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Sapindaceæ. 188. MALLOTUS TINCTORIUS, F. Muell. 19s. MALLOTUS 30s. NEPHELIUM DIVARICATUM, F. Muell. 25 to 30 IL CLAOXYLOIDES, J. Mull. 12 to 15 ft. 205. CROTON INSULARIS, 31s. NEPIELIUM CONNATUM, F. Muell. 35 to 40 ft. 335. Baill. 25 to 30 ft. 215. CROTON ACRONYCHIOIDES, F. Muell. NEPHELIUM TOMENTOSUM, F. Muell. 338. HARPTLLIA 20 to 25 ft.
HILLI, F. Muell. Tulip Wood. 40 to 50 ft. 34s. Ehritia Loganiaceæ.
MEMBRANIFOLIA, R. Br. 22. StryciINOS PSILOSPERMA, F. Muell. Strychnine.
358. SANTALUM LANCEOLATUM, R. Br. Sandal Wool Celastrineæ.
15 to 20 ft. 238. CELASTRUS DISPERMUS, F. Muell. 15 to 20 ft. 24s.
Casuarineæ. DENHAMIA OBSCURA, Meissn.
36s. CASUARINA SUBEROSA, Willd. Oak. 40 to 50 ft. Leguminosæ.
Araliaceæ. 25s. LONCHOCARPUS BLACKII, Benth. Bloody Bark.
378. PANAX ELEGANS, Moore and Mueller. 30 to 40 ft. Urticeæ.
Cornaceæ. 26s. Ficus FRASERI, Miq. Fig Tree. 278. FICUS MACRO
383. MARLEA VITIENSIS, Benth. PHYLLA, Desf. Moreton Bay Fig. 28s. Morus BRUNONIANA, Endl. 25 to 30 ft. 29s. EPICARPURUS ORIENTALIS, Blume.
Solanaceæ. 40 to 50 ft.
39s. SOLANUM VERBASCIFOLIUM, L. 10 to 12 ft. Owing to its vast area, and the diversity of its soil, climate, and altitude, there is a greater variety of indigenous trees in Queensland than in the rest of the Australian colonies, and perhaps more than could be found within a similar extent of country in any other part of the world. The specimens of woods exhibited are from a collection that were easily procured, and were chiefly chosen for their economic value. The list, however, does not include one-fourth of the species that have already been described, and there are many which have not yet been classified. Each district of this immense territory is characterised by features in its vegetation peculiar to itself, and years must elapse before all are known and botanically arranged.
It will be for the practical builder, the shipwright, and the cabinet maker, to pronounce an opinion upon the utility of the woods represented in the Court; and it is probable that several of them will have a greater value put upon them in America than they receive in Queensland. It appears inseparable from the state of affairs in a young colony, that very little time or trouble is devoted to experiment, or to the improvement existing processes. The same woods that the first settlers made use of are still employed, as a matter of course, for the same purposes ; and timbers, probably of a superior description, are neglected, or used only as firewood.
The value of some descriptions of the Australian Eucalypti for building or railway purposes, has for some time past been fully recognised; and the number of species is greater in Queensland than in other parts of the continent. The case is the same with other woods, the variety of which is very great, that are remarkable for their strength, durability, fineness of grain, or ornamental appearance.
It is impossible to state, at the present period, the price for which ail of the Queensland timbers can be placed in the market, for some of which there is no local demand. The cost, when placed on board ship, will not, however, be great, as most of our valuable woods grow on the coast or the banks of the rivers, or are found within reach of the facilities for transport provided by railway communication.
If persons in the trade are prepared to make definite offers for supplies of any of these woods, they are requested to notify the same to the Queensland Commissioners in the Court.
The following articles made from Queensland wood are exhibited : 2 Model Rum Hogsheads.
Fibres. 2 Model Tallow Casks.
C. 666. 2 Model Sugar Vats. Exhibitor, Mr. D. Hume, Brisbane. Near the collection of woods are arranged Samples of Fibre.
8 Axe and Pick handles. Exhibitor, Mr. W. Peltigrew, prepared, from barks of trees of plants indigenous to Queensiand, Brisbane.
by Alexander Macpherson, Brisbane.
