second class, 276,4267. from third class, and 952,7797. from parliamentary train passengers. The receipts for the conveyance of merchandise, minerals, and live-stock were 4,867,3521.

In Scotland the total number of passengers had been 5,608,232, and the miles travelled 68,890,094, an average of about 20 miles for each inhabitant of Scotland. The number of miles open was 1,152. Of general merchandise there were carried 1,319,328 tons, of coal and other minerals 3,450,206 tons; of live stock there were conveyed 535,197 head, of which 169,891 were cattle, 336,445 sheep, and 28,861 pigs. The total receipts were 1,068,094l., of which 92,000l. were derived from first class passengers, 73,0047. from second class, 30,9687. from third class, and 145,6617. from the parliamentary train passengers. The total receipts for merchandise, minerals, and live stock were 660,419/.

In Ireland the total number of passengers had been only 3,436,041, and the total number of miles travelled had been 46,059,536, an average of about 7 miles for each inhabitant. The number of miles then open was 987. The general merchandise carried amounted to 460,543 tons, and the minerals to 42,344 tons, of which 31,150 tons were coal. The total receipts were 515,3817., of which 67,8397. were derived from first class passengers, 106,5017. from second, 53,€361. from third, and 54,8761. from parliamentary train passengers. receipts for the carriage of merchandise, minerals, and stock amounted to 173,5107.


There is a marked distinction in the choice of travelling in the three kingdoms, which will be best shown from the following statement of the number of travellers by each class.

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It may be observed here that the parliamentary trains are exempt from the payment of duty.

ACCIDENTS ON RAILWAYS.-In the year 1856 the number of persons killed or injured by accidents on the railways in the United Kingdom,

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Passengers, owing to their own misconduct or
want of caution
Servants of companies or contractors, from
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Servants of Companies or contractors, owing to
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Trespassers or other persons, neither passengers
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The total number in 1855 had been 246 killed, and 444 injured. In

1855 there had been 108,368,901 passengers conveyed; and in 1856 there were 129,347,592 conveyed; giving a rate of 08 in a million killed in 1855, 07 in 1856; 2.70 injured in 1855, and 2.18 in 1856.

HIGHWAYS. The total receipts in England and Wales for the support of 17,431 highways in 1855 was 2,106,008/., of which 1,881,8637. was raised by assessment, 36,3637. by team labour in lieu of rates, 12,202/. from turnpike trusts, and the remainder from various sources. The expenditure for the same year was 2,126,780l., of which 733,7291. was for manual labour, 289,6201. for team labour, 528,3971. for materials, 18,8727. paid to turnpike trusts, 93,613/. for salaries, and the remainder in miscellaneous items.

THE WEATHER AND THE PRICE OF PROVISIONS.-The temperature of July, August, and September 1857, was considerably above the average of the same months in the last 86 years. Since the year 1771 the temperature of July has only been somewhat exceeded 13 times. Since 1771, a date as far back as trustworthy records extend, the temperature of the month has never been so high as it was in August last, and the temperature of the month of September was only exceeded six times, In one year only (1818) out of 86 years did the temperature exceed the temperature of the three summer months. July and August were less, September was more humid than usual. Little rain fell in July; the average amount fell in August; the rain-fall in September was above the average. As a general rule, the temperature of a thermometer with its bulb on the grass falls in every month below the freezing point (32°); but it is a remarkable fact that at Greenwich the thermometer so placed never fell below 30 degrees in those three months.

The average price of wheat was 76s. 1d., and 72s. 3d. in the two periods of 13 weeks ending September, 1855, and September, 1856; it fell to 59s. 11d. in the 13 weeks ending September, 1857. Wheat is consequently 17 per cent. cheaper than it was last year. The price of beef by the carcase in the Leadenhall and the Newgate markets has fallen in the three summers from 57d. to 53d. per pound; that is, 8 per cent. The price of mutton by the carcase has fallen from 6d. to 5 d. a pound, or 4 per cent. in the same seasons. The price of potatoes has, unfortunately, risen from 74s. to 78s. and to 105s. a ton in the three seasons; it was 42 per cent. higher in the 13 weeks ending September, 1857, than the prices of the same season in 1855. The scarcity of potatoes is likely to produce scurvy in the country, as people are not generally aware that potatoes are an anti-scorbutic, which can only be replaced by fruit and vegetables. The abundant crop of apples will supply to a certain extent the vegetable acids which experience has shown that the human frame requires to maintain its elements in equilibrium.

