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the south side would be 37 feet broad and 16 feet deep. These channels would require a fall of 6 inches per mile." Provision is made for obtaining a large supply of head water from the river for the dilution of the sewage, and to secure its free flow; and as it is presumed that it would thus be rendered a comparatively innoxious stream," it is thought unnecessary to cover these great channels except "in the neighbourhood of towns, buildings, and crossings of public roads." The cost of the main outfall sewers they estimate at 3,144,300l., and that of the internal system of intercepting sewers in the metropolitan district at 2,292,9657., in all 5,437,2651., or 1,719,3007. less if the outfall be where proposed by the Metropolitan Board. The works, they think, might be completed in five years.

This report was in its turn laid before the Metropolitan Board, where, of course, it met with a very rough reception. After ample discussion, the Board came to the resolution "that the scheme proposed cannot be adopted by the Board." The grounds of its rejection are stated in the resolution to be the great additional expense and "differences of an engineering and sanitary character upon the following points: open sewers with diminished falls; the western sewage carried on the Surrey side; a large increase in the dimensions of sewers to provide mainly for an increased area and rain-fall." In objecting to the open channels with so small a fall the Board has undoubtedly hit the great blot in the scheme; but in totally rejecting it they have deferred indefinitely what is daily becoming the most urgent requirement of the metropolis. A conference has since taken place between Sir B. Hall and a deputation from the Board, with little apparent approximation on either side: but the whole subject is to be reconsidered at an early special meeting of the Board. The referees, it will have been noticed, regard the utilizing of the sewage of the metropolis as impracticable, but they have collected and printed a vast body of valuable information on the subject.

A useful effort has been made by the Metropolitan Board to obtain a practicable plan for laying out the surface and subsoil of streets so as to avoid disturbing the pavement whenever it is required to arrange or repair the gas or water pipes, or telegraph wires. The Board offered prizes of 100, 50, and 10 guineas for the best designs for a first-class street, and 50, 20, and 5 guineas for a second-class street. The six successful designs, and thirty-three others, were exhibited at the Society of Arts. The judges state that they were unable “either to approve or condemn all the parts of any of the designs," but that they selected "those which appeared to be most susceptible of such practicable adaptations as would render them most generally applicable to the circumstances of the metropolis." The chief point aimed at was to provide easily accessible sub-ways in which the pipes and wires should be laid; and this was done either by a single continuous passage along the centre of the road above the sewer, or two smaller passages along the sides of the road in most of the plans the vaults of the houses on each side were proposed to be carried out further than at present, so as to facilitate the connecting the house-supply with the main pipes. Many of the designs, some of the non-premiated as well as the successful ones,

display much ingenuity; and a thorough reconsideration of the requirements of the case, using the suggestions afforded by these designs, would probably enable a feasible plan to be prepared. But there are many difficulties in the way: one that does not seem sufficiently taken into account-though certainly not overlookedby the competitors, is the necessity of a very complete system of ventilation, seeing that from the gas-pipes there will be an almost constant leakage, which during repairs and renewals must be greatly increased, at the same time that a considerable number of workmen will be employed in the necessarily very confined and close channel; another is that of providing sufficient space and facilities for the conveyance and removal of materials. An obstacle to the introduction of these sub-ways will be the expense. Mr. Davis, who gained the first prize for first-class streets, estimates the cost of a street constructed on his system at 367. a lineal yard, or about 77. 10s. a yard more than on the ordinary system; but from other estimates, it would be more fair to put the additional cost at not less than 107. a yard. Against this greater first cost there is, of course, to be set off the frequent additional expense, on the old system, for breaking up and renewing the road whenever the gas or water-pipes get out of order, to say nothing of the constant hindrance to the traffic and annoyance to the inhabitants and passengers. Indeed, every day sub-ways are coming to be regarded so much more as a necessity that we may expect to see some plan tried, at least as an experiment, in one of the new streets about to be formed by the Board.