No. 1. Camersonia echinata.
2. Sida retusa, Sida rhombifolia. 3. Currygong Heterophyllus. 4. Ficus Macrophylla. 5. Kerandrinia Hookerianana. 6. Arbutilon oxecarphus. 7. Lyonsia reticulata. 8. Hibiscus titiacus. 9. Hibiscus mutabilis. 10. Hibiscus rosa sinensis. » 11. Hibiscus surbifolia. Exhibited by Alexander Macpherson.
Another collection of Fibres, prepared by Walter Hill, Esq., consist of
1. Queensland Hemp (Sidia retusa). 2. Queensland Hemp (scutched). 3. Queensland Rope (Sida retusa). 4. Bowstring Hemp (Sanseviera cylindrica). 5. Ceylon Hemp (Sanseviera Zeylanica). 6. Guinea Hemp (Sanseviera Guineerisis). 7. Guinea Hemp (Sanesviera latifolia). 8. Mexican Hemp (Furcrea gigantea). 9. Pete Hemp (Agave Americana). 10. Cuba Hemp (Furcrea Cubensis). 11. Jute Hemp (Corchorus capsularis). 12. Jute and Pete Hemp (Corchorus olstoris). 13. Bengal fibre (Crotalaria uncea). 44. Manilla Hemp (Musa textilis). 15. Plantain Hemp (Musa paradisiaca). 16. Rosella Hemp (Hibiscus sorbifolia). 17.
(Hibiscus mutabilis). 18. Flax (Linum usitatissimum).
Collection of Botanical Specimens, full description attached to them.
Cl. 652. 1 Kangaroo, 2 ditto, Mauve ; 6 Rock Wallaby, 3 Forrest Wallaby, 1 Scrub Wallaby, 3 Mauve Wallaby, 1 Blue Wallaby, 1 Fox Wallaby, 5 Wallaroos, 1 Paddy Melon, 3 Seal Skins. Exhibited by T. B. Stephens.
The various Tanneries around Brisbane produce about 450 Hides or 900 Sides of Harness, Sole, and Kip weekly, whilst in 1871–2 they did not turn out more than 200 ; a number of inland Tanneries have also been started since then.
Kangaroo and Wallaby, especially the latter, can be obtained in great abundance, as the inland districts for 150 miles distant from Brisbane have been fenced in, and as the aboriginals and native dogs disappear, the Wallaby multiplies enormously, and are being killed in thousands to save the grass. As the demand for skins, however, is limited, not many of them, however, find their way to the Tanneries.
Miscellaneous Exhibits. 1 Case of Butterflies, collected in the Cardwell District. Exhibited by G. Richland.
Skull, Tusks, and Teeth of Dugong. Exhibited by John
Leather. Collection leather from the Tannery and Curriers' Shops, Ebikin three miles out of Brisbane, and manufactured from Colonial hides and skins. They are tanned with the bark of the Acacia indigenous in Queensland, samples of which can be found in the wall cases of Division II.
2 sides of Black Grained Kip, 12 lbs.; 1 side of Plain Grained Kip, 6 lbs. ; 1 side of Tweed Grained Kip, 6 lbs. ; 2 sides of Waxed Grained Kip, 12 lbs.; 5 skins of Kangaroo, Waxed, 3 lbs. ; 1 skin of Kangaroo, Tweed, 14 lbs.; 1 skin of Kangaroo Plain Grained, 2 lbs.; 1 skin of Wallaby, Black, lb. ; 1 skin of Wallaby, Waxed, # Ib. ; 2 skins of Goat, Plain Grained, 1 lb. ; 3 skins of Goat, Black, 3 lbs. ; 4 Black Grained Basils, 2 Plain Basils ; 1 side of Brown Harness Leather, 16 lbs. ; 1 side of Black Harness Leather, 27 lbs.; 1 side of Sole Leather, 19 lbs. ; 1 side of Kip, Waxed, 8 lbs.; 1 side of Black Grained Kip, 7 lbs. ; I Calf Skin, Waxed, 14} lbs. ; 1 Black Grained Kangaroo and i Flat Grained Kangaroo, 3} lbs. ; 3 Wax Wallaby Skins, 1 lbs.; 2 Wallaby Skins dressed with fur on.