BRITISH MUSEUM.-The total amount of expenditure for this institution in the year ending March 31, 1857, was 83,6881. Of this sum 28,3981. was for salaries to officers; 2,8067. for house expenses; 14,7347. for purchases of books, manuscripts, zoological specimens, coins, and antiquities, prints, drawings, &c.; 12,5731. for bookbinding, cabinets, &c.; 2,2481. for printing catalogues, making casts, &c.; 1,000l. for the purchase of Sardinian antiquities; 2,000l. for the purchase of London antiquities; 2,444/. for the purchase of ivory carvings; 6007. for copying and printing the cuneiform inscriptions; and the remainder for miscellaneous expenses. The estimate for the year 1857-8 is 66,4007,

The number of persons visiting the general collections in the year


1856 was 361,714. The number of visits to the reading-room was 53,422. The visits of students to the galleries of sculpture were 2,918. The visits to the print-room were 3,096. The visits to the coin and medal room were 2,299.

HAMPTON COURT.-In 1856 the total number of visitors to Hampton Court was 161,764, of whom 51,705 visited on Sundays. The largest number on any Sunday was 2,935 on July 27; the smallest number was 85 on Sunday December 7.

KEW GARDENS.-The total number of visitors in 1856 was 344,140, of whom 176,952 visited on Sundays. The largest number on any Sunday was 12,957, on August 3; the smallest number was 44 on January 6.

AGRICULTURE, IRELAND.-In the year 1856 the returns show that there were 5,753,681 acres under crop, being an increase of 64,845 acres over the quantity in 1855. Of these 529,363 acres were in wheat, 2,036,181 in oats, 218,503 in barley, beans, peas, &c., showing a decrease of cereal crops generally, but an increase on wheat of 83,588 acres. On green crops there was a general increase of 114,435 acres, potatoes occupying 1,104,590 acres, an increase of 122,289 acres, and flax had increased from 97,075 acres in 1855 to 106,826 acres in 1856, while turnips had decreased. Meadow and clover had also decreased from 1,314,807 acres to 1,303,983 acres.

Live stock, except pigs, had increased remarkably. The number of horses was 573,266, an increase of 16,979; the number of cattle 3,584,723, an increase of 20,323; the number of sheep 3,688,143, an increase of 85,801. Pigs numbered only 915,933, a decrease of 261,672. This decrease, as well as the whole of the other items, seems to show that the cottier system is declining. The farm labourer, with constant employment, has less need to raise the pig to pay his rent.

Road contractors in Ulster are required to keep the road-sides and fences free from weeds, and surveyors in the other provinces are recommended to obtain authority from grand juries, &c., to enforce in them similar regulations.

SAVINGS BANKS.-On Nov. 20, 1856, the gross number of individual depositors in savings banks in the United Kingdom was 1,317,444; the amount of deposits, including interest, was 32,827,9967.; the greatest number of depositors, 259,050, invest sums over 20s., and not exceeding 51.; the greatest amount of deposits in class, is 5,316,0317., for sums between 50%. and 75/., from 87,673 depositors; and the next highest is for sums over 2007., amounting to 4,360,8657. from 25,638 depositors. There are also 14,564 Charitable Institutions which deposit 698,8577.; and 9,046 Friendly Societies which deposit 1,408,0017. The total amount deposited is 34,934,8547. The National Debt Commissioners however, in a return of the same date, acknowledge an amount of 37,071,9217., as due to the trustees of savings banks; the balance being probably unclaimed deposits and interest, and the profit of the savings banks over the charges.

LOAN SOCIETIES.-In 1856 the number of certified Loan Societies was 307; the number of borrowers was 122,874; the total amount circulated in the year was only 666,8197.; the amount actually advanced by depositors or shareholders being 163,7967.; the amount paid by borrowers for forms and inquiries was 7,7691; for interest, 27,636/ The number of summonses issued in the year was 10,012, and the number of distresses issued was 699.

PAPER MILLS.-A very considerable decrease in the number of paper mills has taken place in England and Ireland since 1838. In that year there were in the United Kingdom 525 paper mills; 416 in England, 60 in Ireland, and 49 in Scotland. In Scotland there has been very little alteration. In 1856 there were in Scotland 51, in Ireland 28, and in England 314; a total of only 393. The decline in both England and Ireland has been gradual.

FACTORIES.-In 1856 the total number of Cotton, Woollen, Worsted, Flax, and Silk Factories in the United Kingdom was 5,117, of which 4,432 were in England, 530 in Scotland, and 155 in Ireland. The machinery was driven by 137,711 horse-power of steam, and 23,724 horse-power of water, driving 33,503,580 spindles, and 369,205 powerlooms. The total number of persons employed was 682,497, of whom 273,137 were males, and 409,360 females. Of the total number 46,071 were children under 13 years of age, attending school, besides 6,401 in silk-throwing factories who are not compelled to attend school.

