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AMOUNT of MONEY expended for IN-MAINTENANCE and OUT-DOOR RELIEF in 624 UNIONS, &c., under the POOR LAW AMENDMENT ACT in ENGLAND and WALES, during the Half-Year ended at Lady-day, 1857.
Wales in every
Denbigh, and Radnor. The decrease of expense in England was £121,208, or 6.2 per cent.; the increase in Wales was £2,528 or 1.9 Note.-This Return shows a decrease per cent. The total diminution was £118,770, or 5.7 per cent.
except Durham, and an increase
in every County
SCHOOLS IN RURAL DISTRICTS.-Under the Minute of the Board of Education of April, 1853, for promoting voluntary assessments towards building schools in places not incorporated, nor containing more than 5,000 inhabitants, there have been established (up to December 31, 1856,) 351 schools at a total cost of 211,502/., of which 116,1917. were raised by local rates, 17,142. by subscriptions, and 78,1697. were contributed from the parliamentary grant. The number of scholars attending is not stated.
WORKHOUSE SCHOOLS.-In the half-year ending Lady-day, 1856, the average number of children attending workhouse and district schools was 37,814, of whom 19,114 were boys, and 18,700 girls; 9,804 boys and 10,376 girls were under 10 years of age, and 9,210 boys and 8,324 girls were above that age.
NATIONAL SCHOOLS, IRELAND.-On December 31, 1855, the number of National Schools in operation was 5,193, and the number of children on the rolls 538,246. The number of schools had continued to increase every year since 1833; the number of scholars had decreased a little since 1854, possibly from the change taking place in the population of Ireland. The Report of the progress of the children is very satis factory.
EDUCATION, SCIENCE, AND ART.-Sums granted for such objects in the years 1856 and 1857.
Public Education, Great Britain
Commissioners of Education, Ireland, Office
University of London
British Museum (Establishment)
(Buildings) Ditto (Purchases)
National Gallery (including purchases of Pictures)
Scientific Works and Experiments
Public Buildings (including Scotland and Isle of
Furniture of Public Offices, &c.
PUBLIC WORKS AND BUILDINGS.--Sums granted for such objects in the years 1856 and 1857.
23, 165 5,039
Revising Barristers (England and Wales)
British Embassy Houses Abroad, Repairs, &c.
Incumbered Estates Commission (Ireland)
General Board of Health
Fishery Board (Scotland)
Brehon Laws (Ireland), Compilation, &c., Expenses
Local Dues under Treaties of Reciprocity
Relief of Distressed British Seamen, and others
Works at Spurn Point (River Humber)
SPECIAL AND TEMPORARY OBJECTS.-Sums granted for such objects in the years 1856 and 1857.
North American Exploring Expedition
1856 £91,684 £115,781
162,861 120,000 224,000
Metropolitan Churches Building Fund (Contribu-
Wellington Monument in the Phoenix Park,
General Register House, Edinburgh
Carisbrooke Castle (Isle of Wight) Repairs
National Gallery (Ireland)
Science and Art Department (Removal to Ken
St. James's Park Approach and Bridge
VACCINE REPORT.-The Board of the National Vaccine Establishment report that during the year 1856, 210,942 charges of lymph have been supplied, and that 141,147 persons have been vaccinated, besides 7,039 vaccinated at the stations attached to the establishment. During the year large supplies of lymph have been furnished to foreign countries, to our own colonies, and especially to numerous dispensaries and public institutions in Ireland. A gradual diminution of small pox in London had taken place since the middle of the year 1855, but the periodical recurrence of the disease in an epidemic form has been overlooked in stating the facts of the case, and this omission has led to a false conclusion. In the present century there have been no fewer than six epidemics: the Records of the Small Pox Hospital show that they occurred in the years 1825, 1838, 1844-1845, 1848, 1851-1852, and 1854-1855-1856. The last epidemic, which extended over parts of three years, was unusually severe as well as protracted, and reached its acme in May 1855, the admissions into the Small Pox Hospital having been then the largest ever known. They add that small pox is as virulent as ever, that is, that its fatality in those in whom the disease is not modified by vaccination is quite as great as it has ever been. The mortality in this class is about one-third of those attacked, or 35per cent., under five years of age it is 50 per cent., under two years much greater. It is least between 10 and 15 years of age, and after
20 years of age it rises rapidly, and at 30 it exceeds the mortality of infancy. After 60 years of age hardly any escape. In the five years from 1852 to 1856, 2,253 patients have been admitted into the Small Pox Hospital with small pox after vaccination. Of these 355 had each four or more vaccine cicatrices. Three of these patients have died, one from small pox, and two from superadded disease wholly independent of small pox, so that it may be fairly said, deducting two cases, that of 353 patients having four or more cicatrices only one died. This number, added to the cases already published, makes 620 cases followed by three deaths, or rather less than half per cent. The unvaccinated cases died at the rate of 35 per cent., and the patients badly vaccinated, having only one indifferent cicatrix, or none at all, but believing themselves vaccinated, died at the rate of 15 per cent. This statement shows:-1st. The great loss of life from natural small pox; 2nd. The great protective power of vaccination.
POST OFFICE.-The third Annual Report of the Postmaster-General, for the year 1856, states that at the end of the year mails were conveyed daily over 28,692 miles of railway at an average charge of 94d. a mile and over 32,721 miles of road by coaches, carts, &c. at an average rate of 2 d. per mile. The total number of letters delivered in the year was 478,393,803, of which 388,309,853 were in England and Wales, 41,851,008 in Ireland, and 48,232,942 in Scotland. These numbers give an average, in England, of 20 letters for each person of the population (in London it amounts to 40 for each), in Ireland to 7 for each, and in Scotland to 16 for each person. The number of newspapers passing through the Post-office was 71,000,000, about three-fourths of which bore the newspaper stamp. The number of book-packets was nearly 3,000,000. There were 550,000 newspapers, and 2,400,000 letters that from various causes could not be delivered, chiefly illegible or erroneous directions.. The gross revenue was 2,867,954/.; the cost of management 1,660,2297.; the net revenue 1,207,7251.
MONEY ORDERS.-The total number of money orders issued in 1856," in the United Kingdom, was 6,178,982, to the amount of 11,805,5627., an increase of 74 per cent. over 1855. Of the total number 5,231,736 orders, to the amount of 10,099,3667., were issued in England; 461,723, to the amount of 806,9421., in Ireland; and 485,523, to the amount of 899,2537., in Scotland. The commission gave a profit, after deducting expenses, in England, of 22,2317., and in Scotland of 1,0347.; in Ireland there was a loss of 5917. The number of orders gives an average of 1 for every four persons in England, for every 6 in Scotland, and for every 13 in Ireland.*
RAILWAY TRAFFIC.-In the half-year ending June 30, 1856, the total number of passengers conveyed on railways in England and Wales had been 49,179,847, and the total number of miles travelled had been 685,315,097, an average of upwards of 30 miles for every inhabitant of the kingdom. The number of miles of railway open for traffic was at that date 6,352. Of general merchandise there had been carried 10,032,626 tons, and 15,644,643 tons of mineral produce, of which 9,512,777 tons were of coal. The total number of live stock conveyed was 3,671,802 head, of which 675,587 were cattle, 2,400,712 sheep, and 591,186 pigs. The total receipts for the period were 9,198,2767., of which 1,172,4087. arose from first class passengers, 1,361,4841. from