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History. morning, the Præfect, attended by Generals, Tribunes, Attended by any discovery. A fortnight afterwards, Of the

Christian and Receivers of the revenue, proceeded to the Church the Palace was again in flames. The conflagration,

Church From of Nicomedia, which stood on an eminence within the indeed, was soon observed and extinguished ; but the

in the Illrd view of the Imperial Palace. The doors were imme- impression which it left on the mind of Diocletian was Century. 211.

diately forced open, and an ineffectual search was made implacable resentment against the whole Sect, to which

for the Image of the God, whom the Christians wor- the calamity was immediately ascribed. Every kind of From 313.

shipped. The sacred Scriptures, which were found torment, which the most ingenious cruelty could invent,
there, were burnt; and whatever reinained was divided was now recklessly employed. Persons of all ages and 211.
as the spoil. While this work of confusion and ruin of both sexes, in great numbers, were burned alive, and

313.
was busily proceeding, the two Princes, who viewed the their servants cast into the sea ; officers, who had con-
scene from their Palace, debated long whether they ducted the affairs of the Palace, were put to death ;
should order fire to be set to the Church ; but appre- Presbyters and Deacons, without legal proof, were
hensive of the danger, to which this method of destruc- condemned and executed ; and the city presented an
tion would expose the rest of the city, Diocletian appalling spectacle of ferocity exasperated into mad-
resolved that it should be demolished by his guards. ness, and the powers of destruction invested with their
They came, accordingly, in array of battle, with axes deepest horrors. The feelings of humanity were
and mattocks, and rased, in a few hours, that lofty edi- crushed; the internal pleadings of justice were no
fice to the ground. *

more heard; the mighty tide of Persecution had set in, First Edict

On the ensuing day an Edict was issued, by which it and, no longer stemmed by prudence, it swept all before
of Diocle-
tian.

was decreed that the Churches should be demolished it in its progress. The cause of the calamity is still
to their foundation, and the Scriptures committed enveloped in uncertainty. One Historian has not hesi- Authors of
to the flames; that such as professed Christianity tated to impute it to the artifices of Galerius, who had
should be considered incapable of holding any honour used every effort to stimulate his more mild, or more
or office, and should be liable to torture, whatever fearful associate ; and who, in the depth of winter,
might be their rank or dignity; that any action might be hastened his departure from Nicomedia, protesting that
received against them, but that they, on the other hand, he was forced to fly from the danger to which he was
should have no right to sue upon any injury, whether exposed by desperate incendiaries.* But it is manifest
by violence, adultery, or theft, which they themselves that such a plot could only have been known by con-
experienced.t Slaves were also deprived of the hope jecture, for its necessary secresy must have precluded
of liberty;f and the shield of the Law was withdrawn any other means of information. The Emperor Con-
from every member of the proscribed Sect. It appears stantine, who was himself an eye-witness of the fire,
also to have been then enacted, that no Assemblies attributes it to lightning ;t and Eusebius acknowledges
should be held by the Christians, and that all their that he was ignorant of the real cause. I Whether,
places of resort should be confiscated.

therefore, it arose from accident or from design, it is Rash con- This most unjust Edict was no sooner fixed up in the not for us, in these later Ages, with no additional clue duct and most public part of the city, than it was torn down by to guide our researches, to determine. punishment a Christian, who severely reflected on the conduct of the The Edict of Diocletian was published in all the Edict of of a Chris tian.

