been raised, with a degree of zeal which appeared to less as swarms of summer insects,* drained, in haughty 361. have derived an additional stimulus from the remem- indolence, the public revenue. Julian, having occasion 361.

brance of private wrongs. A Chamber of Justice* was for a barber, one so splendidly arrayed presented hím

instituted and fixed at Chalcedon to investigate the self, that he exclaimed with astonishment, “ It was a bar363. conduct of such as were thought to have discharged ber I sent for, not a receiver-general of the finances.”+

363. Chamber of improperly the authority with which they had been This man, being asked the value of his appointment, reJustice.

intrusted under the preceding Emperor. But some plied, that he received a daily allowance for twenty per.
of the persons selected as judges were themselves of too sons and as many horses, without reckoning a consider-
obnoxious a character to inspire respect for this tribu- able annual pension and many profitable perquisites.
nal. Their proceedings, too, were marked by an excess The indignation of the Imperial Philosopher was
of severity, which sometimes proved fatal to innocence aroused, and he soon cleared his Palace of inmates so
itself, or, at least, which confounded the different shades useless and so expensive. His love of simplicity, how-
of criminality. The Consul Taurinus, for instance, whose ever, so strongly, and, doubtless, so intentionally con-
only guilt consisted in his fidelity to the deceased Prince, trasted with the ostentatious taste of his predecessor,
was condemned to banishment, and the Acts of his trial was blamed by those, who considered it as a violent ex-
were dated from bis Consulate ; an ill-judged and un- treme, liable, by stripping power of its glittering exter-
necessary measure, which was calculated to excite nals, to deprive it of much of its influence on the feel-
indignation, as it seemed to reflect new disgrace on an ings of the multitude. It was a juster subject of censure,
office which had not yet wholly lost its attractions. But that his indiscriminate severity struck with poverty and
" Justice herself wept and taxed the Emperor with in- disgrace, not merely the profligate menial, by whom
gratitude,” to use the terms of the impartial Ammianus, that treatment was amply deserved, but the faithful
when Ursulus,t who, during his office of Treasurer in domestic, whose long services had a claim to indulgence,
Gaul, had opportunely assisted Julian in opposition to if not to gratitude.
the known wishes of Constantius, was put to death. It

The conduct of Julian towards the Senate was equally Conduct of was in vain that the Emperor endeavoured to clear different from that observed in the preceding reign. Julian tohimself from the deep odium and execrations which so Constantius had never condescended to visit their as- wards the unjustifiable a sentence had excited, by denying that he semblies, to consult their opinions, nor even to offer Senate. had ever consented to his execution, and by restoring them a seat when summoned to receive his commands. to his daughter a part of his confiscated property. He Julian, on the contrary, who wished to appear obseryrepresented the unfortunate man as the victim of a ant of the forms of the old Republic, was assiduous in his soldiery, provoked at expressions which he had dropped attendance at their deliberations, allowed them to enjoy against their want of courage. A very different impres- the full liberty of discussion, and took pleasure in giving sion was produced by the signal punishment of some scope to the studied variety of his own oratorical talents. notorious informers. Paul, called the Chain, whose It has been incorrectly asserted, however, that he was very name could scarcely be uttered without a shudder the first and last of the Roman Emperors, since the of horror, was consigned to the flames. Capital punish- death of Julius Caesar, who made harangues in the ment was also inflicted on the Eunuch Eusebius, the Senate. Averse to the haughtiness of despotism, he Chamberlain of Constantius, who, raised from the most refused the title of Dominus, or Lord, ll to which abject condition, had exerted a complete and pernicious ascendancy over the mind of his master.

Eivoúrous, 'rig tås uvías rapà Toño Torpion is her. Liban. Comp.

Socrat. lib. iii. Zonar. lib. xii.
The plans of reform, which Julian had adopted, were

† " Ego," inquit, "non rationalem jussi, sed tonsorem acciri." Le Palace. dext extended to the Imperial household, into which the Ammian. lib. xxii

. c. 4. In Zonaras, Kougía 897sīv, sles åda'ou wasteful dissipation of Constantius had introduced every guysantinór. Lib. xiii. refinement of luxury. Yet here, as in other instances,

The officers called Agentes in rebus were reduced from ten an alloy of inconsiderate rigour is said to have mixed thousand to seventeen; (Liban. Orat. xii.) and the Curiosi, whose

employment was to give information to the Emperor of what happened

in the Provinces, were dismissed, and their office suppressed. (Am* Ammian. lib. xxii. c. 3. Liban. Orat. Parent. c. 74.

mian. lib. xxii.)
Ursuli verò necem, largitionum Comitis, ipsa mihi videtur flesse § Socrat. lib. iii. c. 1. See, however, Tacit. Annal. lib. xiü. c. 3.
Justitia, Imperatorem arguens ut ingratum. (lib. xxii. c. 3.)

Gibbon, Decline and Fall, &c. c. 22.
See above, p. 179.

ll Jul. Misop. p. 313.

Reform of

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2 c

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History,, habit had at length familiarized the degenerate sons of in the conduct of which strength and clearness of judg. Julianus,

the Republic. So great was the reverence which he felt ment were so conspicuously manifested. From

or affected to feel for the office of Consul, that he fined After having conciliated, by his liberality, the inha

himself ten pounds of gold on being reminded that he bitants of Constantinople, for which city, as being his 361.

361, had trespassed on its jurisdiction by the manumission native place, he felt peculiar attachment, which he deof some slaves during the Circensian Games, in presence monstrated by conferring on its Senate the privileges and of that Magistrate.* His attention was also bestowed in authority enjoyed

that of ancient Rome, * he pro363.

