2,163,698 inhabitants; in 1851, 6,254,251. The seven principal towns of Scotland, in 1801, contained 271,486; in 1851, 779,668. In a Volunteer Force at the present day we should, therefore, have to seek one-third of the whole number of men from 68 principal towns, instead of one-fourth as in 1803. The increase of population in a few of the largest towns still more affects the whole proportion; for example :—

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We thus see that one-fifth of the whole population of Great Britain is to be found in eight large towns. This, according to the proportion of population, would give us 160,000 volunteers, or onefifth of the whole number to be raised. In 1803 these towns would only have supplied one-eighth.


THE Companion to the Almanac for 1832' contained an Article, prepared with much labour and research, under the above title. It became a compendious authority for the material facts of this portion of our history, and was copied into East Indian publications. During the interval of a quarter of a century between the original publication of that article and the present time, the most striking events and the most important changes have occurred. At this crisis every one is desirous of information on India, and it appears to us that instead of publishing only a continuation of the article of 1832, as we did in the Companion for 1850,' it would be more acceptable to repeat it, with a summary to 1857, upon the same plan. But in this repetition we have made various alterations, not of facts, but in the mode of presenting them, by introducing explanatory paragraphs, to mark the more memorable periods, and to call attention to the great events that have most materially influenced the progress and character of the British dominion in India.

Previous to the discovery of a passage to the East Indies round the southern point of Africa, the trade between India and Europe was carried on through the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, and then overland to the Mediterranean, where the goods were purchased by the merchants of Venice and other trading ports. Vasco de Gama, a Portuguese admiral, sailed round the Cape of Good Hope in

November 1497, and reached Calicut, on the south-western coast of Hindustan in 1498. In a subsequent voyage he founded, in 1502, at Cochin, on the same coast, the first European factory or trading establishment. The southern part of the peninsula was then governed by native princes, whilst Hindustan Proper, or north of the river Nerbudda, was under the sway of the Afghans; but, in 1525, Baber, a descendant from Tamerlane, invaded the country, and, in 1526, defeated the Afghans at Paniput, near Delhi, and established the Mogul Empire. Meantime, the Portuguese, extending their voyages, established factories at Bombay and other places on the west coast of Hindustan, and also on the east coast, in Bengal. The Dutch, English, and French followed the example of the Portuguese, and trading establishments were founded by them at various places. During this period, the government of Hindustan continued in the possession of the descendants of Baber, at Delhi and Agra.

At the time when the East India Company was founded, the Emperor of Hindustan, or Great Mogul, as he was called, was Akbar I., who died in 1605, and was succeeded by Jehanghir, who reigned till 1627. He was succeeded by Shah Jehan, who, after a prosperous reign, died in 1666. Shah Jehan was succeeded by Aurungzebe, who greatly extended the limits of the empire, but whose Mohammedan bigotry stimulating him to oppress the Hindoos, occasioned a series of civil wars, which exhausted the resources of the empire, and led to its decline and downfall. Aurungzebe died in 1707. The viceroys and other governors who ruled the various provinces under the titles of Subahdar, Nabob (or Nawab), Vizier, &c., were, in many instances, and at different periods, only nominally subject to the Emperor, and were, in fact, independent and despotic sovereigns of the territory under their sway.


Sir Francis Drake landed at Ternate (Molucca Islands), and traded with the king of the country. Landed subsequently in Java.


The Levant Company made a land expedition to India, by which much information was obtained.


A society of 101 adventurers petitioned Queen Elizabeth for a trading charter to India.

John Mildenhall sent on an embassy to the Mogul.


December 31. First charter granted for fifteen years to a company of adventurers, called 'The Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading to the East Indies.' Conducted by a chairman and twenty-four directors, to be chosen annually.


May 2. First English fleet sailed from Torbay to the East Indies; landed at Acheen in Sumatra, and at Bantam in Java, in both which places they left factors; returned to England in September, 1603.


Second charter granted to the East India Company, constituting them a corporate body, but reserving to Government the power of dissolving them on three years' notice.


January 11. A firman granted by the Mogul, allowing the English to establish factories at Surat, Ahmedabad, Cambaya, and Goga.

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The English establish a factory at Firando in Japan.


The Portuguese, who were at war with the Mogul, are defeated by the English on the Bombay coast; the English in consequence obtained a firman, granting them perpetual liberty of trading.

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Disputes between the Dutch and English companies for exclusive trade with the Spice Islands.


July 17. Treaty between English and Dutch, by which the English were allowed to share in the pepper trade of Java, and in that of Pulicat; and to hold a third of the Molucca and Banda trade.


April 22. The English assist the Persians in expelling the Portuguese from Ormus, for which service various commercial privileges in the Persian Gulf were granted them.


The Company allowed to exercise martial law in India.


Treaty with Portugal, by which the English were allowed access to the Portuguese ports in India.


Fort St. George built at Madras on the Coromandel Coast.


The Company obtain considerable privileges in Bengal through the influence of some skilful English surgeons, who performed important cures at the court of the Mogul.


Fort St. George (Madras) made a Presidency.

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New charter granted for seven years, upon petition, alleging that evils had resulted from the open trade. 1658.