Emperors; and accused them of betraying a spirit as nar- Provinces of the Empire; but it circulated so slowly, Diocletian.
row and ferocious as that of the unenlightened hordes that the Christians in the more remote quarters were
of Goths and Sarmatians, over whom they boasted of visited by this affliction some months later than the
having triumphed. An action so daring could not fail brethren who dwelt near the seat of its first promulga-
to subject its author, however exalted might be his tion. The Magistrates were enjoined under the heaviest
situation in life, to peremptory punishment. The Chris- penalties to seize the sacred books, which were in the
tian was immediately seized, and not merely tortured hands of the Bishops and Presbyters, and to consign
by the ordinary process of the rack, but destroyed by them publicly to the flames. Hence, though the law
a slow fire, which he endured with a tranquillity of seems not intended to affect the lives of the Christians, it
mind, which spread a smile over his features even in the proved destructive to many, who resolutely refused to
agonies of death. The Historian, who acknowledged deliver up the Holy Writings.
that his conduct was a deviation from the rules of Though most were doubtless influenced by the purest
rectitude, still considered it as having originated in and holiest motives, by that strong sense of Religious
courageous ardour; and, without approving of his dan- duty which must draw forth the respect even of those
gerous indiscretion, it is difficult not to feel respect for who might dissent in their estimate of the course of ac-
the motive which inspired the extraordinary fortitude tion pursued ; there were not wanting some few who,

that baffled, to the last, the efforts of his tormentors. it must be confessed, were actuated by very different
Fire in the An event soon after occurred, which was productive views; oppressed, it is said, by public debts, or haunted
Palace of of the most disastrous results to the Christian inhabit- by the consciousness of a habitual neglect of the pre-
Nicomedia, ants of Nicomedia. A destructive fire broke out in the cepts of Christianity, they rashly imagined that the

Palace wherein Galerius and Diocletian resided, and the voluntary sacrifice of their lives, which were to them a
Christians were accused of having conspired with some burthen, would be an expiation of their former crimes.
of the eunuchs, for the destruction of the two Princes. Many, however, both of the Church and Laity, were
The rack was, as usual, resorted to, but was not willing to obey the Imperial Decree by delivering up the

Scriptures, and were in consequence branded by the re* Lactant. de Morl. Persecut. c. 12.

+ Comp. Euseb. Hist. Eccles. lib. viii. c. 2. and Lactant, de Mort. * Lactant. de Mort. Persecut. Persecut. c. 13.

of Orat, ad Sanctor. Cætum, c. 25. 1 Τους δε εν οίκετιάις .... ελευθερίας στερήσθαι.

I Hist. Eccles. lib. viii. c. 6. s Lactant, de Mort. Persecut. c. 12. Euseb, lib. viii, c. 5.

§ August. Brevical. Collat. cum Donat, lib. iii. c. 13.

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History. proachful apellation of Traditors.* But, notwithstand- he gave full scope to the measures of the most savage Of the ing the ignominy which attended their conduct, it would cruelty. His associate, Maximin, lent a willing cooper- Christian

Church From surely be a breach of Charity to assert, that they meant ation in the enormities of this eventful period.

in the Ilird by this act to express their formal renunciation of the The heart-sickening details of refined torments, which

Century. 211, Christian Religion.

the Historians of the Church have transmitted to us, In consequence of some civil commotions in Armenia and which almost stagger belief, cannot be even touched From 313.

and Syria, a new Edict was published, commanding upon without a feeling of mental convulsion. The Second and that all the Presidents of the Churches should be seized, method of burning by a slow fire, employed by men, 211.

and the prisons were soon filled with Bishops, Presby- whose only fear was lest the violence of their fury
ters, Deacons, Readers, and Exorcists; insomuch, adds should be abridged by the too speedy death of their 313.
the Historian, that no place remained for the custody of victim, is alone sufficient to give the reader a transient Torments.
condemned criminals. This Edict was followed by glance into those spectacles of human agony, which Burning by

, another, in which it was ordained that they who were were then so frequent. The victims were chained, and imprisoned, should be set at liberty on their consenting a gentle fire was applied to the soles of their feet, by

to sacrifice, but that they who refused, should be com- which the callus was contracted, till at last it fell off from Fourth pelled to undergo every variety of torment. And just the bones. Torches which had been just lighted and Edict.

