tion placed upon the property of the Lombard emigrants, and granting a full pardon to 90 persons sentenced for the crime of high-treason, or 'lèse majesté,' in the Italian provinces of the empire.-The King of Denmark grants a complete amnesty.

5. In the Court of Arches Sir John Dodson delivered judgment`in Archdeacon Denison's case, dismissing the appeal of the Archdeacon.

8. A soldier of the 3rd battalion of Chasseurs attempts to strike the King of Naples with his musket during a military review at Naples.Numerous meetings held in London and throughout the country against the continuance of the War Income-tax.

9. Capture of Bushire, in the Persian Gulf, by the British Expedition.

10. Arrival in London of the Rev. Dr. Livingstone, the distinguished African missionary and traveller.—Mr. Sheepshanks presents to the nation his collection of paintings and drawings, valued at about 60,000%, for the purposes of public instruction, one of the conditions being that the collection should be kept in the neighbourhood of Kensington.

12. Arrival at Spithead of The Resolute,' arctic discovery-ship. "The Resolute,' which had been abandoned in the ice, had been found by an American ship, and delivered to the United States Government, by whose orders it had been repaired, restored to its original condition, and presented to Great Britain.

15. Dr. Livingstone, at a special meeting of the Royal Geographical Society, was presented with the gold medal of the Society for his discoveries in Africa, and made a statement in reference to the course of his travels in South Africa, He had traversed about 11,000 miles, the greater part of which had not previously been visited by Europeans.

20. Judgment pronounced by Sir John Dodson confirming the decision of Dr. Lushington in reference to the decorations in the churches of St. Paul and St. Barnabas, Knightsbridge. The extra ceremonies and decorations ordered to be discontinued.

23. Public meeting at the London Mechanics' Institution addressed by Dr. King and Lieut. Pim, in favour of another expedition in search of Sir John Franklin.

31. The Conferences to arrange the differences of interpretation of the Treaty of Paris commenced in Paris, when plenipotentiaries from the powers which were parties to that Treaty assembled at the office of the French Minister of Foreign Affairs.

1857. Jan. 2. Meeting of Swiss residents in London in support of the Government of Switzerland in the dispute with Prussia respecting Neufchâtel.-The Archbishop of Paris (Siborn) assassinated by a priest while officiating in the Church of St. Stephen of the Mount, in Paris. The assassin was subsequently executed.

6. The Commission at Paris agree on terms settling the differences respecting the Danubian Principalities and the Isle of Serpents.-The factories at Canton burnt by the Chinese.

8. The Federal Council of Switzerland accept the new propositions of France and England, and convoke the Federal Assembly to meet on the 14th to consider the terms of peace.

15. The National Council of Switzerland accept the propositions of France and England in reference to the Neufchâtel difficulty.

16. Conviction of Leopold Redpath for forgery; his sentence being transportation for life.

25. An amnesty decreed for the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom. 30. An attempt made to destroy the Europeans in Hong-Kong by poisoning their bread.

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Feb. 2. At Melbourne, in Victoria Colony, it was agreed that eight hours' work shall be reckoned a day's work, and paid for as such.

8. General Outram obtained a victory over the Persians at Kooshab, near Bushire.

March 3. A treaty of peace between Great Britain and Persia signed at Paris by Lord Cowley and Ferukh-Khan.-Election of Mr. Buchanan as President of the United States, and Mr. Buckenridge as Vice-President.

5. Conference at Paris on the subject of the Neufchâtel dispute between Prussia and Switzerland.-Trial and conviction of James Townshend Saward (alias Jem the Penman') and James Anderson for various acts of forgery, and for being_connected with the bullion robberies on the South-Eastern Railway. Both prisoners were sentenced to transportation for life.

14. Treaty between Denmark and the principal States of Europe, for the abolition of the Sound Dues, signed at Copenhagen. Each maritime state agreed to pay to Denmark an equivalent for the amount of duty paid by the ships of their respective countries, calculated on an average of five years, and capitalised at the rate of four per cent. The portion of England was 1,125,2067.

21. The judgment of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the Appeal Case of St. Paul's, Knightsbridge, and St. Barnabas, Pimlico, was given, allowing the crosses and credence tables to remain, but affirming the decree of the Court of Arches which ordered the removal of the stone altar and the cross over it, also the disuse of the embroidered linen used on the communion table at the time of the celebration of the Holy Communion.

26. Capture of Mohammerah by General Outram, with a force of 4,500 men. About 200 Persians were killed.

28. Serious election riots at Kidderminster, in which Mr. Lowe, one of the candidates, and a member of the Government, was considerably injured.

30. The British fleet left Constantinople. Shortly before its departure the Sultan visited the British admiral on board ship.-The Russians raised some of the ships sunk by them in Sebastopol harbour.

