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Imports and Exports.

£

£
f
£

1870 283,970 190,253
1864 5,346,132 4,672,398

1871

239,190 152,410
1865 1,470,467 2,063,474

1872 201,051 136,224
1866 328,622
261,972

1873 226,306 156,613
1867 365,316 227,248

1874

183,993 130,293 1868 231,526 131,522

Population. 1869 240,584 163,002

39,162 (Census 1871).

(From " Colonial Office List, 1876.") The history of the Bahamas began in 1492, when Columbus, the great pioneer, navigator, and discoverer of a New World landed on the shore of Guanaliani and named it St. Salvador. Commerce did not immediately follow in the wake of discovery, but about 250 years after that event, pine apples were grown at and exported from Eleuthera, and 50 years later cotton was extensively cultivated, and salt and wood added to the exports.

At the present time the colony's staples are salt, fruit, sponge, barks, dye and furniture woods, guano, and straw, turtle shell, fish scale and shell work.

The articles on exhibition fairly represent the productions and manufactures of these islands, and both might be indefinitely extended. But it is not the commercial position of the Bahamas only which should make a knowledge of them general. Their equality and wonderful salubrity of climate commend them to all who seek a genial, healthy, life-giving atmosphere. As a winter home for the afflicted, Peter Henry Bruce wrote nearly a century and a half ago, “It is no wonder the sick fly hither for relief, being sure to find a cure here.” Modern travellers also testify that as a resort from damp and cold to sunshine and summer for those who require change and climatic benefit the Bahamas offer peculiar advantages. The heat is tempered by an ocean breeze of softness and purity seldom experienced elsewhere. Tropical flowers gladden the eye, and the luscious pineapple, orange, and melon tempt the palate with their freshness and beauty. Fish abound in the clear pellucid waters surrounding these islands, and the northern fowl seek a home on the lakes. In a word, the Bahamas seem by nature fitted as a grand sanitarium for the afflicted from the North American Continent, and as a most desirable winter resort for all who wish to escape the rigours of the Northern Season.

3 pieces Green Ebony (dye), largely exported
to London. pieces Braziletto Wood (do.),
generally exported to the United States. I
piece Logwood (do.), generally exported to
London. To be sold to the highest bidder.
Nos. 1 to 11.

CI. 600, 601.

SPECIMENS OF WOODS (MANUFAC

TURED).
Where the Price is given it is always to be

understood as in Gold in Bond.
Sawyer, R. 8., & Co. i log Sabicu or
Ilorseflesh (furniture), very durable wood,
used for building purposes. 2 crotchets
Mahogany or Madeira (do.), this wood is
largely exported to London. 2 pieces Satin
Wood (do.), this wood is largely exported to
London. 1 piece Bull Wood (do.), a new
wood not at present exported, very hand-
somely curled. 1 piece Cedar (do.), used for
building purposes. 1 piece Cocoanut Wood
(do.) 1 piece Stopper Wood (do.), very
durable, used principally for the piles of
wharves. I ship's Knee of Sabicu ; knees like
the one exhibited can be largely exported.

George, Jno. S, 1 piece Logwood (dye), Cl. 600, 601. generally exported to London. 4 pieces Braziletto (do.), generally exported to the United States. 2 pieces Green Ebony (do.) 1 piece Yellow pine (furniture), large forests of Pitch Pine are in the Bahamas not utilized. 1 piece Sabicu or Horseflesh (do.) 1 piece Mahogany (do.) 1 piece Cedar (do.) 1 piece Satin Wood (do.) 1 piece Stopper Wood (do.) 1 piece Orange Wood (do.), not at present exported. 1 piece Lignum Vitæ (do.), exported to London. Nos. 12 to 22.

CL 600, 601

[blocks in formation]

Cl. 645,

254.

Cl. 645, 254.

Cl. 645, 254.

Cl. 645,

254.

Cl. 645, 254.

Dupuch, Joseph. 65 Walking Capes, all manufactured out of woods growing in the Bahamas. 2 Crab Wood, each $i 25, can be supplied in Nassau from the tree at $12 per 100. 2 Red Crab Wood, each $1 25, in Nassau at $12 per 100. 2 Casava Wood, each $1, in Nassau at 4c. per foot. 2 Black Torch, each $i 25, in Nassau at $12 per 100 2 Lignum Vitæ, each 75c., in Nassau at $12 per ton. 2 Cocoanut Wood, each $1. 2 Mahogany, each $1, in Nassau at 4c. per foot. 2 Sabicu, each $1, in Nassau at 4c. per foot. 2 Satin Wood, each 75c., in Nassau at 4c. per foot. 2 Iron Wood, each $1 25, in Nassau at $12 per 100. 2 Green Ebony, each $1 25. 2 Red Stopper, each $1, in Nassau at 4c. per foot. 3 White do., each 50c., in Nassau at 4c. per foot. 2 Mastic Wood, each 75c., in Nassau at 4c. per foot. 2 Saffron do., each 50c., in Nassau at $12 per 100. 2 Cascarilla, with Bark, each 50c., in Nassau at $12 per 100. 2 Crab Wood do., each 50c., in Nassau at $12 per 100. i Prince do., do., each 25c., in Nassau at $12 per 100. 3 Red Stopper do., each 25c., in Nassau $12 per 100. 1 White Stopper do., each 25c., in Nassau at $12 per 100. 6 Hercules Club do., set $4, in Nassau at $10 per 100. 4 Wild Lemon do., each 25c., in Nassau at $12 per 100. 2 Tamarind do., 25c., in Nassau at $8 per 100. 2 White Torch do., 50c., in Nassau at $12