Among the good deeds of the Metropolitan Board should be mentioned the assistance it rendered in carrying the Act for the formation of Finsbury Park, of which we hope to be able in our next to report that substantial progress has been made. The site affords a much better opportunity than that of Victoria Park for the successful application of the landscape-gardener's art. Hampstead Heath, on the other hand, for anything the Board seems to care, may fall a prey to the builder. Battersea Park is beginning to wear a more park-like aspect. The ground is laid out in shrubberies and flower-beds, trees have been planted, a piece of ornamental water has been formed, and an embankment and broad road constructed along the river: by next summer it will have become a very enjoyable pleasure-ground for the denizens of the south-west. The improvements in St. James's Park have been completed in a satisfactory manner as far as the lake is concerned. The bridge is, however, by no means satisfactory: it is low down on the water, and the iron-work is heavy in appearance, so that, altogether, it is obstructive of the view of the lake, as well as wanting in the primary characteristics of a suspension-bridge. Some new entrances and lodges have been added to the parks, but the less said on the score of architectural beauty or fitness the better.

Whilst on the subject of parks, we must mention the new park presented to the town of Halifax by Mr. F. Crossley, M.P., and opened in August. The park, which is situated west of the town, is small, the area being only about 12 acres (Mr. Crossley having failed to obtain the adjoining ground), but it has been laid out with

great taste under the direction of Sir Joseph Paxton, and cost the munificent donor above 30,000l. It has some fine terraces, adorned with copies in marble, by Italian sculptors, of celebrated Greek statues, vases on pedestals, &c. : below the terrace is a stone basin 216 feet in circumference, with a fountain in the centre, and beyond is a narrow lake crossed by bridges. Trees, shrubs, and flowerbeds are disposed where most conducive to effect, and an ample provision of seats is made for the comfort of the visitors. On one side of the park public baths are about to be erected out of the corporation funds, and the townspeople have entered into a subscription to decorate the exterior at a cost of 1,5007. Contiguous to the park is a range of almshouses built and endowed by Mr. Crossley at a cost of some 22,0007.

Blackburn has also now got its public park-one described as "not excelled by any in the kingdom." It was opened on the 22nd of October. It has been purchased and laid out with the proceeds of a sum paid by the East Lancashire and Blackburn Railway Companies for the 'Town Moor,' which, with interest, amounted to 5,6007., and some 9,000l. to be provided out of the borough-rates. The site is what was known as 'The Church Lands,' on the west of the town, and presents an undulatory surface, terminating in Revidge Hill, on the summit of which has been erected a fort, on which are mounted the two Sebastopol guns presented to Blackburn by the Government, and some other cannon. The park is about 50 acres in extent, and besides the oak and other trees already on the estate, other trees and shrubs have been planted, lakes, terraces, and promenades have been formed, and a bowling-green, archeryground, &c., provided. The mayor of Blackburn, Mr. Pilkington, has, at his own expense, added a large fountain, with a jet 70 feet high, and two smaller fountains. Public baths are to be erected near the park gates. The Links,' at Leith, have been converted into what is styled a park, but would more properly, perhaps, be called a pleasure-ground. It was opened by the Provost and Council with much ceremony in September. The portion completed consists of two spacious bowling-greens; the remainder is to be formed into cricket-grounds and other places for "innocent and rational recreation."

Cemeteries have been opened, or are ready for consecration, at Blackburn, Tewkesbury, Newcastle, North Shields, Warrington, Westbury, Grantham, Chepstow, Gloucester, Romsey, Eastbourne, Coleorton, Chesterfield, Holbeck, and other places; and some of them, from their size and the character of the chapels, &c., erected in connexion with them, would justify a particular notice, did our space permit.

The works of the various London Water Companies, where not already completed, are being actively prosecuted. Those of the Grand Junction Company, at Campden Hill, Kensington, require a word of special notice, from their having added a conspicuous architectural feature to that suburb, in the shape of a not inelegant tower, 26 feet square at the base and 160 feet high. This tower encloses a chimney-shaft, and the ascending and descending pipes for the

service of the high-level district. A cornice, projecting 3 feet from the walls, is carried round the tower at the height of 40 feet, and another at the height of 130 feet. The tower is an excellent specimen of brick-work, and, from its great height, its form, and the elevated site on which it stands, it forms a conspicuous object over a considerable extent of country west of Kensington.

The extensive works for the supply of Liverpool with soft water from Rivington, 26 miles distant, were completed by the end of 1856, at a cost of about 700,000l. The reservoirs at Rivington cover an area of 500 acres, and hold 3,000,000,000 gallons of water. Mr. Hawkesley is the engineer of the works. In the recent floods some mischief was done by the bursting of one of the great pipes in which the water is conveyed to Liverpool, but the evil was soon remedied. Keswick has been supplied with excellent soft water from springs on the west side of Skiddaw, at an expense not exceeding 3,000l., the engineer being Mr. Rawlinson; as has also Worthing from springs on the South Downs-in this latter case the supply being on the constant-service system, and combined with a complete arrangement of the drainage and sewerage of the town. Very extensive works for the supply of Bradford with pure water collected in reservoirs on the hills several miles from the town are in progress; as are also works for the water supply of other towns in various parts of the kingdom.