April 3. The Sepoys of the 19th Bengal Native Infantry disbanded for mutiny at Barrackpore. General dissatisfaction among the Sepoy regiments in consequence of an idea having gained currency that the cartridges supplied to them were greased by beef suet instead of mutton fat, it being pollution for a Hindoo to touch the former.-The occurrences of the Indian mutiny will be found under a separate head at pages 95 to 124.

4. At Chester Assizes, Peter Campbell, second mate of the American ship' James L. Bogart,' sentenced to transportation for life for shooting, with intent to do grievous bodily harm; a sailor having been shot dead by him in a scuffle on board ship.

5. Cessation of hostilities against Persia, Sir James Outram having received from England intelligence of the treaty of peace.

10. Good Friday: about 28,000 persons visited the Crystal Palace at Sydenham.

14. Princess Beatrice born at Buckingham Palace.

15. Foundation stone of the new Free Public Library at Liverpool laid by William Brown, Esq., M.P. for South Lancashire, who has undertaken to erect the building at his own cost.

20. The Grand Duke Constantine of Russia arrived in France on a visit to the Emperor Napoleon, of whose birthday this was the fiftieth anniversary

21. Departure of the Earl of Elgin for China, as special Ambassador to the Court of Pekin.

23. In the Court of Arches, the Dean, Sir J. Dodson, gave judgment on a technical point in favour of the appeal of the Archdeacon of Taunton, thus reversing the decision which deprived the Archdeacon of his preferments in the church.

30. Death of the Duchess of Gloucester, aged eighty-one years, the last of the family of George III.

May 5. Opening of the Art Treasures' Exhibition, at Manchester, by Prince Albert.

6. Mr. Nathan Noble's statue of Her Majesty, designed to commemorate the royal visit to Salford in 1857, inaugurated at Peel Park, in presence of Prince Albert.

8. Opening of the new Reading Room at the British Museum. 24. A series of Sunday Evening Services commenced in Exeter Hall, under the sanction of the Bishop of London.

26. A treaty between the great powers, signed at Paris, settling the relations of Prussia and Switzerland in reference to the principality of Neufchâtel.

30. The King of the Belgians adjourns the Legislative Chambers, in consequence of the popular feeling against an Act, passed by a majority in the Chambers, by which the power of the Roman Catholic clergy would be much increased.

31. Arrival of the Russian Grand Duke Constantine at Osborne on a visit to Queen Victoria.

June 1. Opening of Calthorpe Park, Birmingham, by the Duke of Cambridge, in the presence of about 100,000 persons. The park is the gift of Lord Calthorpe.-A number of junks taken from the Chinese, following similar seizures on the 25th and 27th of May.

7. A fire took place in Leghorn Theatre, while 3,000 persons were witnessing the performance of a piece called the "Taking of Sebastopol.' In the attempt to escape from the building many lives were lost; the lowest account states 62 killed, and 87 injured.

22. Educational Conference in London, under the presidency of Prince Albert.

24. South Kensington Museum opened to the public.

25. The Privy Council passed an order for publishing a letter patent, by which the Queen grants to Prince Albert the title of Prince Consort during their joint lives.

26. The Queen distributes in Hyde Park, in the presence of about 6,000 troops and many thousand spectators, the Victoria Cross to 48 military officers and privates, and 14 of the royal navy and marines.

30. Visit of the Queen to the Art Treasures' Exhibition at Manchester.

July 1. The trustees of the Nightingale Fund report the amount received by them to be 44,0391.-Sailing of the Fox, screw steamer, Capt. M'Clintock, in search of the remains of the Franklin expedition. The Fox was fitted out by Lady Franklin.

5. General Cavaignac and several other republicans returned as members of the Corps Legislatif for districts of Paris.

9. Conclusion of the trial of Madeleine Smith, at Edinburgh, for the murder by poison of Emile L'Angelier; the jury on the ninth day of the trial found a verdict of Not proven,' and the prisoner was discharged.


11. Her Majesty laid the foundation stone of the Royal Victoria Patriotic Asylum, Wandsworth Common, to be erected and endowed from the Royal Patriotic Fund, for 300 orphan daughters of soldiers,

sailors, and marines. Sir Colin Campbell appointed Commander in Chief of the army in India. On the 12th Sir Colin left London for Calcutta.

August 6. Trial at Paris of three Italians for a design on the life of the Emperor Napoleon. The trial terminated on the 7th with a verdict of guilty. One was sentenced to transportation for life, and two to imprisonment for 15 years.

8. The Emperor and Empress of the French visited Queen Victoria at Osborne.

11. Failure of the attempt to lay the Atlantic Telegraph Cable, the cable having snapped after 335 miles' length had been given out.