4 dozen bottles of Dugong Oil. Exhibited by John Ching. Dugong Calf in Spirit. Exhibited by John Ching. Sample of Dugong Oil. Exhibited by Berkley and Taylor.
1 Hunting Saddle Bridle, Breastplate, Martingale, and Pouch.
1 Trooper's Saddle and Bridle, complete.
Floriculture in Queensland.
containing “Summary” description of each district.
500 copies of the “ Queensland,” with summary.
Panoramic Views from Wickham Terrace. 12 copies, Bound Catalogue of Queensland Exhibition,
Bowen Terrace. 1875.
of Ipswich. 1 Case of Almanacs, sent by Mr. Willmett, of Townsville,
Warwick. Northern Queensland.
3 Bells, manufactured by Hopwood and Sutton, from Queens land tin and copper.
Packet of Castor Oil Seeds, from R. W. Alexander.
Catalogue of Seeds, by Clarke. 12 large sized Views in and about Brisbane.
Hockings. At the extreme ends of the Queensland Court are exhibited :
2 Life-size Photographs of Australian Natives. Exhibitor, And numerous smaller ones. Exhibited by the Queensland Richard Daintree.
Government. The Queensland natives are by no means numerous in the unoccupied portions of the country ; in the settled districts they are fast sharing the fate of the American Indian.
SEYCHELLES, ARCHIPELAGO OF. The island of Rodrigues, the Seychelles Islands, Diego Garcia, and others, are dependencies of the Mauritius. Rodrigues is situated about 300 miles east of Mauritius. It is 26 miles in length by 12 in breadth. It is cultivated by colonists from Mauritius.
The Seychelles, or Mahé Islands, are situated between the parallels of S. lat. 4° and 5°; the total number of acres comprised in this group is 50,120 ; the distance from Mauritius 940 miles. These islands are under the superintendence of a Chief Civil Commissioner (assisted by a Board of Commissioners) at Mahé, who is appointed by the Secretary of State, but is subordinate to the Governor of Mauritius, from whom he takes instructions. CI. 600. Seychelles, Chief Commissioner of. Briard, Mr. 1 sample of Cotton.
CL 665. Cl. 601. 67 varieties of Seychelles Woods, in vertical
Beyron, Mr. F., 12 pieces, 5 lbs. Hawks- CI. 652 sections of 6 inches each ; 7 samples, planks
hill Turtle Shell, 1 young Hawksbill Turtle
Cauvin's, Mr., Distillery. 1 sample bottle CL. 660.
Seychelles White Rum. rough; 1 Cocoanut, large size.
Nageon, Mr., La Digue Island. 1 sample CI. 662 Bury, Mr.J. Ames. 1 Coco de Mer wood Cl. 254. walking stick, 1 Cocoanut wood stick, i
bottle of Cocoanut Oil. dozen of hardwood sticks, 1 plum stick, 1 Bouquet, Miss. 9 Baskets, Faney, Coco Cl. 254. fancy hardwood stock, 5 fancy sticks.
de Mer (Lodoicea Seychellarum) straw; 3 Hats, Cl. 602 Briard, Mr. 1 sample of Bark dye, black Straw, for girls (Lodoicea Seychellarum); 3 (Bois de Pomme), and sample of stuff dyed
Hats, Straw, for men (Lodoicea Seychellarum). from same.
1 Fancy Basket, Miniature; 1 bundle, 9 Baskets CI. 623. Houareau, Mr. Sylvain. 1 Roll of Sey.
Coco de Mer (Lodoicea Seychellarum) Straw; chelles tobacco.
1 Nest i dozen Coco de Mer (Lodoicea Sey
chellarum) Straw ; 1 pair Slippers ; 2 Cigar
Cases ; 1 pair Watch Pockets ; 2 Tea Cups
and Saucers ; 8 Fans, various patterns ; 3 samCI. 623. Lemarchand, Mr. 41 lbs. Cacao, 1} lbs. ples Coco de Mer Straw, plaited; 2 samples Cloves, 11 lbs. Coffee, 1 lb. Vanilla.
