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BRITISH SHIPPING.-On December 31, 1856, the number of Sailing Vessels registered in the various ports of England and Wales was 6,479 under 50 tons, the tonnage of which was 196,275; and 12,027 above 50 tons, the tonnage 2,989,121. In Scotland the number was 1,097 under 50 tons, the tonnage 32,753; and 1,987 above 50 tons, the tonnage 486,687. In Ireland the vessels under 50 tons numbered 1,010, the tonnage 28,949; and those above 50 tons 1,048, the tonnage 185,637. In the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands, there were 489 vessels under 50 tons, tonnage 12,092, and 343 above 50 tons, tonnage 48,980. Total of Sailing Vessels, 24,480; total amount of tonnage, 3,981,494,— a small increase over the preceding year. The Steam Vessels were,in England, 529 under 50 tons, tonnage 12,884; and 743 above 50 tons, tonnage 262,751. In Scotland, 51 under 50 tons, tonnage 1,188; above 50 tons, 219, tonnage 72,346. In Ireland, 25 under 50 tons, tonnage 726; above 50 tons, 120, tonnage 35,143. In the Isle of Man and Channel Islands, the number of steam vessels was 10, all above 50 tons but one, tonnage, 1,424. Total of Steam Vessels 1697, tonnage 386,462, likewise a small increase above that of 1855, but the port of "London shows a decrease in number of steam vessels of 57, with a decrease in tonnage of 19,770. The number of vessels registered in the year, in various British colonies, was,-in Africa, 264 sailing vessels, tonnage 19,146, and one steamer of 89 tons; in Australia, 1,374 sailing vessels, and 80 steamers, of which all but 9 belong to Sydney and Melbourne, the tonnage of the whole 154,049; in the North American colonies, 6,288 sailing vessels, and 158 steam vessels, tonnage 602,709. In the British West Indies there were 689 sailing vessels, tonnage 23,358.
COASTING TRADE.-The number and tonnage of Vessels that entered and cleared Coastwise, during the year 1856, was, to various ports in England, Inwards, British, 93,328 sailing vessels, tonnage 7,253,608; steam vessels, 13,143, tonnage 3,045,612; foreign, sailing vessels, 262, tonnage 45,901; steam vessels, 19, tonnage 4,025. Scotland, British, sailing vessels, 15,329, tonnage 919,769; steam vessels, 5,442, tonnage 1,126,984; foreign, sailing vessels, 23, tonnage 2,637. In Ireland, British, sailing vessels, 17,467, tonnage 1,258,130; steam vessels, 5,889, tonnage 1,559,652; foreign, sailing vessels, 3, tonnage 926. In the Isle of Man, sailing vessels, 1,525, tonnage 53,850; steam vessels, 259, tonnage 53,214. There were no foreign steam vessels, either inwards or outwards to or from Scotland, Ireland, or the Isle of Man. Outwards, from various ports in England, British, sailing vessels, 106,896, tonnage 8,170,971; steam vessels, 12,904, tonnage 2,938,239; foreign, sailing vessels, 85, tonnage 14,632; steam vessels, 29, tonnage 5,539. From Scotland, British, sailing vessels, 16,137, tonnage 927,690; steam vessels, 5,458, tonnage 1,126,376; foreign, sailing vessels, 22, tonnage 2,024. From Ireland, British, sailing vessels, 7,698, tonnage 467,750; steam vessels, 5,996, tonnage 1,642,346; foreign, sailing vessels, 91, tonnage 18,117. Isle of Man, sailing vessels, 775, tonnage 23,042; steam vessels, 288, tonnage 60,233. Total Inwards, British, 152,382 vessels, tonnage 15,278,819; foreign, 307 vessels, tonnage 53,489. Outwards, British, 156,212 vessels, tonnage 15,356,647; foreign, 227, tonnage 40,312; showing an increase over 1855 of 5851 British vessels, and of tonnage an increase of 43,791, and an increase of 20 foreign vessels and of 3,330 tons inwards. Outwards an increase of 4,955 Britsh vessels, and of tonnage an increase of 479,088; and a decrease of 104 foreign vessels, tonnage 11,999.
COLONIAL TRADE.-The number and tonnage of Vessels that entered and cleared from the various ports in the United Kingdom in the year 1856, from and to the British colonies, were Inwards, in England, British, 4,503 sailing vessels, tonnage 1,558,198; steam vessels 389, tonnage 92,322; foreign, 568 sailing vessels, tonnage 327,209. Scotland, British, 458 sailing vessels, tonnage 191,294; steam_vessels 4, tonnage 636; foreign, 5 sailing vessels, tonnage 2,478. In Ireland, British, 377 sailing vessels, tonnage 114,473; foreign, sailing vessels, 30, tonnage 10,336. In the Isle of Man and Channel Islands, 29 sailing vessels, tonnage 4,392. Outwards, from England, 4,218 sailing vessels, tonnage 1,604,397; steam vessels 413, tonnage 117,018; foreign, sailing vessels 525, tonnage 288,652. From Scotland, British, 536 sailing vessels, tonnage 244,330; steam vessels 18, tonnage 5,891; foreign, sailing vessels 11, tonnage 2,533. From Ireland, British, 209 sailing vessels, tonnage 60,604, steam vessel 1, tonnage 998; foreign, 17 sailing vessels, tonnage 5,074. Isle of Man and Channel Islands, British, 50 sailing vessels, tonnage 7,279. The total number of British ships entered inwards was 5,760, tonnage 1,961,315; of foreign there were 605 vessels, tonnage 340,650,-an increase over 1855 of 578 British vessels, with a tonnage 319,415; of foreign 40 vessels, tonnage 57,363. Of British ships cleared outwards, there were 5,445, tonnage 2,140,427; of foreign, 553 vessels, tonnage 296,295,-an increase of 234 vessels and 364,594 tons; of foreign there was a decrease of 8 vessels, and an increase of 4,778 tons.