14. The inauguration of the Louvre by the Emperor of the French with great ceremony. The Louvre was commenced in: 1541 by

Francis I..

25. Public meeting at the Mansion House, London, to originate a public subscription for the relief of the distress caused to the Europeans in India, in connexion with the mutinies there. By the middle of November the sum raised was upwards of 260,0007.

September 9. Conference of the Evangelical Alliance at Berlin, attended by ministers and laymen from Great Britain, America, and the Continent. The King of Prussia was present at some of the sittings. The Conference met on several successive days.

12. Loss of the Central America steamer in a tremendous gale on her voyage from Havannah to New York. Upwards of 400 lives lost; about 100 saved.

14. Assault on Delhi by the British forces under Generals Wilson and Nicholson, Fighting continued till the 20th, when the city was taken. The King of Delhi escaped.

25. The Emperor of Russia and the Emperor of France met at Stuttgardt at the King of Wurtemberg's palace.

Oct. 7. Fast and Humiliation day throughout the United Kingdom on account of the Indian troubles. #

Nov. 9. Several extensive failures of commercial houses in London, Liverpool, and Glasgow. Two banks in Glasgow suspended payment. The Bank of England raised the rate of discount to 8, 9, and at last 10 per cent.

12. Lord Palmerston and Sir G. C. Lewis, Chancellor of the Exchequer, on behalf of the Government, authorise the Bank of England to extend its issues as necessity may require, irrespective of the provisions of the Bank Charter Act of 1844, and promising to ask Parliament for an indemnity, if needed. This measure abated the commercial panic and restored confidence.

16. Parliament summoned to meet on Thursday, Dec. 3rd, in consequence of the pressure of financial difficulties, and the state of India.


Oct. 9. Cabet, N., founder of Icaria, &c.
Nov. 21. Rendell, James Meadows, engineer

21. Hammer-Purgstall, Joseph von, oriental historian, &c.
25. Reach, Angus, novelist, &c.

29. Beechey, Rear-Adm., F. W. geog. and arctic voyage Voyager 60 Dec. 8. Mathew, Father T., temperance apostle

66 33

10. Dyson, David, naturalist



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Dec. 13. MacIan, R. R., A.R.A., Edinburgh, artist 15. Salvandy, Narcisse Achille Count de .




21. Harris, Rev. Dr. John, author of ' Mammon,' &c.
24. Miller, Hugh, geologist


24. Paris, J. Ayrton, President of College of Physicians 71


Jan. 1. Britton, John, topographer and antiquary 2. Ure, Andrew, chemist

Feb. 16. Kane, Dr. Elisha Kent, American arctic traveller 24. Hincks, Rev. T. D., orientalist


Desnoyers, Baron, French engraver

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18. Playfair, Wm. Henry, architect, of Edinburgh
21. Scoresby, Rev. Dr., arctic navigator

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26. Kemble, John Mitchell, Saxon scholar and historian 50

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30. Ball, Dr. Robert, zoologist

April Hahn, Dr. Karl, August, German philologist


3. Jervis, Lieut.-Col., engineer and orientalist
6. Ficquelmont, Count, Austrian political writer
11. Towers, John, writer on agriculture
11. Tegoborski, M. de, Russian statistical writer.
16. Skinner, Right Rev. Wm., Bishop of Aberdeen
23. M'Gregor, John, statistical writer

25. Evans, Robt. Harding, antiquary and book auctioneer 80 May 3. Musset, Alfred de, French poet

8. Coulton, David Trevena, political journalist and novelist 46
13. Vidocq, E. F., French thieftaker and autobiographer 78
23. Cauchy, A. L. French mathematician

June 8. Jerrold, Douglas, dramatist, novelist, journalist, &c.
11. Retzch, Moritz, German illustrator of Shakspere, &c.
21. Thénard, Louis Jacques, French chemist.
July 16. Béranger, Pierre Jean, French lyrical poet

28. Holman, Lieut. James, blind traveller and author
29. Canino, Charles Lucien Bonaparte, Prince di, writer
on natural history

July 29. Dick, Dr. Thomas, writer on natural philosophy, &c.
Aug. 3. Sue, Eugène, French novelist .

5. Blomfield, C. J., Bishop of London
11. Hall, Dr. Marshall, physician
25. Uwins, Thomas, R.A.

27. Griswold, Dr. R. W., American author

Sept. 5. Comte, Auguste, French metaphysician

12. Boissonade, M. professor of Greek in France 22. Manin, Daniel, Italian statesman Oct. 5. Smith, Rev. Wm., professor of natural history, Cork

10. Crawford, Thomas, American sculptor

29. Cavaignac, Gen. Eugène






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29. Siccardi, Count Giuseppe, Sardinian statesman, and
writer on jurisprudence



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