before the resignation of Diocletian, a fourth Edict was extinguished, while still hot, were pressed against every
issued, not merely directed, as the foregoing, against the limb, that no part of their bodies should be free from
Heads of the Church, but embracing all ranks of Chris- torture. And during this process of horror, cold water
tians, who had now no alternative but to worship the was poured on their faces and in their mouths, lest
Heathen Idols,t or to submit to all that could be devised their throats being quite dried up, they should expire

to overpower their feelings and subdue their spirit, before the full measure of barbarity was exhausted. ` At
Galerias The extent of the Persecution which burst on the length, when their skin was wholly consumed, and the
med Con Christians, will be best conceived by reviewing their flame had penetrated to their vitals, they were thrown
stantius,
Esperors,

state in the different parts of the Roman Empire. But on a funeral pile and burned to ashes, which were
our limits will only allow us to sketch with a rapid ignominiously cast to the winds.* One description of
pencil, those scenes which are drawn in deepened this nature is more than enough to give an idea of the
colours by contemporary Historians.

punishments adopted. They varied, indeed, in their Maximin

Constantius Chlorus, who presided over Gaul, was naturet and duration, according to the caprice of the andCoastan- induced by the natural mildness and benignity of his different Provincial Governors, but they were even tige, Cesars character, and by the favourable opinion which he marked by circumstances more harrowing than imagi

entertained of the Christian doctrines, to mitigate seve- nation can conceive that cruelty could inflict. State of the rities which he could not prevent. Unwilling to oppose In Egypt, Syria, and Palestine, which the superstitious Christians the authority of Diocletian, he complied with it, so far as

Maximin administered, the same spirit of vengeance in the de.

regarded the demolition of the Churches, but he exerted pursued the devoted Christians, who must have shrunk partment of Constantius

, his power to shield the persons of the Christians from from the trial, had not Faith lifted up for them the veil violence and injury. And that protection, which he of Immortality, and soothed and strengthened their had partially exhibited as Cæsar, he subsequently main- oppressed spirits. tained in all its vigour as Augustus. The tranquillity The cessation of Persecution in the Eastern part of Edict of enjoyed by Gaul under Constantius, and afterwards the Empire was, if not caused, at least accelerated, by Galerius. under Constantine, was probably extended to Britain. a dreadful and loathsome disorder, under the protracted But in Spain, which though it also belonged to the pains of which Galerius issued an Edict, permitting 311. same Department, was not so directly under his superin- the Christians to resume their worship in tranquillity, tendence, the Governor Datianus appears in no degree and expressing his hope, that, in return for this indulto have relaxed the rigorous conditions of the Imperial gence, they would supplicate the Deity, whom they Edicts, and the consequent misery of the Christians is adored, for his health, and for the welfare of themselves

attested by the extant relations of numerous Martyrdoms. and of the State. In this Edict he assigns as the Italy and In Italy and Africa, where Maximianus, the inveterate motive which engaged him to employ means to compel enemy of the Christians, whom he regarded as oppo

the Christians to return to the institutions of their an-
nents of his ambitious designs, the storm of Persecution cestors, a desire to correct all things for the benefit
raged with a fury which seemed destined, as it were, to of the Public, according to the ancient laws and esta-
tear up by the roots and cast down for ever the new Esta- blished discipline of the Romans. He adds, that this
blishment. But the shock, though dreadful, was brief. original design was abandoned, from his observation,
On the resignation of Diocletian, Severus governed that though many had been subjected to danger and
these Provinces, probably, in a milder manner, when torments, many continued still unchanged in their senti-
Cæsar, and watched by Constantius, than when Augus-
tus, and influenced by Galerius. The revolt of Maxen- * Lactant. de M. P. c. 21.
tius restored tranquillity in these Provinces to the Chris- + One circumstance which took place during some part of the
tian Church.

