METROPOLITAN POLICE.-The total expenditure on account of the Metropolitan Police force for the year 1856 was 434,0811. The receipts, including a balance in hand at the end of 1855 of 58,1057., was 479,717/; and a balance remained of 45,6357. for the use of 1857. The number of the force employed was 5,847, comprising 18 superintendents, 142 inspectors, 631 sergeants, and 5,056 constables. Of the total amount received, 102,3771. was paid by the Treasury, the remainder was raised from rates, on an estimated rental of 11,241,4441. The expenses of the Police Courts during the same year were 67,0061. and those of the Hackney Carriage Department of the police force were 11,6987. These charges are chiefly provided for by the Board of Inland Revenue for the hackney carriages, and by a parliamentary vote for the police courts.

IMPRISONED DEBTORS.-In the Metropolitan Prisons of London and Middlesex, and in Horsemonger Lane, Surrey, there were committed from the County Courts 870 debtors in 1852, 916 in 1853, 1,096 in 1854, and 1,234 in 1855.

COUNTY COURTS.-In 1856 the total number of plaints entered was 581,053; the amount claimed under the plaints 1,533,6567.; the total number of causes tried or for which judgment was entered was 297,679, of which 4,053 were for sums between 201. and 50%.; the total amount, exclusive of costs, for which judgment was obtained, was 725,4137.; paid into court before judgment 113,8637. The amount of fees to September 30 was 193,3417, the last two months of the year not being made up. The number of causes tried by jury was 741, in 393 of which the party requiring a jury gained a verdict. There were 76,658 executions issued against the goods of defendants, 17,252 warrants of commitment, and 7,011 persons actually taken to prison under such warrants. From the establishment of the Courts in 1847 to September 30, 1856, there had been 4,509,756 plaints entered, 2,476,851 causes tried, 4,024,4957. paid in to the accounts of suitors, and 3,473,5347. paid out. The total amount of fees received had been 2,559,4157.

BANKRUPTCY.-In the course of the years 1853, 1854, and 1855, the London and Provincial Commissioners of Bankruptcy in England adjudicated on 2,138 cases. In 583 of these cases no dividend had been paid, but of these, only 40 of the cases were above 500l. Of the others, the amount of assets collected had been 1,978,3251., of which 1,073,3867. had been distributed as dividends. The solicitors' charges had been 235,5137.; the commissions, &c., of the official assignees was 85,5861.; the charges for stationery, postage, &c., were 12,6227.; other charges, including fees to brokers, messengers, travelling expenses, &c., amounted to 294,501.; and the balance in hand was 278,4557.

V.-Population, Emigration, Poor Laws, &c.

BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES.-In the year 1855 there were registered in England 635,043 Births: an increase of 638 only on the preceding year. Of the total number 323,960 were males and 311,083 were females, of whom 20,871 males and 19,912 females were illegiti mate; showing a proportion to legitimate birth of nearly 1 in 16; but in the London district the proportion is only 1 in 25. There were registered in the same period 152,113 Marriages: a decrease of 7,614 from the number in the previous year, the greater proportion being in

marriages by banns; of the total number of marriages 127,751 were solemnised according to the rites of the Established Church, 7,344 in Roman Catholic registered chapels, 9,296 in registered chapels of other Christian denominations, 57 at Quakers' meetings, 224 at Jewish chapels, and 7,441 by superintendent-registrar's certificate; 8,386 of the men and 27,207 of the women were not of full age; and 44,846 men and 62,672 women signed the marriage-register with marks: in 32,139 cases the register was so signed by both parties. Of Deaths in 1855 there were 425,703: a decrease of 12,213 from the number in 1854; of these deaths 216,587 were males and 209,116 females; 97,503 died under 1 year old, while 442 females and 289 males had attained ages varying from 95 to 108.

