Correspondent to this, he keepeth himself honest, not for fear of the laws, but because he hath observed how unseemly an article it maketh in the Day Book, or Ledger, when a sum is set down lost or missing; it being his pride to make these books to a ree, and to tally, the one side with the other, with a sort of architectural symmetry and correspondence.

He marrieth, or marrieth not, as best suiteth with his employer's views. Some merchants do the rather desire to have married men in their Counting Houses, because they think the married state a pledge for their servants' integrity, and an incitement to them to be industrious; and it was an observation of a late Lord Mayor of London, that the sons of Clerks do generally prove Clerks tiemselves, and that Merchants encouraging persons in their employ to marry, and to have families, was the best method of securing a breed of sober industrious young men attached to the mercantile interest. Be this as it may, such a character as we have been describing, will wait till the pleasure of his employer is known on this point; and regulatath his desires by the custom of the house or firm to which he belongeth.

He avoideth profane oaths and jesting, as so much time lost from his employ; what spare time he hath for conversation, which in a Counting House such as we have been supposing can be but small, he spendeth in putting seasonable questions to such of his fellows (and sometimes respectfully to the master himself) who can give him information respecting the price and quality of goods, the state of exchange, or the latest improvements in book-keeping; thus making the motion of his lips, as well as of his fingers, subservient to his master's interest. Not that he refuseth a brisk saying, or a cheerful sally of wit, when it comes unforced, is free of of. fence, and hath a convenient brevity. For this reason he hath commonly some such phrase as this in his mouth :

Its a slovenly look
* To blot your book.


Red ink for ornament, black for use,
The best of things are open to abuse,

So upon the eve of any great holyday, of which he keepeth one or two at least every year, he will merrily say in the hearing of a confidential friend, but to none other :-

All work and no play
Makes Jack a dull boy.


A bow always bent must crack at last.


But then this must always be understood to be spoken confidentially, and, as we say, under the rose.

Lastly, his dress is plain without singularity; with no other ornament than the quill, which is the badge of his function, stuck under the dexter ear, and this rather for convenience of having it at hand, when he hath been called away from his desk, and ex. pecteth to resume his seat there again shortly, than from any delight which he taketh in foppery or ostentation. The colour of his clothes is generally noted to be black rather than brown, brown rather than blue or green. His whole deportment is staid, modest, and civil. His motto is Regularity.

This Character was sketched, in an interval of business, to di. vert some of the melancholy hours of a Counting House. It is so little a creature of fancy, that it is scarce any thing more than a recollection of some of those frugal and economical maxims which, about the beginning of the last century, (England's meanest period) were endeavoured to be inculcated and instilled into the breasts of the London Apprentices, * by a class of instructors who might not inaptly be termed The Masters of mean Morals. The astonishing narrowness and illiberality of the lessons contained in some of those books is inconceivable by those whose studies have not led them that way, and would almost induce one to subscribe to the hard censure which Drayton has passed upon the mercantile spirit:

The gripple merchant, born to be the curse
of this brave Isle,

I have now lying before me that curious book by Daniel Defoe, 66 The Complete English Tradesman.” The pompous detail, the studied analysis of every little mean art, every sneaking address, every trick and subterfuge (short of larceny) that is necessary to the tradesman's occupation, with the hundreds of anecdotes, dialogues (in Defoe's liveliest manner) interspersed, all tending to the same amiable purpose, namely, the sacrificing of every honest emotion of the soul to what he calls the main chance,—if you read it in an ironical sense, and as a piece of covered satire, make it one of the most amusing books which Defoe ever writ, as much so as any of his best novels. It is difficult to say what his intention was in writing it. It is almost impossible to suppose him in earnest. Yet such is the bent of the book to narrow and to degrade the heart, that if such maxims were as catching and infectious as those


* This term designated a larger class of young men than that to which it is now confined ; it look in the articled Clerks of Merchants and Bankers, ibe George Barnwells of the day.


of a licentious cast, which happily is not the case, had I been living at that time, I certainly should have recommended to the Grand Jury of Middlesex, who presented the Fable of the Bees, to have presented this book of Defoe's in preference, as of a far more vile and debasing tendency. I will give one specimen of his advice to the young Tradesman on the Government of his Temper. “ The retail tradesman in especial, and even every tradesman in his station, must furnish himself with a competent stock of patience; I mean that sort of patience which is needful to bear with all sorts of impertinence, and the most provoking curiosity that it is impossible to imagine the buyers, even the worst of them, are or can be guilty of. A tradesman behind his counter must have no flesh and blood about him, no passions, no resentment; he must never be angry, no not so much as seem to be so, if a customer tumbles him five hundred pounds of goods, and scarce bids money for any thing ; nay, though they really come to his shop with no intent to buy, as many do, only to see what is to be sold, and though he knows they cannot be better pleased, than they are, at some other shop where they intend to buy, 'tis all one, the tradesman must take it, he must place it to the account of his calling, that 'tis his business to be ill used and resent nothing; and so must answer as obligingly to those that give him an hour or two's trouble and buy nothing, as he does to those who in half the time lay out ten or twenty pounds.

