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of the Company is divided shall not be of an amount less than 100%. each; but not more than ten persons shall, after the passing of this Act, unless registered as a Company under this Act, form themselves into a partnership for the purpose of banking, or, if so formed, carry on the business of banking.' Inspectors are not to be appointed by the Board of Trade to any Company under this Act, unless applied for by onethird of the shareholders in number and value. § 19 of The JointStock Companies Act' (19 and 20 Vict., cap. 47) not to apply to Companies in Scotland. Property held in trust for any Banking Company, shall on registration, vest in such Company. Any Banking Company that may have been registered as a limited Company before the passing of this Act is not to be illegal, nor is the registration to be invalid, but any creditor or member of the Company may petition the Court to have it wound up, and the fact of being registered as a limited Company shall be a sufficient cause for the order being issued; and the contributories are liable to contribute to the assets of the Company to an amount sufficient to pay all debts and charges. The banks legally carrying on business before the passing of the Joint-Stock Companies Acts, and the Bank of England, are exempted from the provisions of this Act.
FRAUDULENT TRUSTEES, &c.
[20 and 21 Victoriæ, cap. 54.-August 17, 1857.]
An Act to make better Provision for the Punishment of Frauds committed by Trustees, Bankers, and other Persons intrusted with Property.
By § 1, any person being a trustee either wholly or in part, either for any private person or any public or charitable purpose, who shall, with intent to defraud, convert or appropriate any part of such trustfund to his own purposes; or any banker, merchant, attorney, or agent (§ 2) who shall, with intent to defraud, sell, transfer, or pledge any property intrusted to him for safe custody, or in any manner appropriate to his own use any such property; or any person (§ 3) under powers of attorney doing the like, are alike declared guilty of a misdemeanor. And any person (§ 4) being a bailee of any property, although he do not break bulk, so appropriating property, is declared guilty of larceny. Any person (§ 5) being a director, member, or public officer of any public Company, so acting; or any such person (§ 6) keeping fraudulent accounts, or (§ 7) wilfully destroying, altering, or mutilating the books, papers, or securities, or making false entries; or (§ 8) making or publishing fraudulent statements with intent to deceive any creditor or shareholder, or with intent to induce any person to become a shareholder or creditor; and any person (§ 9) knowingly receiving any chattel, money, or security fraudulently acquired or disposed of, are alike declared guilty of a misdemeanor; the punishment for each misdemeanor (§ 10) to be penal servitude for three years, or imprisonment with or without hard labour for not more than two years, or by fine, as the Court shall award. No person (§ 11) to be exempt from answering questions in any Court of law or equity, but such evidence is not to be admissible in any proceedings against them. No proceeding, conviction, or judgment (§ 12) under this Act, is to prevent or lessen any remedy in law or equity that may be otherwise available; but no conviction under this Act is to be received as evidence in any civil suit, nor affect any security given by any such trustee for the repayment of trust property misappropriated. No prosecution under this Act (§ 13) is to
be commenced without the sanction of the Attorney-General, or, if a civil suit has been commenced, without the sanction of the Judge of the court. If, upon the trial of any person under this Act, the offence proved (§ 14) amounts to larceny, he is not upon that account to be acquitted of a misdemeanor. In every prosecution (§ 15) for misdemeanor, the expenses of the prosecution to be allowed as in cases of felony; and (§ 16) no misdemeanor against this Act is to be tried at any court of general or quarter sessions. The word "trustee" is declared (§17) to include the heir, or personal representative of the trustee, all executors and administrators, liquidators under the Joint-Stock Companies Act, and assignees in bankruptcy. "Property" includes debts,' legacies, and deeds or instruments giving a title to any property, as well as goods, money, &c. The Act (§ 18) is not to extend to Scotland."
[20 and 21 Victoriæ, cap. 55.—August 25, 1857.]
An Act to promote the Establishment and Extension of Reformatory Schools in England.
This Act is chiefly an extension of the 17 and 18 Vict., cap. 86, and the 19 and 20 Vict., cap. 109, and the most important clause is § 1, by which the justices in general or quarter sessions, or the council of a borough, may grant money in aid of such schools; but not to be granted, unless the school is certified under the Act of 17 and 18 Vict. cap. 86; and it is limited to England.