The forts on the Malabar coast made subordinate to Surat. Bengal and the Coromandel coast placed under Madras.


April 3. A new charter granted to the Company, confirming former privileges, allowing the right of making peace and war, of exercising civil and criminal jurisdiction, and of sending unlicensed persons to England.


French East India Company established.

Surat defended by the English against Sevajee, the Mahratta chieftain. New privileges granted to the Company by the Mogul in recompense.


The Island of Bombay, which had been ceded by Portugal to Charles II. as part of the marriage portion of the Princess Catherine, granted to the East India Company, "in free and common socage, as of the manor of East Greenwich, at an annual rent of 107."


December 16. St. Helena granted by royal charter to the East India Company.



Bombay erected into a Regency, and made supreme over all the Company's establishments in India.

After several quarrels with the officers of Aurungzebe, vessels and troops arrive in the Ganges. English beaten, and forced to abandon Hoogly. September. English permitted to return to Hoogly. Pondicherry established by the French.


Tegnapatam purchased, and Fort St. David built.


Company's charter forfeited, in consequence of failing in the payment of 5 per cent. levied on all joint-stock companies. October 1. New charter granted by the king.


September 3. A new Company incorporated by the name of 'The English Company. The old Company, called The London Company,' ordered to cease trading in three years.

Calcutta purchased by the old Company as a Zemindary, and Fort William built.


The old Company obtained an Act, authorising them to trade under the charter of the new company.


July 22. Act for the union of the two Companies passed under the Great Seal. The factors of each Company to manage separately the stocks previously sent out, being allowed seven years to wind up their affairs, when the companies should be finally and completely united.

The Mahratta power had been founded about 1660 by Sevajee, who contended for many years with Aurungzebe. At the time when Sevajee died in 1680, his sway was predominant throughout the southern part of the Peninsula of Hindustan. His immediate successors were checked by Aurungzebe, but afterwards the power of the Mahrattas was extended as that of the Mogul Emperors declined. From the death of Sambajee in 1689 till 1818 the Mahratta central government was at Poonah, under the Peishwa, or viceroy, the Mahratta Raja being held in custody in the fortress of Sattara. Aurungzebe was succeeded by Shah Alum I., who died by poison in 1712. Jehaunder Shah was dethroned and killed in the same year. Ferok Shere was assassinated in 1719. Two children reigned successively four months and three months, and died in 1719 and 1720. Mohammed Shah died in 1747. Meantime Jaffier Khan, subahdar or nabob of Bengal, became independent of the Mogul Emperors, and transferred the seat of his government from Dacca to Moorshedabad.


Calcutta, which had been hitherto subordinate to Madras, now made a separate Presidency.


Complete union effected between the two companies.


No person to be a director of the East India Company and Bank of England at the same time. (9 Anne, c. 7.)


Exclusive trade extended to Lady-Day, 1736. (10 Anne, c. 28.)


Jaffier Khan, subahdar of Bengal, is now become virtually independent of the Emperor.


July. A deputation from the Company arrives at Delhi to solicit security from the oppression of the Mogul officers. A firman granted 6th January, 1717, exempting their trade from duties, and allowing them to possess land around their factories.


An East India Company formed at Ostend, and several ships despatched for India.


The Company authorized to borrow money to the extent of the sums lent by them to the Government, if not exceeding 5,000,000.


August. A charter granted by the Emperor of Germany to the Ostend Company, under which a successful trade was carried on, until political events induced the Emperor to annul the charter.


Charter renewed, and privileges extended to Lady-Day, 1769. Company agreed to accept an interest of 4 instead of 5 per cent. on loan to Government of 3,200,0007., and paid a premium of 200,0007.

Swedish India Company formed.



Invasion of India and massacre at Delhi by Nadir Shah of Persia.


Exclusive privileges of the Company continued to 1783, in consideration of a loan to Government of 1,000,000%.

The contests between the French and English for power in Hindustan commenced about this time, and continued for a series of years, with alternations of success.


War being declared between England and France, a French fleet was despatched to attack Madras.

September 14. French fleet anchored about twelve miles south of Madras, and landed 600 men, commanded by Labourdonnais. Madras capitulated after a bombardment of five days. Treaty signed by Labourdonnais, who covenanted to restore the town on payment of a moderate ransom. Dupleix, the French governor of Pondicherry, violated the capitulation.


December 19. Dupleix failed in an attack upon Fort St. David.


English besiege Pondicherry without success.


August. Madras restored to the English, in pursuance of the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. (1748.)

A deposed Raja of Tanjore obtains the aid of the English by a promise of the territory of Devicottah. The English take Tanjore, but abandon the cause of the deposed Raja, on condition of receiving the territory from the reigning prince.

War in the Carnatic for the sucession to the Nabobship of the province, occasioned by the death of the Subahdar of the Deccan. French and English engaged on different sides.

October. French received the sovereignty of eighty-one villages in the neighbourhood of Pondicherry.


French party triumphant. The protégé of the English, Muhammed Ali, takes refuge in Trichinopoly, where he is besieged by the French and defended by the English.

Captain Clive (afterwards Lord Clive) besieges Arcot, the capital of the Carnatic, reduces it, and defends it with success against very superior forces.

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