IRELAND: MARRIAGES.-In 1856 the number of Marriages (exclusive of those solemnised by Roman Catholic priests, which are not registered) was 9,547: an increase of nearly 9 per cent. over 1855. Of those married 5.10 per cent. of the men and 18:18 per cent. of the women were under age. The widowers amounted to 12 26 per cent. and the widows to 6.97 per cent. Of the total number 2,589 men and 4,199 women subscribed the register with marks, being unable to write.

SCOTLAND: BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES.-The Second Annual Report of the Registrar-General for Scotland states the estimated population of that kingdom in 1856 to be 3,033,177. The number of Births in the year had been 101,748, of whom 52,301 were males and 49,447 were females. The number of Deaths had been 58,456, of which 29,417 were males and 29,039 were females. The number of Marriages had been 20,487, which were most numerous in June (2,798) and December (2,866), and least numerous in May, when they were only 1,105.

EMIGRATION.-In 1856 the total number of Emigrants from the United Kingdom was only 176,554, of whom 71,724 were from Ireland. The chief decrease is in the emigration from Ireland, which is upwards of 7,000 less, but the gross number is only 253 less than that of 1855. Of the total number in 1856 there were 111,837 to the United States, 16,378 to our North American Colonies, 44,584 to the Australian Colonies and New Zealand, and 3,755 to all other places. The rate of mortality among the emigrants had been very small; to North America, on 72,443 passengers, the amount was only 0.10 per cent. Of the total number to the Australian Colonies 20,385 were assisted by the Emigration Commissioners, and the rate of mortality in the transit had been small. The Report of the Commissioners gives the following statistics of the Colonies:

New South Wales.-The number of assisted passengers in 1856 amounted to 8,452, of whom 4,590 were males. The total population in the same year consisted of 266,189, of whom 147,091 were males, but the great disparity existed chiefly in the males and females above 45, there being 22,546 men to 9,467 women; under 21 the females somewhat predominated. In the year 1855 there had been sold 127,952 acres of land, in 5,910 lots, at an average price of 21. 23. per acre; town lots fetching an average of 467. 19s. The total amount of the land revenue was 319,2257.; the amount for 1856 is stated as 298,1587., but the details are not given. The average extent of country allotments was 88 acres, and as some were of course above the average, it is

assumed that the principal purchasers were small capitalists, settling on farms of from 40 to 50 acres. Agriculture is not in an advanced state; few attempts have been made to introduce machines and to economise labour; the consequence is that it is not profitable; wheat does not yield above 15 bushels per acre, and maize 29 bushels, while a labourer has to be paid 40%. a-year and his board and lodging. The whole revenue of the colony was 1,018,928/. in 1855, and 1,101,1657. in 1856. The amount of exports and imports had decreased considerably, on the whole, in 1855, but in the export of wool the decrease had not been very great, the amount being 17,671,684 lbs., and the value 1,078,017., or 103,9397. less than in 1854. By the census of 1851 the number of children between 7 and 14 was 28,864; in 1855 the number attending school was only 18,975, and of these many irregularly.

Victoria. The assisted emigration in 1856 was 7,676, of whom only 2,889 were males. The total population was estimated at 319,379; but, including the Chinese, the governor of the colony estimates the men as 2 to 1 of the women. In 1855 the total number of emigrants into the colony was 66,571, while in the same year 26,395 persons left it. The population in 1854 was 273,792, the number of children under instruction was 20,108. The population occupied at the gold-fields in 1855 was 145,852, of whom 20,540 were Chinese men, 3 Chinese women, and 3 children; the remainder of the population consisted of 83,327 men other than Chinese, 18,836 women, and 23,141 children. The land-sales in the same year amounted to 438,972 acres, in 8,060 lots, producing 763,554, at an average rate of 21. per acre; the town lots fetching only 63l. 10s. per acre, while in 1853 they fetched 4421. per acre, and 245l. 16s. in 1854. The total quantity of occupied land was 1,781,604 acres; the number of acres under crop had risen from 54,905 in 1854, to 115,535 in 1855; and wheat cultivation had increased from 12,827 acres to 42,686. The imports had decreased from 17,659,0517. in 1854, to 12,007,9397. in 1855, while the exports had risen from 11,777,2041. to 13,493,338l. The value of the gold exported in 1855 was 10,302,9807.