MARRIED WOMEN'S REVERSIONARY INTEREST.
An Act to enable Married Women to dispose of Reversionary Interests in
After December 31, 1857, a married woman (§ 1) is empowered to dispose of any reversionary interest, either vested or contingent, to which she may be entitled under any instrument made after the said date, as fully and effectually as if she were a feme sole, and also to release or extinguish her right to a settlement; such disposition or release not to be valid unless the husband concur, nor unless the deed (§ 6) be acknowledged by her in the manner prescribed (§ 2) by the 3 and 4 Wm. IV., cap. 74. The powers of this Act (§ 3) are not to interfere with any other powers vested in her independent of this Act, and is not to extend to settlements made upon marriage. The Act does not extend to Scotland.
BANKRUPTCY AND INSOLVENCY (IRELAND).
[20 and 21 Victoriæ, cap. 60.-August 25, 1857.]
An Act to consolidate and amend the Laws relating to Bankruptcy and Insolvency in Ireland.
This exceedingly long Act of 410 clauses, with a number of schedules, is chiefly a consolidation of previous Acts, with an assimilation of them to the English practice.
CUSTOMS AND EXCISE.
[20 and 21 Victoriæ, cap. 61.—August 25, 1857.]
An Act for granting certain Duties of Customs and Excise.
By this Act, which took effect from the date of its passing, the following duties are imposed in lieu of those previously imposed on the enumerated articles:
Containing the Duties of Customs imposed by this Act; (that is to say,) Sugar; viz.,
Candy, brown or white refined sugar, or sugar rendered by
Containing the Duties of Excise imposed by this Act on Sugar made in the United Kingdom, which are the same as those imposed on the importation of foreign sugar.
Drawbacks are allowed on exportation to nearly the amount of the duty.
[20 and 21 Victoriæ, cap. 62.-August 25, 1857.]
An Act for the Alteration and Amendment of the Laws and Duties of Customs.
£. s. d.
0 18 4
Rice not rough nor in the husk, and rice dust for feeding
By § 1 the duty on oxymuriate of tin imported is to cease. By § 2 in lieu of the duties of customs now chargeable on the articles next hereinafter mentioned, imported into Great Britain and Ireland, the following duties of customs are charged; on
Hats of felt
0 16 0
. each £0 0 6
Lucifers, vesta, of wax-the 1,000 matches
0 13 10
0 12 8
cwt. 0 5
0 7 0
By § 3 in lieu of the duties of customs now chargeable on rice imported into Great Britain and Ireland, the following duties of customs are to be levied and collected :
0 the quarter o
cwt. £0 0 4/1/20
By 4 in lieu of the duties of customs now chargeable in Great Britain and Ireland on ships, with their tackle, apparel, and furniture (except sails), broken up or to be broken up, the following duties are to be charged :
British-built ships, with their tackle, apparel, and furniture
-wrecked, broken up or to be broken up Foreign-built ships, with their tackle, apparel, and furniture -broken up or sold to be broken up, or abandoned by the owners, or sold as wreck, whether afterwards recovered or repaired, or not. 0 Ο for every £100 value £5 By §§ 5 to 13 new regulations are enacted for the warehousing of tobacco, by which, from the date of the passing of this Act, tobacco legally imported may be deposited in any general warehouse approved of by the Commissioners of Excise, subject in all other respects to the regulations now in force; but tobacco already warehoused may so continue for so long as the Commissioners please, or until the expiration of five years; and tobacco abandoned as not worth the duty may be destroyed at the cost of the importer or proprietor. By § 14 defendants in suits for customs are exempted from the operation of the Acts compelling defendants to give evidence. By § 15 the Customs Acts are declared to extend and apply to British possessions abroad, except where otherwise expressly provided for in the said Acts or by any colonial Acts. By § 15 the owner or consignee of any bullion or coin, within ten days after the landing thereof, must deliver to the proper officer of customs a full account of such bullion or coin, a neglect to do which will incur a penalty of 201., but this penalty is not to apply to small parcels of bullion or coin imported as part of the baggage of passengers. By §§ 17 and 18 some clauses of the 8 and 9 Vict., cap. 96, repealed by the 16 and 17 Vict., cap. 54, are re-enacted, and § 19 of the 18 and 19 Vict., cap. 96, is repealed. By § 19 no spirits except rum from British possessions are to be imported into or exported from the Channel Islands in any vessel of less than 50 tons burden, or in any cask or other recipient of a less capacity than 20 gallons, under penalty of forfeiture, together with that of the ship; but this is not to extend to spirits imported in glass bottles as part of the cargo, nor to spirits intended for the consumption of the crew or passengers, nor to warehoused goods exported in vessels of not less than 40 tons burthen, nor to any boat of less than 10 tons burthen having a licence from the proper officer of Guernsey or Jersey for the purpose of carrying commodities for the supply of the island of Sark for any quantity of spirits less than 10 gallons, such licence to be granted on application without fee. By § 21 this Act is to be registered in the Royal Courts of Jersey and Guernsey. § 22 is a confirmation of certain purchases for the site of a custom house at Belfast.