Persecution of this period ought not to be omitted. We are informed
In the East, the ambitious Galerius, long impatient of by Eusebius, that a certain small town of Phrygia, of which the whole

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Africa,

population, not excepting the Magistrates, professed Christianity, and the restraints which a cautious policy had imposed on refused to sacrifice, was burned, with its inhabitants, by soldiers, sent, his impetuous spirit, no sooner obtained the Purple than doubtless, to enforce the execution of the Imperial Edicts. (Hist. Eccl.

viii. 11.) Lactantius only says, speaking of the Provincial Magistrates • Optat. Milevit. de Schis. Donat. lib. i. g 12, 13.

who had put Christians to death, Alii ad occidendum præcipites ex| Euseb. Hist. Eccles, lib. viii. c:13. De Mart. Palest. c. 13. titerunt, sicutsunus in Phrygiâ qui universum populum cum ipso pari

See the view of this persecution taken in Dodwell, Dissert, ter conventiculo concremavit. (Inst. Div. lib. v. c. 11.)
Cyprian. dissert. xi. Mosheim, de Reb. Christ. p. 947, &c. Gibbon, I Euseb. Hist, Eccles. I. viii. c. 16. Lactant. de M. P. c. 33.
Decline and Fall, &c. p. 575, &c.

Ø Euseb. Hist. Eccles. I. viii. c. 17. Lactant, de M, P. c. 34.

he East.

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History. ments; though they no longer worshipped the God of To give force and consistence to the Religious system Of the

the Christians, yet they adored not the Gods of Rome.* of Paganism, he appointed Priests in all Cities, and Christian From He felt at last, that Persecution may make hypocrites, but over them a Chief Priest in every Province, selected

Church

in the Illrd not converts. This Edict, which was warmly supported from the most distinguished ranks, and honoured with 211.

Century. by Licinius and Constantine, was productive of much a military guard. Temples were everywhere erected 313.

benefit to the Christians. But Maximin, who, after its or repaired. All that brutality can inflict, all that From Persecution promulgation, presided over the Asiatic Provinces, fortitude can endure, was again inflicted and endured. renewed by although at first he had so far acquiesced in its execution, Superstition, now armed with all the energies of power, 211. Maximin. that the Christians, delivered from prison and from the and guided by all the artifices of policy, seemed fitted

mines, were returning to their habitations with hymns to demolish the structure, so long assailed, of the Chris- 313.
of praise, f soon evinced a determination to reestablish tian Church.* But the overruling arm, which, in its
Paganism in all its powers. Addresses from Antioch and mysterious movements, confounds and destroys the
other Cities, which prayed that the Christians might be schemes of the children of men, interposed. The Accession of
expelled from their territories, either imposed on him the death of Maximin,t and the accession of Constantine, Constantine
necessity of gratifying one class of his subjects at the ex- overthrew one of the worst enemies, and established
pense of another, or were in fact secretly contrived by the the strongest protector of the true Religion. And,
emissaries of the Emperor himself, to give the appear after a Persecution of ten years' continuance, which had
ance of popular sanction to the measures which he himself swept away a very considerable number of the faithful
premeditated. The fomentor of these artful proceedings followers of Christ,f and which, as Inscriptions still
was one Theotecnus,fa Curator at Antioch, who, availing attest,ỹ was supposed to have extirpated His worship,
himself of the Emperor's addiction to Magic and belief the memorable Decree was past which acknowledged
in Oracles, rekindled the flames of Persecution. Every the inviolable rights of conscience, and the Spiritual was
means was now employed to degrade the Christian and subsequently united with the Civil Establishment.
to exalt the Heathen Religion. Acts of Pilate, filled
with blasphemy against Christ, were industriously forged,
and published in all quarters by Imperial authority.S * Euseb. Hist. Eccles. lib. viii. c. 14; lib. ix. c. 2, &c. Lactant,

de M. P. c. 36.
Abandoned women were suborned to testify the foulest
falsehoods respecting the practice of the Christians.|| the Christians. Euseb. Hist. Eccles. lib. ix. c. 10.

+ He had already relented and published an Edict in favour of

I Gibbon computes it at somewhat less than 2000. Decline and * Euseb. Hist. Eccles. lib. viii. c. 17. Lactant. de M. P. c. 34.