VESSELS BUILT, &c.-In 1856 there were built and registered in the United Kingdom, 888 timber sailing vessels, tonnage 175,359, and 33 iron sailing vessels, tonnage 11,646; 54 timber steam vessels, tonnage 2,753, and 175 iron steam vessels, tonnage 66,466; total 1,150 vessels, tonnage 244,578, an increase of 52 vessels, and a decrease of 88,622 tons from last year. The number of Colonial-built vessels, registered in British ports was 26, tonnage 11,198, all from North American colonies. Of Foreign-built vessels the number was 57, tonnage 11,650, both showing a considerable decrease from 1855. There were 719 sailing vessels and 35 steam vessels, belonging to the United Kingdom, tonnage 195,725, wrecked in the year 1856, a large increase on the previous year; and 110 vessels were broken up, tonnage 9,499.
WRECKS.-The number of English vessels wrecked in 1856 on or near our own coasts was 1,153, of which the tonnage was 229,936. Of these wrecks 506 took place on the east coast between Dungeness and Pentland Frith, 307 on the west coast between the Land's End and Greenock, 119 on the south coast between the Land's End and Dungeness, 155 on the Irish coast, 12 off or on the Scilly Islands, 11 at Lundy Island, 5 at the Isle of Man, and 38 at the Northern Islands, Orkney, &c. The greatest sufferers were the colliers, of which there were 314 coal laden, and 79 in ballast. The crews of the whole numbered 10,014. Of this number the lives of 2,764 were imperilled, and 521 perished; 362 were saved by life-boats, 1,184 by luggers, coast-guard boats, &c.; 407 by ships and steam-boats, 262 from shore by ropes, rockets, &c., and 28 by individual exertion.-From "The Life-Boat."
FOREIGN TRADE.-NUMBER and TONNAGE of VESSELS that Entered Inwards and Cleared Outwards (including their repeated Voyages), separating British from Foreign Vessels, also Steam from Sailing Vessels, and distinguishing the Trade with each Country, in the Year 1856. [Sa. is for Sailing Vessels; St. for Steam Vessels.]
BRITISH FISHERIES.-The Report of the Commissioners states, that in 1856, the total quantity of herrings cured was 609,988 barrels, the total quantity branded was 223,281 barrels, the total quantity exported 347,611 barrels; showing in each item a very large decrease from the Returns of 1855, owing, it is stated, to bad weather having interrupted the fishing. The Report, however, states, that the fishermen are having boats built of a superior construction to those at present in use, which will add alike to their safety, their comfort, and their probable success in fishing. Of cod and ling, the Returns show that in 1856 there were 110,504 cwts. cured dry, 6,642 barrels cured in pickle; caught, but not cured 59,987 cwts.; and that the total quantity exported was 29,629 cwts. There was decrease in this fishery, also, as compared with 1855, but not so great as with the herrings. In the two branches there were employed 12,072 boats, manned by 42,433 fishermen and boys; the total number engaged in the fisheries and curing was 93,019. The total value of boats, nets, and lines employed was 666,3651., showing an increase over the previous year of 47,8811. There were also connected with the commerce 9,350 men, and 114,775 tons of shipping; of which 16,300 tons were employed in importing stave-wood or hoops; 36,953 tons in importing salt; 20,212 tons in carrying the fish coastwise to market; and 41,637 tons in exporting herrings or cod-fish.
CORN AND MEAL IMPORTS.-In the year 1856 there were imported from foreign countries, including British North America and the East Indies, 4,072,833 qrs. of wheat, 731,412 of barley, 1,146,848 of oats, 27,981 of rye, 86,082 of pease, 353,218 of beans, 1,777,813 of Indian corn, 91 of buck-wheat, and 975 of beer or bigg. There were also imported 3,970,100 cwts. of wheat-flour, 139 of barleymeal, 5,412 of oatmeal, 7,693 of ryemeal, 37 of peameal, 7,880 of Indian cornmeal, and 105 of buckwheatmeal. The United States of America, Russia, Egypt, and Prussia, supplying the largest proportions.
CATTLE, SHEEP, &c.-In the year 1856, there were imported 52,019 oxen and bulls, 9,843 cows, 21,444 calves, 135,588 sheep, 9,471 lambs, and 9,916 swine and hogs. Holland supplies the greater number of each sort; Denmark is next in the supply of cattle, but the Hanse Towns exceed her in the number of sheep, and Belgium furnishes a considerable number of calves.
GRAIN, IRELAND.-In the year 1856 there were imported into Ireland, 1,269,958 quarters of various species of grain and flour, of which 589,944 were of wheat and flour and 646,785 were of Indian corn and meal; from Great Britain there were imported 565,588 quarters, of which 196,699 quarters were of wheat and flour, and 264,100 quarters of Indian corn and meal. In the same period there were exported from Ireland 2,212,061 quarters of all sorts of grain, of which 1,904,855 quarters were of oats and oatmeal.
MALT. The total number of quarters of malt made in the year ending September 30, 1856, was 4,761,220, including the quantity made free of duty for purposes of distillation; the quantity used in the same period was 4,243,201 quarters; exclusive of that used in distillation, of which 3,516,868 quarters were used by brewers and victuallers, and 399,488 quarters by retail brewers in England; 524,009 quarters in