The case is plain, and if some do give him trouble and do not buy, others make amends and do buy; and as for the trouble, 'tis the business of the shop.” Here follows a most admirable story of a mercer who, by his indefatigable meanness and more than Socratic patience under affronts, overcame and reconciled a lady, who upon the report of another lady that he had behaved saucily to some third lady, had determined to shun his shop, but by the over. persuasions of a fourth lady was induced to go to it; which she does, declaring before hand that she will buy nothing, but give him all the trouble she can. ller attack and his defence, her in. solence and his persevering patience, are described in colours wor. thy of a Mandeville; but it is too long to recite.

66 The short inference from this long discourse (says he) is this, that here you see, and I could give you many examples like this, how and in what manner a shop-keeper is to behave himself in the way of his business ; what impertinences, what faunts, flouts, and ridiculous things, he must bear in his trade, and must not shew the least re. turn, or the least signal of disgust: he must have no passions, no fire in his temper; he must be all soft and smooth; nay, if his real temper be naturally fiery and hot, he must shew none of it in his shop; he must be a perfect complete hypocrite if he will be

a cara ,


a complete tradesman.* It is true, natural tempers are not to be always counterfeited; the man cannot easily be a lamb in his shop, and a lion in himself; but let it be easy or hard, it must be done, and is done: there are men who have by custom and usage brought themselves to it, that nothing could be meeker and milder than they, when behind the counter, and yet nothing be more furious and raging in every other part of life; nay the provocations they have met with in their shops have so irritated their rage, that they would go up stairs from their shop, and fall into frenzies, and a kind of madness, and beat their heads against the wall, and perhaps mischief themselves, if not prevented, till the violence of it had gotten vent, and the passions abate and cool. I heard once of a shop-keeper that behaved himself thus to such an extreme, that when he was provoked by the impertinence of the customers, beyond what his temper could bear, he would go up stairs and beat his wife, kick his children about like dogs, and be as furious for two or three minutes, as a man chained down in Bedlam; and again, when that heat was over, would sit down and cry faster than the children he had abused ; and after the fit, he would go down into the shop again, and be as humble, cour. teous, and as calm as any man whatever; so absolute a govern. ment of his passions had he in the shop and so little out of it; in the shop, a soul-less animal that would resent nothing ; and in the family a madman: in the shop, meek like a lamb; but in the family, outrageous like a Lybian lion. The sum of the matter is, it is necessary for a tradesman to subject himself by all the ways possible to his business ; his customers are to be his idols : so far as he may worship idols by allowance, he is to bow down to them, and worship them; at least he is not in any way to displease them, or shew any disgust or distaste whatsoever they may say or do ; the bottom of all is, that he is intending to get money by them, and it is not for him that gets money to offer the least inconvenience to them by whom he gets it; he is to consider that, as Solomon says, the borrower is serrant to the lender, so the seller is ser. vant to the buyer.”—What he says on the head of Pleasures and Recreations is not less amusing :-" The tradesman's pleasure should be in his basiness, his companions should be his books, (he means his Ledger, Waste-book, &c.) and if he has a family, he makes his excursions up stairs and no further :-no

:-none of my cautions aim at restraining a tradesman from diverting himself, as we call it, with his fireside, or keeping company with his wife and


* As.no qualification accompanies this maxin, it must be understood as the genuine sentiment of the Author $


children.”-Liberal allowance; nay, almost licentious and criminal indulgence !-but it is time to dismiss this Philosopher of Meuna,

More of this stuff would illiberalize the pages of the ReAlector. Was the man in earnest, when he could bring such powers of description, and all the charms of natural eloquence, in com. mendation of the meanest, vilest, wretchedest degradations of the human characteria-Or did he not rather laugh in his sleeve at the doctrines which he inculcated, and retorting upon the grave Citizens of London their own arts, palm upon them a sample of disguised Satire under the name of wholesome Instruction ?

L. B.

ART. XXIV.Short Miscellaneous Pieces,


There are few exercises in Philosophy more useful, than, when a word by abuse has acquired an improper meaning, to trace it back to its genuine and primitive signification, especially when such meaning is employed to serve an unfair or malicious purpose. Not only language is rendered more accurate by such a process, but it frequently tends to the correction of misrepresentations, and the removal of prejudices. The words placed at the head of this paper are remarkable instances of this abusive deviation from their original and natural import, by which, from terms morally indifferent, they have been converted to reproachful appellations, and devoted to the service of party hatred. An attempt, therefore, to rectify the ideas associated with them cannot be thought unseasonable.

The word sect (secta in Latin) is derived from a verb signifying to follow, and has the correspondent simple meaning of the followers of a particular leader, or system. Thus the classes of ancient philosophers, which took their names from their master or school, were all termed sects; as the Stoic, Epicurean, Aca. demic, &c. Classical writers sometimes apply the word also to parties in a state adhering to a particular chief; but in this sense it is become obsolete; and in modern languages it is appropriated to distinctions of opinion, especially in religion and philosophy. But in its accurate use it simply denotes the circumstance of disa tinction or division, without any reference to superiority or infe. riority, merit or demerit. Thus Dr. Johnson defines sect to be G G2

a body

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