The total revenue of Melbourne in 1854 was 654,6647., the expenditure 569,772., of which 291,500l. were expended on public works in the city. In 1857 the town was lighted with gas. The local revenue of Geelong in 1854 was 241,6707., and the expenditure was 128,0081. The revenue in both towns includes large sums raised by loans. For the public works of the Colony 115,672/. was expended on new wharves, 20,8647. on prisons, 24,3997. on a jetty at Williamstown, and 25,7771. for new buildings at the gold-fields.

South Australia.-The assisted emigration in 1856 was 4,164, of whom 2,584 were males. The total population, by a census on December 31, 1855, was 97,387, of whom 48,843 were males and 48,544 females. The births in the year had been 3,944, the deaths 1,663. The quantity of land sold was 171,610 acres, realizing 233,7451., an average a little above 11. 7s. per acre. The imports had decreased considerably; the exports had increased from 823,1047. in 1854, to 839,915l., but in the principal staples of the country-wool had increased from 182,4197. to 243,5047., and copper from 94,7067. to 150,0271. The revenue for 1855 had amounted to 504,250l., and the expenditure to 810,3271. The sums expended for public works in 1855 had been 173,3767., chiefly on streets, roads, and harbours.

Western Australia.-The assisted emigration to Western Australia in 1856 was only 93, of whom 53 were females. The land-sales in 1855 amounted to 1,779 acres, sold at an average price of 17. 10s. per acre; some of the town lots fetching upwards of 30l. per acre; and for

the first time the colony produced a supply of food equal to its own consumption. The Commissioners remark that emigration to this colony must be very limited, as agricultural labour is what is chiefly required, and the demand for that is not large nor constant, as it is to a great extent supplied by convict labour. Still the colony grows, and the revenue increases.

Tasmania.-For 1855 and 1856 the emigration has been conducted on a system of bounty allowed by the colony. In 1855 the total number of emigrants arriving was 10,887, but in the same year 7,055 left. Of the number arriving, 4,632 were from Great Britain, 857 from Hamburgh and other foreign states, and 5,398 from the adjacent colonies. The total population on December 31, 1855, was 69,962, of whom 7,740 were convicts. The total number of adult males was 22,880, of females 17,483, and 29,599 children. The number of deaths registered in the year had been 1,692, of births 2,948, and of marriages 1,257. The Commissioners, remarking on the disparity of proportion between the sexes add, that "at the present moment the unmarried residents in the colony above 14 years of age amount tomales 23,822, females 6,215." The statement must be an error, but we cannot rectify it. The land revenue for 1855 had produced 82,821l., of which 22,845/. was for 21,508 acres of country allotments, 28,9717. for 3,102 acres of town allotments, and 27,5831. for 2,160,534 acres held under depasturing licenses. The imports in 1855 had amounted to 1,559,797., more than a million less than in 1854; the exports amounted to 1,428,6291., a decrease of a little more than 4,0007. only, and included 5,858,458 lbs. of wool. The search for gold had had no great success, except indirectly, by exploring the island, and opening out new roads.

New Zealand.-The Report is very scanty. The emigration in 1856 amounted to 4,004, but the manner and the results are not stated, there being no assisted emigration to this colony.

Canada. In 1856 the emigration to Canada amounted to 22,439 persons, of whom 5,555 were English, 4,357 Irish, 3,872 Scotch, 3,136 Prussians, 2,806 Norwegians, 1,249 Germans, 823 Belgians, 260 Swiss, the remainder Italians, French, &c. The Commissioners state, that it is difficult to ascertain the number of settlers, but the emigration agent at Quebec estimates that all the Norwegians, half the Irish and Germans, and one-sixth of the English and Scotch, proceed to the United States. On the other hand, a large number arrive from the United States, whom it is impossible to classify. The total number of settlers is estimated at between 23,000 and 24,000. Free grants are made in the Ottawa district of 100 acres to each of the settlers of 18 years of age and upwards, on condition that they take possession within a month, put 12 acres into cultivation within four years, build a log hut 20 feet by 18 feet, and reside on the lot. Three lines of road have been formed in this district, communicating with Lake Huron.

