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Scotland, and 276,703 quarters in Ireland, by brewers and victuallers. In the year ending March 31, 1857, the number of bushels of malt brought to charge was 4,765,922 quarters.
HOPS.-In 1856 there were imported 15,987 cwts. of foreign hops; and there were exported, 12,970 cwts. of foreign and 2,305 cwts. of British hops. In the same year, the declared value of beer and ale exported was 1,455,043l. On the 1st of April, 1857, the number of acres used in the cultivation was 54,527, and the amount of duty charged was 488,8501.; an average duty of 8l. 19s. 3d. per acre for the year. On Nov. 3, the duty for 1857 was assessed at 416,8837.
EXPORTS, IRELAND.-In the year 1856 there were exported to foreign parts 387,902 yards of linen, 470,375 yards of manufactured cotton, 348,935 gallons of Irish spirits, a few oxen and sheep, and small quantities of provisions. To England there were exported 273,821 oxen and cows, 18,704 calves, 602,217 sheep, 299,638 swine, 196,763 quarters of wheat and wheat flour, 1,904,855 quarters of oats and oatmeal, and 2,114,464 gallons of spirits. The number of live-stock are not officially returned, but are merely collected by the Custom-house officers at the ports of shipment, and are to some extent defective.
CHEESE. In the year 1856 there were imported into Great Britain 406,323 cwts. of cheese; of which 340,005 cwts. came from various parts of Europe, 66,227 cwts. from the United States of America, and 91 cwts. from British Possessions. In the same period there were exported 7,105 cwts. of foreign cheese.
COAL.-The total quantity of coal shipped coastways in the year 1856 was 8,882,937 tons; together with 37,296 tons of cinders, 189,843 tons of culm, and 86,335 tons of patent fuel. The total quantity exported in the same year was 5,637,587 tons of coal, 240,578 tons of cinders, 1,614 tons of culm, and 69,462 tons of patent fuel; the declared value of the whole being 2,869,2301. The total quantity of coal brought into London was 4,393,154 tons, of which 3,119,884 tons were sea-borne, and 1,273,270 tons conveyed by rail or canal. The quantity of patent fuel brought into London was only 24,424 tons, all brought coastwise.
COPPER. In 1856 there were imported into the United Kingdom 71,678 tons 2 cwts. of copper ore; 11,124 tons 17 cwts. of regulus; 2,068 tons 17 cwts. of unwrought copper, in bricks, pigs, &c.; 1,244 tons 5 cwts. of old copper, for remanufacture; 1,744 tons, partly wrought in bars, rods, &c.; 227 tons 17 cwts. of plates and wires; and 920 tons of copper manufactures and copper-plates engraved. The far greater proportion of ore came from Cuba and Chili, but 6,069 tons came from Victoria. Of British copper the total exports amounted to 21,906 tons 3 cwts.; of foreign copper exported the total amount was 2,108 tons
TIN.-In 1856 the quantity of tin imported amounted to 3,464 tons 2 cwts., and 749 tons of tin ore and regulus; and there were exported 1,874 tons 6 cwts. of British tin, and 200 tons 5 cwts. of foreign tin, with 4 tons of foreign tin ore,
ZINC. Of zinc or spelter, in 1856, there were imported 18,213 tons, and of oxyde of zinc 235 tons 3 cwts.; and there were exported 3,155 tons 5 cwts. of British zinc, and 2,172 tons 6 cwts. of foreign, with 15 cwts. of foreign oxyde of zinc.
LEAD. In 1856 the quantity of lead imported was,—of pig and sheet lead 10,254 tons, of lead ore 705 tons, of red lead 15 tons 2 cwts., of white lead 30 tons 3 cwts., and of chromate of lead 3 tons; and there were exported of foreign, pig and sheet lead, 565 tons 19 ewts.; of British-lead ore 646 tons, of pig and rolled lead 20,868 tons, of shot 2,266 tons, of litharge 476 tons 16 cwts., of red lead 1,845 tons 15 cwts., and of white lead 2,819 tons 3 cwts.
SPIRITS. In the year ending December 31, 1856, the total quantity of spirits distilled in the United Kingdom was 28,197,065 gallons; of which 7,653,158 gallons were distilled in England, 12,001,098 in Scotland, and 8,542,809 in Ireland. The quantity on which duty was paid for home consumption was 23,300,556 gallons; of which 16,519,488 were taken in Great Britain, and 6,781,068 in Ireland, the total amount of duty paid being 8,698,6247. The quantity exported to foreign parts in the same period was 4,334,255 gallons; of which 1,790,963 were from England, 2,201,048 from Scotland, and 342,242 from Ireland.
METHYLATED ALCOHOL, for the use of manufacturers, was made by licensed persons to the extent of 174,445 gallons, and 20,664 gallons were sold by the Excise.
FOREIGN, COLONIAL, and CHANNEL ISLANDS' SPIRITS Imported, Exported, retained for Home Consumption, &c., in the Year ended Dec. 31, 1856.