BOUNDARIES OF BURGH EXTENSION (SCOTLAND).
An Act to provide for the Extension of the Boundaries of Burghs in Scotland, and to remove Doubts as to the Right of certain Persons holding Offices to be registered as Voters for Municipal Purposes.
This Act enables any twelve or more ratepayers, where ground has been built upon without the boundaries of a burgh, to petition the sheriff for the extension of such boundaries so as to include them, but the ground so to be included must be built upon to the extent of twothirds of the area, and the refusal of assent to such incorporation of the
owners of two-thirds in value of such land, or of the town-council of any other burgh in which such lands may be situated, is to be final. If such refusal is not signified, the sheriff is to call a meeting of the ratepayers to consider of such proposed extension, at which the sheriff is to preside, and if the majority consent, a committee of ratepayers is to be appointed to confer with the council of the burgh; if the council consent, the matter is to be re-considered at a meeting of ratepayers, at which no other question shall be put than 'approval' or 'disapproval.' If the proposal be rejected, it cannot be moved for again within two years, but any three ratepayers may demand a scrutiny. It is also enacted that the holding of offices which would incapacitate persons from voting for members of parliament is not to incapacitate them from voting for municipal officers, provided they are qualified as ratepayers.
[20 and 21 Victoriæ, cap. 71.-August 25, 1857.]
An Act for the Regulation of the Care and Treatment of Lunatics, and for the Provision, Maintenance, and Regulation of Lunatic Asylums in Scotland.
All previous Acts relating to the care of lunatics in Scotland are repealed by the preamble, from and after Jan. 1, 1858, when, by § 1, this Act is to come into force. A Board of three Commissioners is to be appointed by the Queen, one unpaid and two with salaries of 1,2007. a-year each. All private lunatic asylums are to be licensed by them, penalties being imposed for the keeping of an unlicensed asylum, and the Commissioners may direct the examination of any asylum for the search of records, &c., or they may be visited by the Commissioners, who may also direct the examination of lunatics in private asylums. District Asylums are to be appointed in Edinburgh, Inverness, Aberdeen, Perth, Dumfries, Glasgow, Stirling, and Renfrew; the expense of erecting Asylums and maintaining them to be defrayed by assessment on the districts assigned in a schedule to each. Registers are to be kept, and annual returns made. The remainder of the Act is devoted to regulations for the reception and care of the lunatics, in a form not varying widely from those of the Lunatic Acts in England.
[20 and 21 Victoriæ, cap. 72.-August 25, 1857.]
An Act to render more effectual the Police in Counties and Burghs in Scotland.
On September 29, or some other day not later than October 31, 1857, the Commissioners of Supply in each county in Scotland are to meet, after an advertisement convening the meeting has been published, at which meeting they shall decide upon the necessary number of constables for a police for the county and the rates of payment, and report their proceedings to the Secretary of State. They are also to appoint a committee, to be called "the Police Committee," from their own members, of not more than fifteen nor less than three, to carry the Act into execution. The rules for the government, pay, clothing, accoutrements, and necessaries, are to be made by the Secretary of State, but not so as to increase the number of men to be appointed, and the chief constable may serve for more than one county, subject to the approval of the Secretary of State. The Police Committee may, with the consent of the Secretary of State, increase or diminish the number