Sewerage works on an extensive scale are either completed, or in process of construction, at Bilston; at Tynemouth and North Shields; at Coventry; Wigan; Chorley; Hertford; Chelmsford, and other towns; and it may be mentioned, as an illustration of the importance which is now attached to drainage, that a private estate at Sale, near Manchester, is being drained at an estimated cost of above 30,0007.

In connexion with sanitary progress, we are glad to notice that the effort to provide a more healthy and better planned class of labourers' cottages is steadily advancing. In a paper On Houses for Working Men, their Arrangement, Drainage, and Ventilation,' read by the Rev. C. Hartshorne before the Public Health section of the recent meeting at Birmingham of the Association for the Promotion of Social Science, it was stated, that, besides the cottages built by the Prince Consort in Windsor Great Park, since 1851 Mr. Gore had caused upwards of 100 new cottages for labourers to be erected on the Crown-lands; the Duke of Northumberland has erected 210 new cottages at a cost of 2107. each, and repaired and made equal to new 250 others at a cost of 551. each; Earl Spencer has erected 87 new cottages at a cost of 1907. each; and the Duke of Bedford has erected in Bedford and Buckingham 282 cottages, in _Devon and Cornwall 190, in Cambridge and Northampton 72, in Dorset 22— in all 566, at a cost of 62,6807. Though not expressly stated in the report, we are led to infer that these are all of a superior description in a sanitary point of view. Near the railway-station at Tunbridge three pairs of model cottages' have been erected by the West Kent Labourers' Friend Society. The movement for improving the residences of the poorer classes in London and other large towns is steadily though slowly advancing.

3. CHURCHES AND CHAPELS.

The Annual Report of the Church Commissioners for 1857 had not been published up to the time of our writing. We shall, however, without its aid be able to show that church building is proceeding vigorously. Of course all the new churches are mediaval in character. "Whatever may have been our failures or short-comings," observes Mr. Scott, the foremost champion of Gothic architecture, and one of its ablest practitioners, " in this we have been thoroughly and perfectly successful, that we have completely revolutionized our ecclesiastical architecture. No revolution was ever, so far as it goes, more complete; for while, forty years ago, no one, in building a new church, would ever have dreamed of making it Gothic, no one now dreams of making it anything else." Because a church is Gothic, it by no means follows, however, that it is beautiful, even in the eyes of the straitest adherent of Gothicism. "With all the success I have claimed for our revival," says Mr. Scott, in the lecture from which we have just quoted, "the great majority of works which it has given rise to are not the productions of those who have promoted or care a straw for it, but of men picked up by chance, who only follow our style as the fashion of the day, have never studied old examples, much less worked out any original developments of their own, and are quite incapable of producing anything above the very tamest mediocrity." Happy, yet unhappy Gothic!

About London several churches of more or less orthodox or mediocre Gothic have been completed since our last. We give an engraving of one of these, St. Matthew, Oakley-square, by Mr. J. Johnson, which may be regarded as in many respects a favourable example of the London churches of recent erection. It consists of a nave and aisles 90 feet long, and an aggregate width of 45 feet, and a chancel 35 feet long by 22 feet wide. At the south-east angle is a tower 75 feet high, surmounted with a spire 100 feet high. The exterior is picturesque in its general form, and has some good details. The tower is its most striking feature, but the appearance of substantialness is obtained by a somewhat too ostentatiously lavish use of materials. In the interior picturesqueness of character has also been aimed at, though with perhaps less success than in the exterior. The only gallery is at the west end. The nave is separated from the aisles by thick clustered piers, which carry a light open wooden roof of high pitch. The pulpit and reading-desk are advanced some distance in the nave. The church has seats for 1,240 persons: its cost was 8,6007.

We have said that we may regard this church as a fair, perhaps a favourable type of its class. It is another proof that Gothic, as rendered by the present race of architects, does not properly meet the requirements of the form of worship of our Established Church, of which common prayer and preaching are the essentials; and to join in the one and listen to the other the object of the congregation. Here, all who occupy seats in the nave can see and probably hear the preacher; out of the nave the chances are, that either seeing or hearing will be difficult if not impracticable. To test this, we visited

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