SILK. In the year 1855 there were imported into the United Kingdom 6,618,862 lbs. of raw silk, 929,897 lbs. of thrown silk, and 12,106 cwts. of knubs or husks of silk and waste silk. In 1856 the quantities wereof raw silk, 7,383,672 lbs.; of thrown silk, 853,015 lbs,; and of waste
silk, &c., 17,993 cwts. Of the raw silk, China supplied 3,723,693 lbs., and Egypt 2,514,356 lbs. The alterations in the source of supply are remarkable: Egypt in 1842 furnished only I lb., and France, which in that year furnished 1,156,498 lbs, in 1856 furnishes only 157,559 lbs., and the British East Indies has fallen at the same dates from 1,359,599 lbs. to 610,422 lbs. Of the thrown silk in 1856, France supplied 331,048 lbs. and China 428,553 lbs.
CANADA. In the year 1856 the imports from the United States into Canada amounted in value to 2,020,7057.; of which 884,3751. was for grain and meal of various kinds, 118,474/. for live animals of all kinds, and 354,4437. for fresh and salted meats. In the same year the exports from Canada to the United States amounted to 4,418,8857.; of which 1,889,810%. was for grain of various kinds, 1,043,7551. for flour, 338,5211. for animals, 724,3991. for timber and lumber, 19,9667. for vegetables, 33,4771. for fish, and 71,4517. for hides, furs, and skins.
IV. Crime, Police, and Law.
JUDICIAL STATISTICS.-An interesting compilation under this head has been commenced, of which Part I. has been laid before Parliament, The part published contains the Statistics of Criminal Justice. Part II. is to contain those of Civil and Commercial Justice. Criminal Justice is arranged under three heads-Police, Criminal Proceedings, and Prisons, and is at present confined to the returns of England and Wales. For the present year the Police Returns have not been obtained, as the forms have only been recently issued. They will comprise returns from each separate police district, with the number and classes of officers, the cost, and what proportion of the cost is paid from the public revenue; the crimes committed so far as is known to the police, the number of persons apprehended, and the nature of the crimes charged; the results of the police proceedings against the persons apprehended, with information as to their habits and character, whether committed for trial or punished on summary proceedings. This class is also to contain the results of coroners' inquests, of which, in 1856, there were 22,221. The findings of the jury in these cases was murder' on 114 males and 91 females; manslaughter' on 230 males and 41 females; 'justifiable homicide' on 6 males; 'suicide or self-murder' on 919 males and 395 females; 'accidental death' on 7,455 males and 2,261 females; 'injuries, causes unknown,' on 273 males and 151 females; 'found dead' on 2,025 males and 1,158 females; and natural death on 4,260 males and 2,842 females. Of the whole number 4,120 were infants, 3,875 children, 11,247 adults, 2,675 aged and infirm, and 304 not ascertained. The total expenses of holding the inquests amounted to 68,4397., an average of 31. 1s. 7d. for each case.
In 1856 the total number of persons committed for trial was 19,437, of whom 15,425 were males and 4,012 females; of these, 4,672 were acquitted or discharged and 31 were found insane; of the number convicted, 1,264 were for offences against the person, 1,787 for offences against property with violence, 10,487 for offences against property without violence, 94 for malicious offences against property, 757 for forgery and offences against the currency, and 345 for offences not included in the preceding classes and including misdemeanors; 69 were sentenced to death, of whom 16 were executed; 57 were trans
ported for life, and 216 for terms exceeding ten years; 2,158 were sentenced to penal imprisonment for terms varying from four years to life; 11,865 were sentenced to various imprisonments from one month and under to not exceeding four years; and in this class, in the terms betwixt six months and one month or less, the numbers show a remarkable decrease from previous years; in 1856 the numbers were 7,800, against 13,447 in 1855, and 16,509 in 1854; indeed it is by far the smallest amount in any year from 1847; 222 were ordered to be detained in reformatory schools, and 127 were whipped, fined, or discharged on sureties. The great decrease in the number of commitments is probably to be attributed in a considerable degree to the extended provisions of the Summary Convictions Acts. On summary proceedings, the number of cases under the Criminal Justice Act was 11,272, and under the Juvenile Offenders' Act 2,031. The expense of these classes of cases being 21,6651., or an average of 17. 12s. 6d. per case, while the cases tried on indictment cost 173,246/., or an average of 9l. 17s. 4d. per case. The Rugeley Case, however, absorbed 3,5041., and that of Dove 1,1767.; so that the fair average must be less than 91.