Fall of the Roman Empire, c. 16, sub fin. * Euseb. Hist. Eccles. lib. ix, c. 1.

The two Inscriptions found at Clunia in Spain, in Gruter, Inscript. I Ibid. c. 2.

p. 280. num. 3. 8 Ibid, c. 5. Ñ Ibid.

HISTORY

CHAPTER XLI.

OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH.

ECCLESIASTICAL WRITERS OF THE SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES.

INTRODUCTORY REMARKS.

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of the Chris

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History Of many Writers, it may be confidently asserted, that

1. It is necessary to inquire into his Early Life and it is impossible to enter into their full meaning and Pursuits. Many of the Fathers were born and bred in siastical Necesity of design without an adequate acquaintance with the Paganism, popular and philosophical. The defects of Writers of Biography. general circumstances of the Time and Country in which this education were sometimes imperfectly felt, and and IJIrd

they flourished. But of some, in particular, it may be seldom wholly remedied. The seam of the wound was Centuries. added, that, in order to form a correct judgment on always visible, and it was liable to reopen. Even retheir Works, the reader must previously inquire into solution was not unfrequently the dupe of habit. Some Effects prothe peculiar incidents of their lives; the nature of their portion of early error still adhered to the opinions of education ; the tone of their opinions, considered in the convert ; just as, in later thnes, some remains of the

the Writings relation to the prevalent sentiments of their contempo- spirit of the Church of Rome broke out in the conduct tian Fathers raries; the profession which they followed; the estima- of the Reformers. Bearing this fact in mind, we shall by early tion in which they were held; and, lastly, the order in not be apt to lay undue weight on the authority of the Pagan edu which their Writings appeared, and the occasions which Fathers, wherever there is reason to suppose that their

cation. respectively called them forth. Without much of this judgment has been warped by the prejudices and assointroductory knowledge, the scope of many an argu- ciations of their youth. We shall not be surprised to ment is unnoticed; the spirit of many an observation find vestiges of Platonism in the writings of men who unfelt; and the fine thread of allusion, which is often

were formerly Platonists, any more than to observe the the best clue in unravelling intricacies, insensibly figures of Rhetoric still appearing in the language of escapes us.

such as were formerly Rhetoricians. Antecelent These remarks are, in an especial degree, applicable

2. It is also necessary to mark their age in reference By the state points of to the study of the Christian Fathers. Their style and to particular Heresies. In examining their opinions on

of Heresies. manner are materially influenced by their situations doctrinal questions, not formally made the subject of disand pursuits, and often vary at different periods of their pute in their time, it is not just to weigh the casual exlives. Origen, in more advanced years, repents of what pressions of the early Fathers with so much nicety as he had composed in his early days.* Tertullian, after the studied sentences and qualified terms of such as his adoption of Montanism, treats many points with lived either during or after the agitation of the controfeelings unlike those which actuated him before his

verted points. This equitable rule prevails in the secession from the Church.

common conyerse of life. We draw a strong line of disMoreover, in investigating any particular Treatise, it tinction between incidental remarks and deliberate judgis of much consequence to ascertain beforehand, not

ments. For words dropped at random, or in a lax and merely (as must be obvious to the most hasty examiner) unguarded manner, are necessarily deficient in precision, whether the Author was at the time of its publication and sometimes applicable to the support of opinions, esteemed orthodox or schismatic, whether he was a which, if stated to him, the speaker would probably layman or a Priest, and whether he wrote at a period have rejected. We are not

, therefore, to be surprised of tranquillity or of Persecution; but also, whether he if the Ante-Nicene Fathers speak of the Trinity in had received a Pagan or a Christian education, and, language much less measured and pointed than their above all, whether he wrote before the birth, or during the height, or after the extinction, of certain Heresies. As inattention to these points has occasionally led to mistakes, it may not be useless to illustrate, as briefly * Multa latebant in Scripturis, et cum præcisi essent Hæretici, as possible, our reasons for laying down such of these quæstionibus agitaverunt Ecclesiam Dei. Aperta sunt quæ latebant,

et intellecta est voluntas Dei. Numquid enim perfectè de Trinitate antecedent queries as may not at first sight appear

tractatum est antequam oblatrarent Ariani ? Numquid perfecte requisite.

de Pænitentia tractatum est untequam obsisterent Novatiani ? — Sic

non per feciè de Baptismate tractatum est, antequam contrudicereni * Hieron. ad Pammach, et Ocean. Ep. 41. (al. 65.)

foris positi, rebaptizatores. Nec de Unitate Christi, nisi posteaquam

113

*

successors.