363. Ameliorathe most useful manner on the simplification and improve- ceeded to visit Antioch, the pride of the East. On his

May 15, tion of the ment of the ancient Laws. Subtilties, the web of chi- way he arrived at Nicomedia, once famed for the numLaws. canery, were removed, and that degree of precision in- ber and magnificence of its public and private edifices,

362. troduced which might enable every citizen to ascertain the but then reduced, by the successive ravages of an earth- He sets out nature and extent of his public duties. His moderation quake and a conflagration, to a mournful heap of ashes. for Antioch. and disinterestedness towards the Provinces in refusing As he passed in silence through the ruins of seats, in to receive crowns of a value likely to prove oppressive, which he had spent a part of his early days, and caught evinced his sincerity in the contempt for riches which he the well-known features of some former friend, he was so was fond of expressing. He relieved, moreover, many much affected as to be unable to refrain froin tears. celebrated cities of Greece, and diminished the burthen Nor did he fail to manifest the sincerity of his affliction, of some grievous imposts.

by taking measures for the reparation of the wreck Military im

The cares of Julian in Civil matters, though eminently which he had witnessed. provements.

great and unremitted, proved no bar to his military exer- Arriving at the borders of Galatia, Julian, changing
tions. Experienced officers were appointed to important his route, proceeded to Pessinus in Phrygia, to visit
posts, and strict discipline was established in the various the ancient Temple of Cybele, whose statue had been
ranks of the army. The towns of Thrace were fortified; transported to Rome by Scipio Nasica in the second
the garrisons on the banks of the Danube were effectively Punic war. It was in this place that he composed a Discourse
supported; nations the most rude and distant were awed Discourse, still extant, on the Mother of the Gods, in on Cybele.
into respect. The Indians and the inhabitants of the which, after the manner of the Pagan Philosophers of
Island of Ceylont had sent Ambassadors loaded with that Age, be labours to give an allegorical explanation
presents, and had courted the friendship of the Romans. of the fable of Atys and the worship of Cybele. He He writes
The Persians were the only nation who still made a show also wrote against a Cynic who found fault with the against a
of resistance. It would have been easy, however, to have conduct of Diogenes—a Philosopher on whom he Cynic.
induced them, spent with a protracted war, of which the lavished such extravagant applause as makes it easily
advantages had been neglected, to entertain more pacific perceptible that he found in his own breast a flow of
sentiments. But the stirring spirit of Julian, still full congenial feeling, which accident alone had drawn into
of youth, and impatient of an inactive life, longed to break a different channel.
into new fields of warlike enterprise. It was proposed On entering Cilicia he was greeted by his former
to him to undertake to chastise the Goths, a deceitful and fellow-student Celsus, then Governor of that Province,
treacherous nation. But to tame the power of Persia, who pronounced his panegyric; for Julian, whose ac-
which had so frequently scattered terror through the tions were rarely untainted with vanity, appears to have

armies and the territories of the Empire, was an object courted the suffrages of literary characters, whose eloPersian better suited to the loftiness of his views. Preparations quence could impart a durable circulation to their praises, invasion, were accordingly made in a manner commensurate with by investing them with honourable and important posts.

the extent of the undertaking; and neither the outcries It was shortly after, that, impatient to enjoy the advan-
of the envious nor the warnings of the cautious could tages which he expected to find in Antioch, he inade
deter him from the prosecution of a scheme, which he his entry into that city for the first time, on the anni- Julian
hoped would form a brilliant consummation to a long versary of the death of Adonis—an ominous moment, enters
series of triumphs.

in the opinion of the superstitious, when the seat of Antioch. Superstition Suddenly raised to the possession of supreme power Princes resounded with cries of lamentation and woe. of Julian.

and universally feared, if not admired, Julian was not His first act was calculated to inspire a favourable
insensible to the feelings of pride which so remarkable sense of his magnanimity. When the Magistrates came
a change of fortune was calculated to inspire. His to offer their customary salutations, he had forbidden
views were stretched beyond the petty sphere of ordi- the presence of one of them named Thalassius, in con-

His cle. nary minds, and his plans were laid out on a scale of sequence of his conduct towards Gallus. Many mean

gigantic magnitude. It is an instance, however, of the individuals, quick at availing themselves of a state of
inequalities which exist in the greatest characters, that the mind which would give sanction to their vindictive
same large and vigorous intellect which could compass feelings, collected the next day round the Emperor, enume-
projects of the widest range, should, even in the execu- rating various alleged wrongs which they had received
tion of them, betray the influence of the narrowest pre- from Thalassius, the enemy of the Prince. Julian was
judices. Numerous and profuse sacrifices, far-fetched too penetrating not to perceive that these were attempts
victims, and ruinous ceremonies, insipid tales, and ab- to complete and profit by the ruin of a man, who, how-
surd practices—all, in short, that could open an avenue ever he had merited his displeasure, might be innocent
to folly or to fraud, -were the preludes of an undertaking towards others : “I own,” he said, " that the person

* Multa quædam correrit in melius, ambagibus circumcisis, indi- you speak of has given me just cause of offence; but,
cantia liquidè quid juberent fieri vel velarent. Ammian.

on this very account, it befits you to be silent till I have Ab usque Divis et Serendivis, Amm. lib. xx. c. 7.; on which received satisfaction, who am his principal enemy.”+ see the note of Valesius. See also J. Vossius in Observ. ad Pompor. Melam. lib. iii. c. 7. Prosperis Julianis elatior, ultra homines jam spirabat. Ammian.

Zosim. lib. ii. ib. xxii. c. 9.

+ Ammian. lib. xxii. c. 9.

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