The Prison Statistics show that, in 1856, there were 132,869 persons committed to prison, 99,336 of whom were males and 33,363 females. The commitments were-19,278 for trial, 77,712 on summary convictions, 2,794 for want of sureties, 13,952 remanded and discharged, 11,406 debtors on civil process, and 7,557 under the Mutiny Act. The total shows an increase of nearly 4,000 commitments over those for 1855; but there is a decrease of 7,000 in the number of summary convictions. Of the committals, omitting debtors and military prisoners, which reduces the number to 113,736, 1,990 were of children under 12 years of age; 11,991 of persons between 12 and 16; 24,868 between 16 and 21; 33,400 between 21 and 30; 20,973 between 30 and 40; 11,343 between 40 and 50; 5,519 between 50 and 60; 2,732 above 60; and 920 of whom the age was not ascertained. Of the whole, 37,686 could neither read nor write, 61,253 could read or read and write imperfectly, 6,108 could read and write well, 318 had received superior instruction, and of 8,371 the instruction was not ascertained. The county and borough prisons are stated to be constructed to contain 26,447 prisoners; the daily average of prisoners is 17,754, and the greatest number at one time was 22,035: but, though on the average there may be room enough, some prisons are terribly overcrowded,—thus, the Westminster House of Correction, constructed for 348 prisoners, has a daily average of 907; no other is so bad as this; but Manchester city jail has a daily average of 547, with room for only 435. Still the mortality and sickness had not been large; on the average the cases of sickness were 1 in 32, and the deaths were 1 in 680. The punishments for offences against prison regulations are numerous, amounting to 64,501; but most likely some individuals incur several punishments, and the far greater number of punishments, 46,912, consists in stoppage of diet. The Government prisons, used for penal servitude, contained at the beginning of the year 6,770 males and 819 females. There were received during the year 6,987 males and 662 females, and there were removed and disposed of 7,586 males and 651 females. Of the removals, 1,220 males were sent to Western Australia, Bermuda, or Gibraltar; 3,884, of whom 358 were females, were removed from one prison to another, to schools or reformatories, or to lunatic asylums; 20 were discharged on termination of sentence; 2,627 males and 265 females on tickets of leave; 7 males on commutation of sentence; 74 males and 14 females pardoned; 99 males and 14 females died; 2 males committed suicide; and 11 escaped. The
total expense of the government prisons for the year was 225,2671.; but the value of the work done by the convicts at Portland, Portsmouth, &c., is estimated at 77,000l. The average cost of each convict is 317. 11s. 10d., but their labour, including the estimated government works, reduces it to an average of 191. 6s. The first return given is 1854, when 21 boys and 3 girls were admitted; in 1855 there were 174 boys and 2 girls; and in 1856 there were 455 boys and 79 girls admitted, into 29 schools. Of the total, 26 were under 10, and the whole were under 16 years of age. The crimes were chiefly larcenies, of various kinds, which number 405; vagrancy, fraud, and attempts to steal are the next largest classes, numbering between them 581.
Reformatory Schools are a recent establishment.
The Criminal Lunatics in confinement at the commencement of the year numbered 565, of whom 117 were females; the number received during the year was 100 males and 21 females. In the same period 21 died, 24 were discharged on becoming sane, 8 were removed, sane, for trial or punishment, 6 escaped, and 30 were removed to other asylums. At the end of 1856 there were remaining under detention 472 males and 125 females.
CRIME IN IRELAND.-In 1856 the total number of committed or held to bail for trial was 7,009, of whom 3,075 were either acquitted or discharged. Of the number committed 2,063 were for offences against the person, 556 for offences against property with violence, 2,884 for offences against property without violence, 78 for malicious offences against property, 75 for forgery and offences against the currency, and 1,143 for other miscellaneous offences. Of those convicted only 8 were sentenced to death, and 3 only executed; 14 sentenced to transportation for life, and 372 to other periods of transportation or penal servitude; 2,798 to various terms of imprisonment; and 832 were whipped or fined, or discharged on surety, or pardoned. In the same year there were 25,461 cases heard at petty sessions or before magistrates, and 9,526 persons were imprisoned for drunkenness.
CRIMINAL OFFENDERS, SCOTLAND. In the year 1856 the total number of offenders committed for trial was 3,713. Of these, 1,046 were for offences against the person, 380 for offences against property committed with violence, 1,942 for offences against property without violence, 79 for malicious offences against property, 85 for forgery and offences against the currency, and 181 other offences not included in the preceding classes. Of the total number committed 2,723 were convicted, of whom 3 were sentenced to death and executed, 274 sentenced to various periods of transportation and penal servitude, 2,170 to various periods of imprisonment, and 276 to be whipped, fined, or discharged on sureties. Of those not convicted, 35 were outlawed, 7 were found insane, 55 were found not guilty, and 179 not proven; the remainder were discharged without trial.
CONSTABULARY, IRELAND.-On January 1, 1857, the total number of the constabulary was 11,781, with 358 horses, and a reserve force at Phoenix-park of 258. The total expense for the year was 612,583l., of which 591,1127. is paid out of the Consolidated Fund, and 21,4717. is the amount paid by counties, cities, and towns. There are also 71 stipendiary magistrates at salaries varying from 500l. to 300l. a-year, with certain additional allowances for lodging, travelling expenses, and for clerks; the total expense being included in the sum above-mentioned.