Coco de Mer Straw, rough. CI. 665. Brooks & Dupuy, Messrs. 1 sample Cayol, Mrs. Tony, 5 Bouquets of Shell Cl. 254. Cotton from Dennis Island.
[Extracted from the Official Report of the Victoria Exhibition, 1875.] “ TASMANIA, the recognised sanatorium of Australia, was undoubtedly formed by nature in her kindliest mood. The whole island is replete with natural beauties. Mountains frown in majesty on peaceful valleys and extensive plains, framed as it were by sinuous rivers, the banks of which form a fit theme for the pen of the poet or the pencil of the artist. The prosperity which marked the progress of the colony in the ycar
1873 has in no way diminished, and the first half of the year 1874 will bear favourable comparison with the improvement in the condition of the colony which caused such general satisfaction at the date of the Intercolonial Exhibition. On the 7th February 1870, the population, according to the census then taken, numbered 99,328 souls, of whom 52,853 were males, and 46,475 were females. The estimated population on the 31st December 1874 was 104,176, the number of males being 55,117, and the number of females 49,059. The revenue for the year 1874 was 327,925l., and the expenditure 318,2781. The amount expended for public works, roads, bridges, and railways, inclusive of the expenditure on the Launceston and Western District Railway, amounted during the year 1874 to 45,4101. The value of imports during the same period was 1,257,785l, while that of exports was 925,3251.
“ Education is compulsory, and of a most comprehensive character ; there is scarcely any remote district in which there is no school, and no loophole is allowed to the careless parent to permit him to let his children drift into ignorance. Numerous industries have been established, and those who were once content to observe the wool growing on the sheep's back are astonished at seeing how rapidly and beautifully the Hobart Town and Launceston mills convert the raw material into articles of luxury as well as of domestic consumption.
“ The total area of the island of Tasmania is 16,778,000 acres, of which 3,982,003 acres are alienated from the Crown by grant and sale ; 1,348,400 acres are held under depasturing licenses from the Crown. The total area under cultivation in the colony is 326,486 acres. Wheat takes first rank in extent and importance, 57,633 acres being allotted to this cereal ; barley, 5,129 acres ; oats, 32,704 acres. Consequent on the high duties enforced on agricultural produce by the other Australian Colonies, and the fluctuating state of the intercolonial markets, the attention of Tasmanian agriculturists has of late years been turned to the production of wheat for the English market, and this has become the most important article of strictly agricultural produce. The export of grain in the year 1874 was valued at 115,7881.
“Salubrity and comparative coldness of climate, owing to higher latitude, make Tasmania an excellent breeding station of stud stock for all the Australian continent, especially as regards animals whose features of excellence consist in that massiveness of form of muscular development, in the dewy mellowness of skin, and of that hardy constitution so requisite in the ox, the matton sheep, and the draught horse. The number of horses in Tasmania in 1874 was 23,208, cattle 110,450, and sheep 1,714,168.
" The bulk of the wool produced is Merino. The export of wool during the year 1874 amounted to 5,050,920 lbs., which representeel a value at this Port of 350,7131.
“The mining industry for many years past was confined to gold and coal, but during the past year tin, iron, and slate have attracted much attention. The yield of gold for the last twelve months, produced by 185 persons was—alluvial 850 oz., quartz 3,800 oz. 14 dwt. The quantity of quartz crushed was 3,452 tons. The average yield per ton of stone was 1 oz. 5 dwt. 8} grs. The average value of gold per ounce was 31. 19s. 6d. for alluvial ; quartz, 31. 195. 6d. The gold from Nine Mile Springs, where 2,398 ounces were produced, was valued at 47. an ounce. The total value of the produce of gold for 1874 was 18,4911.
“ The mineral which occupied the greatest share of attention was tin ; the supply of ore being practically unlimited--the character at the deposits at Mount Bischoff admitting of no question. The total amount of tin raised in 1874 was 490 tons, valued at 781. a ton. The only locality in which silver ore has been worked in Tasmania is Penguin Creek, but at present operations have ceased.