To the other colonies, the emigration has been comparatively unimportant.

POOR LAW RELIEF.-The total number of paupers in receipt of relief, in-door and out-door, on January 1, 1857, in 624 unioifs and parishes of England and Wales, was 843,340, being a decrease from 1856, in the same number of unions, of 33,225, or 3.8 per cent. Of adult able-bodied paupers relieved, exclusive of vagrants, there were 189,130, a decrease of 13,044, or 8'6 per cent. Of the number relieved, 50,362 were widows,

a decrease in the same class of 2,291. Of the gross number of ablebodied paupers, 22,368 were in the receipt of in-door relief, a decrease of 1,128 only, so that the chief decrease is in out-door relief. The greatest decrease took place in Bedford, Lancaster, Nottingham, Rutland, and Caernarvon, where it exceeded 20 per cent. In Kent, Hereford, Durham, Oxford, Sussex, and Worcester, there was an increase, as also in several of the Welsh counties. Of the in-door adult ablebodied there were 812 married men, 1,007 married women, 5,952 other males, and 14,567 other females. Of the out door adult able-bodied, 83 males had been relieved in cases of sudden or urgent necessity; 17,210 males in cases of their own sickness or accident, 6,835 males in cases of sickness or accident in their family, or for a funeral; 3,784 males for want of work or other causes; 22,839 females were wives of adult males, 50,362 were widows, 5,114 were single women without children, 2,660 the mothers of illegitimate children; 2,018 were wives relieved on account of the husband being in jail, &c.; 1,268 were wives of soldiers, sailors, and marines; and 4,389 were wives of other non-resident males.

POOR RELIEF, IRELAND. On the first Saturday of January, 1857, in the 163 unions of Ireland, there were 55,183 persons receiving indoor relief, and 911 out-door relief, showing a total decrease of 16,989 persons-23.3 per cent.-from the Return of the same date in 1856. Less than a third of the workhouse accommodation was in use, provision having been made for 199,667, which is itself a reduction of the provision for previous years. The poor-rate collected in the year ending September 29, 1856, amounted to 723,7971., of which 576,160l. were expended for Poor Law purposes, being a decrease on the preceding year of 109,0997. For medical charities 89,8991. were paid, and 4,4367. on account of annuities. In the week ending Saturday, January 2, 1857, the amount of out-relief paid throughout Ireland was 441. ; in the twelvemonth mentioned above, it was 2,1981., while emigration expenses amounted to 4,170.

POOR LAW RELIEF, SCOTLAND.-In the year ending May 5, 1856, the total amount expended in Poor Law relief was 602,8231., exclusive of 3,3377. on buildings, of 21,5107. in the erection of workhouses, and of 1,677. on sanitary measures. The number of registered poor who received relief in the year ending May 5, 1856, was 99,363, and the casual poor receiving relief amounted to 38,020. The number of poorhouses numbered 30, belonging to 120 parishes, either singly or in combination, affording accommodation for 10,443 inmates, and 16 others are in course of erection. The number of inmates on July 1 was 6,118.

PAUPER CHILDREN.-The number of poor children between the ages of three and fifteen, in England and Wales, on July 1, 1856, who were then attending day-schools at the cost of their parents or relatives, was 58,243; at the cost of the poor-rates 3,986; at the cost of other parties, comprehending charity and free schools 39,857; total 102,086. The total number of children not attending any day school at the same period was 53,434. The number of children at work was then 35,827, of whom 10 were between three and four, and 9 between four and five years of age, after which the number for each year of age increases rapidly.

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