VOL. XI.

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History. Again, another fact is not to be forgotten. Various animation, and splendour, often disfigure the Writings Eccle. terms were used at particular periods in a different of our best ancient authors ; yet no one on that ac

siastical

Writers of Variation

acceptation from that in which they are at present' count would undervalue their opinions, or heap ridicule the find in the use understood; such, for instance, are the words, Pope, on their abilities. Before we quit this subject, we are and IIird of terms. Mass, Confession, and some others.

anxious to draw attention to the fact that it is Centuries. Methods of And here we may be allowed, by way of caution, to wholly improbable that the intention of the Fathers reasoning, make a few observations on the reasoning of the Fathers. should have been to equivocate, (however weak style, &c.

Attention must be roused to determine whether their their reasoning may occasionally be deemed,) when it
sentiments are delivered dogmatically, or in disputa- is considered that they chose rather to lay down their
tion ;* in the former case, they are defined, precise, and lives than to avail themselves of a mental reservation.
unqualified ; in the latter, they sometimes, it has been re- Though in polemical discourse they sometimes seem to
marked—though the inference has been much too se- have adopted a principle neither just in itself, nor in
vere and the application much too general-resort to ar- unison with their general sentiments, yet in the conduct
tifices of Logic, employed, to speak in their own language, of life, they undoubtedly rejected with contempt the
“by dispensation;"t under the ample shield of which the sophism of the Heathen Poet : “ My tongue, but not my
arguer, in some instances, seems to have thought that mind, has sworn. We are far from wishing to deny
he was at liberty, according to the urgency of the occa- or to extenuate their faults as controversialists; but at
sion, to carry a point beyond the bounds which his own least their scope and method ought to be distinctly un-
judgment would have set to it, and, as it were, to force derstood, before their arguments can be candidly esti-
his way rather more obliquely than his natural bent and mated. Injustice has recommended itself to Indolence
impulse of mind would have directed. For, in dispute by an attempt to condense the scrutiny of a laborious
as in war, stratagems, which a straight-forward spirit subject into superficial strictures on extracts and shreds
disdains, were tacitly permitted. It is certain that they of extracts, on a few sentences torn from their context,
appear to reason not unfrequently from the concessions and a few scattered reflections invidiously clustered
of their adversaries; and hence it is probable, that together. While excellencies have been left untouched,
their authority is sometimes pleaded in support of the slightest inaccuracies, even when ambiguous, have
arguments on which they laid but little real stress. been tortured into heterodoxy, ignorance, and ab-
Thus they often urge the superior antiquity of the surdity.
Jewish Scriptures to the Grecian Writings, not, perhaps, As Commentators upon the Sacred Scriptures, the Value of the
so much because they considered this as in itself a Fathers, in general, are not, perhaps, entitled to any Fathers as
decisive proof of the divinity of the Jewish Religion, very high portion of confidence. For, besides that in Commenta-
as because the novelty of their Faith, contrasted with professed expositions, they often collect the sentiments