“With respect to the iron resources, it is stated that a small parcel of 27} tons of ore was sent to United Kingdom during the 12 months. The quantity raised during the year is set down as 1,400 tons ;d this quantity 1,000 tons were raised at Lempriere, West Tamar, and 400 tons at Lewisham.
“The discovery made since the beginning of the present year of a lode of bismuth is regarded as one of the most important that has yet taken place, and it is alleged that if the lode should prove permanent it become a source of considerable wealth to the colony.
“The island of Tasmania is intersected by many valuable coal measures. At present the output of Tamanian coal is not extensive, and the island is mainly supplied from Newcasle, New South Wales, although, la domestic purposes, Tasmanian coal is used to a considerable extent.
“ During the past two years attention has been directed to the slate deposits of Tasmania ; the high prom ruling for English slates in the colonial markets has induced the Australian Slate Company to commence work on a fair scale. In 1874 a quarter of a million of slates were prepared for sale at Piper's River.
“At Ilfracombe Bay there is an extensive bed of pure white clay which seems very refractory, and which, when mixed with fine quartz (also abundant and close at hand) forms an admirable fire brick. Common clayo are found in all directions, and the iron companies are now manufacturing bricks. Kaolin or porcelain clays also found at Circular Head.
“In the West Tamar district limestone quarries have been worked for many years past. • There is an immense mountain of blue limestone, situated about two miles from the township of Latrobe, on the River Mersey. At the River Don there are very large deposits of pure carbonate of lime, and the eastern districts, especially Fingal, abound with lime of various kinds and qualities.
“ The principal timber trees of Tasmania,-such as Blue Gum, Stringy Bark, White Gum, or Gam-toppai Stringy Bark, Swamp Gum, and Peppermint Tree,--furnish a hard close-grained, and strong timber. Hun Pine is very durable, and is employed for boat-building and for house-fittings, &c. Blackwood makes excelles billiard tables and furniture, naves and spokes, cask staves, &c. Myrtle is valuable for house-fittings. Swamp Gum yields the finest palings and other split-stuff in the world. Sassafras affords timber for house-fittings bench screws, &c. Celery-topped Pine is chiefly used for masts and ships' spars. In addition to these, Silver Wattle is used for wood staves and treenails. Mallets, sheaves of blocks, and turnery are manufactured from Iron Wood, while the Native Cherry is used for tool handles, gun stocks, &c. White Wood is a fit wood for engraving purposes, while Pink Wood and Native Pear are suitable for turnery. Tonga Bean Wood and Native Box have both a pleasant odour, that of the latter being fleeting.
“Bark is largely exported to England and New Zealand for tanning purposes. The price of ground beris varies from 41. to 6l. per ton at the ports. During the year 1874 about 4,870 tons were exported, valued * 22,1231. Hops also are largely cultivated. In 1874, 819,145 pounds weight were exported, valced at 42,2841.
“ The principal animals are the kangaroo, wallaby, opossums, and bandicoots, the skins of which are all avail for tanning purposes, the fur being highly valuable as rugs, &c. The devil and Tasmanian tiger are formidable beasts, and used to make great havoc amongst the flocks. The tiger is a low long-bodied snims, with powerful forequarters, and a dog-like head, weighing sometimes from 60 lbs. to 70 lbs. The deri though not so large, is more hideous in appearance than the tiger.
“Of birds, 171 species have been observed, but of these only 20 species are supposed to be peculiar w Tasmania. The notes of many of the birds are very musical, the most remarkable being the reed warbler, the tones of which approach those of the nightingale, the black and white magpie, and the butcher bird. The principal edible birds are varieties of quail, duck, snipe, golden plover, and pigeons.
“ There are many species of freshwater fish, the most valuable being the cucumber grayling. Amongst the estuary fish, those most appreciated as edible are the sole, whiting, gar-fish, and rock-cod. The best of the deep sea fish are the trumpeter and king-fish. During the last ten years the salmon trout and brown trout, the