ACCIDENTS IN FACTORIES.-The Commissioners' Report states, that in the half year ending April 30, 1857, the number of accidents arising from machinery was 1,876, of which 29 caused death, 289 amputation of various parts, 240 fractures, and 1,191 lacerations, contusions, &c. 776 of the sufferers were adults, 698 young persons, and 213 children.

DRAINAGE, IRELAND.-The quantity of land in which arterial drainage had been effected up to May, 1857, in which final awards had been made, amounted to 160,572 statute acres, of which the total expense had been 926,1067., but of which 360,4207. had been advanced and remitted by government, the remainder being either paid or to be paid by proprietors. The increased rent obtained in consequence of the drainage works was 50,911. On Jan. 1, 1857, there were 168,121 acres in progress of draining, on which upwards of 400,000l. had been expended, and for which 44,9927. are estimated to be required before making the final award. The increased rent is estimated at 60,0731. Notices have been issued affecting 16,122 acres, but no works have been commenced. Preliminary surveys have also been made of a further large amount of land that would be benefited by drainage.

PRESENTMENTS, IRELAND.-The amount of presentments made by Grand Juries of the various counties in Ireland in 1856 was 1,011,0447.; of this, far the largest item of expenditure was on the roads, being for new roads, bridges, pipes, gullets, &c., 81,6857.; for repairing roads, bridges, &c., 435,6047. The prison and bridewell expenses were 89,9301., repayments to government 117,182., public charities 75,3587., and salaries, &c., 99,1047.

CHURCH RATES.-The total amount of Church Rates in England and Wales raised in 1832 was 446,4957.; in 1839 it was 363,1037.; in 1854 it was 314,6597. The amount of debt secured on Church Rates was 535,2367. in 1830, and 318,2007. in 1854.

SITTINGS OF HOUSE OF COMMONS.-In the two sessions of 1857, the House sat on 116 days for 903 hours, an average of 7 hours 47 minutes for each sitting. The longest sittings were on Friday, July 17, for 16 hours, Thursday, July 30, and Friday, July 31, for 15 and 14 hours respectively. During the two sessions the number of hours after midnight on which the House sat was 913.




[20-21 Victoriæ.]

(LORDS.) Parliament was opened by Commission.


Queen's speech contained the announcement that this country was at war with Persia and China. The Earl of Cork moved, and the Earl of Airlie seconded, the Address to the Queen in answer to the royal speech. Earl Grey moved an amendment, condemnatory of the Government for not calling Parliament together when hostilities were deemed necessary with Persia. On a vote there appeared for the amendment, 12; against, 45: majority against the amendment 33.

(COMMONS.) Sir J. Ramsden moved the Address, which was seconded by Sir A. Agnew. After considerable discussion, having reference chiefly to the state of war, the Address was agreed to.


(LORDS.) In reply to questions, the Earl of Clarendon stated that no specific instructions had been sent to Sir John Bowring 5. at Canton, but he was generally empowered to take every expedient step to give effect to the treaty by which free access to Canton was conceded by the Chinese government to British representatives and merchants. Lord Cardigan complained that his character had been maligned in a recent publication on the Crimean campaign by a staff


(COMMONS.) Mr. Labouchere moved for a Select Committee to consider the state of the British possessions in North America under the administration of the Hudson's Bay Company, or over which they possess a licence to trade. He stated that this subject involved questions of imperial policy, humanity, and justice, of no ordinary magnitude, Mr. Roebuck thought the Government should have proceeded at once to propose a legislative measure on the subject. Mr. Adderley argued against the exclusive privileges of the Hudson's Bay Company. Mr. Ellice thought the Company had a fair claim to favourable consideration. Mr. Gladstone approved the proposal for a Select Committee.


(COMMONS.) The Chancellor of the Exchequer, in answer Feb. to Mr. Baillie, said, in reference to the cost of the Persian war, that half of the extraordinary expenses would be paid out of the national exchequer, and the other half out of the Indian treasury. The Chancellor of the Exchequer moved for the appointment of a Select Committee to inquire into the operation of the Bank Act of 1844, and of the Bank Acts for Ireland and Scotland of 1845; also into the law relating to joint-stock banks. After a lengthened discussion, the motion was agreed to, with exception of that part of it which relates to jointstock banks, the Chancellor of the Exchequer having consented to withdraw that part of his motion.


(LORDS.) Lord Brougham re-introduced his bill to put down vexatious law proceedings by making poor men give securities 9. for costs to rich men when they bring actions against them,

The bill was read a first time.

(COMMONS.) In answer to Sir J. Pakington it was stated by Sir George Grey that Government did not intend to introduce any bill with respect to church-rates this session. Sir George Grey brought forward a bill to amend the law relating to transportation. After speeches by several members who take a special interest in this subject, leave was given to bring in the bill. Leave was also given to Sir George Grey to bring in a bill to facilitate the establishment of reformatory schools in England,

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