Scripture.
the antiquity of Paganism, was constantly turned into an of various Writers, without specifically stating from
objection by their enemies. Another circumstance is what source each interpretation is derived, and in what
also frequently overlooked. What is accepted as rea- degree it coincides with their own opinion;t they often
soning was often meant merely as illustration. We con- resort to the most fanciful allegories, and in many in-
demn by the rules of Logic, what they intended should stances betray an ignorance of the Hebrew language, I
be measured by the laws of Rhetoric. Their ornaments

which led, as it was calculated to lead, to the most erroare, it is true, sometimes puerile, $ and generally redun- neous conclusions. It ought also to be remarked, that dant: they are flowers which, being neither tastefully they frequently quote Scripture (if the present text of chosen, nor happily assorted, give a kind of quaint and their Writings be correct) without sufficient accuracy.ş grotesque appearance to the matter which they incum- Indeed, literal exactness appears not to have been ber. But the same judgment might be passed on the scrupulously affected by ancient Writers of any party. strained conceits and absurd embellishments, which,

Another circumstance deserves eonsideration. Some Disciplina insinuating themselves into passages of infinite force, of the Fathers, either from the fear of confiding truths of Arcani.

a higher order to weak minds, or, in order to spread an
separatio illa urgere cæpit Fratres infirmos. S. Augustin.; Hey's appearance of solemnity and importance over their
Lectures in Divinity, vol. ii. p. 227. Antequam in Alexandria Writings, were at times apt to envelope their mean-
quasi dæmonium meridianum Arius nasceretur, innocenter quædam
et minus cautè locuti sunt, et quæ non possint perversorum hominum

ing in enigmatical obscurity. Clemens Alexandrinus.||
calumniam declinare. (Hieron. Apol. adv. Rufin. lib. ii.) Du Pin, in particular, professes to have wrapt his thoughts oc
Nouv. Bibl. des. Aut. Ecclés. Preface. Compare Daillé, du Vrai casionally in studied confusion. He asserts, too, that on
Usage des Pères.

some points he had not ventured to write, scarcely to
Simul didicimus plura esse genera dicendi, et inter cætera aliud
esse γυμναστικώς scribere, aliud δογματικώς. Ιn priori υαgam esse

speak, lest, being misunderstood, he should be found to
disputationem, et adversario respondentem, nunc hæc, nunc illa pro-

have put, as it were, a sword into the hand of a child. ponere: argumentari ut libet, aliud loqui, aliud agere, panem, ut

The Sacraments, especially, they treated with the dicitur, ostendere, lapidem tenere. In sequenti autem aperta frons, utmost mystery et, ut ita dicam, ingenuitas necessaria est. Aliud est quærere, aliud definire: in altero pugnandum, in altero docendum est.

Hieron. Ep. * Just. Mart. in Apolog. i. sec. 39. 30.(al. 50.) ad Pammach.

+ Hieron. Apol. adv. Rufin. The way in which Jerome professes to Η Κατ' οίκονομίαν.

have written his Commentaries is not entitled to much praise. After I As, for instance, the reasons given by Irenæus, why there are having spoken of Origen, Didymus, Apollinaris, and others, he adds, only Four Gospels, (Adv. Hæres. lib. iii. c. 11.) and by Tertullian, Legi hæc omnia et in mente meá plurima coacervans, accito notario, why there were Twelve Apostles, (Adv. Marcion. lib. iv. c. 13.) In vel mea vel aliena dictavi, nec ordinis nec verborum interdum, nec somewhat the same manner, Sir Edward Coke discovered “abun

Ep. 74. (al. 89.) ad Augustin. dance of mystery" in the “ Patriarchal and Apostolical number" e.g. The derivation of the word Jesus by Irenæus, Abraham by twelve, of which the Jury is composed. See Blackstone's Commenta- Clemens Alexandrinus, Cephas by Optatus, &c. See also I. Le ries on the Laws of England, book iii. c. 23. An amusing instance Clerc, in Hist. Ecclésiast. Ann. ci. of ingenious absurdity on the ancient conceit” of the number five Ś e.g. Justin cites as from Zephaniah what is found in Zechariah. may be found in ch. v. of Sir Thomas Brown's Garden of Cyrus, Tertullian alleges as being said to Moses what was said to Samuel. or The Quincunx Mystically considered.

1 Strom. lib. i.

sensuum memor".

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