2 Black Torch do., 50c., in Nassau at $12 per 100. 2 Guava do., 25c., in Nassau at $12 per 100. 2 Wild Coffee do., 25c., in Nassau at $12 per 100. 3 Wild Cane do., 25c., in Nassau at $4 per 100. 2 Lemon do., 25c., in Nassau at $15 per 100.

No. 23, letters A to Z, AA to AC. Wallace, Alexander

C.

Walking Canes, viz.:-4 Crab Wood, with heads, $2 50. 2 do., without heads, $1 50. 2 Green Ebony, $2 50. No. 24, letters BC to BE.

Armbrister, James A. 18 Walking Canes, viz.:-12 Green Ebony, $125. 6 Satin Wood, $125. lan tured at Long Island, Bahamas. No. 25, letters CD, CE.

SHELLS AND SHELL WORK. Sawyer, R. H. & Co. 6 King Conch Shells, 6 Queen Conch do., 6 Common Pink Conch do., 3 Lamp Conch do. To be sold to the highest bidder. Largely exported to London, Nos. 34 to 37.

George, John s. 7 Queen Conch Shells. No. 38.

Saunders, Samuel P. 1 case containing about 100 varieties small shells, $100. The shells in this case were all collected in the Bahamas. No. 39.

Treco, P. A. 1 case containing Bahama Shells, $100. The shells were collected and arranged by J. R. Saunders. No. 40.

Evans, Ellen G. E. Cases containing 1 Shell Cross, $100; 1 Shell Basket, $60; 1 Bridal Wreath, $30. Manufactured out of Bahama Shells. Nos. 41 to 43.

Symonett, Mrs. Mathew. Cases containing 1 Palm Tree, $12; 1 Watch Stand, $25. Nos. 44 to 45.

Eldon, Mrs. James. Case containing 1 Orange Tree, $25. No. 46.

Garner, Mrs. Maria E. Cases containing 1 Basket, $60; 1 Fruit Basket, $60; 1 Bridal Wreath, $20; 1 Spray, $4; 1 do., $3; 1 do., 83. Nos. 47 to 49, letters A to D.

Robertson, Mrs. S. E. Case containing Epergne, $500. No. 50.

Atwell, Misses. Cases containing Memorial Wreath, $140 ; Cornucopia, $45 ; 1 doz. sets Brooches and Earrings, $3 each or $35 the lot. Nos. 51 to 53.

All manufactured out of Shells and Fish

Scales.

CI. 645,

per 100.

Cl. 645, 254.

Cl. 645, 254.

Cl. 600,

601.

Cl. 645,

254.

Cl. 645, 254.

TORTOISE SHELL AND SHELL

WORK. George, John S. 6 pieces Tortoise Shell; obtained from Hawksbill Turtle, largely exported to London. 1 lot Loggerhead Shell;

U

Dapuch, Joseph. i Card Tray, 84, manufactured out of 9 different woods. 5 Bread Platters, $i 50, manufactured out of various woods. 3 Bread Platters, to be presented to Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., do. Nos. 26 to 28.

36714.

CI. 600,

601.

CI. 600,

601.

CI. 645,

254,

CL 287.

CI. 645, 254.

CI. 289.

CL. 287.

CI. 645, 845.

obtained from Loggerhead Turtle, largely exported to London. Nos. 54, 55.

Centennial Exhibition Committee, Nassau. 1 Tortoise Back, cleaned and polished entire, $75. Cleaned and polished by J. R. Saunders, Nassau. No. 56.

Minns, Albert C. J. I case containing tortoise shell ornaments, viz., Lady's set consisting of Necklace, Pin and Earrings, Bracelets, Solitaires and Studs, $ 140; Gentleman's set consisting of Albert Chain and Charms, Scarf Ring, Solitaires and Studs, and Vest Button, $50 ; Lady's Necklace and Locket, $30 ; 1 Spoon 1, Paper Knife $ 10. All the tortoise shell work is manufactured by hand and is warranted genuine. No. 57, letters A to D.

Centennial Exhibition Committee, Nassau.* Specimens of Palmetto Rope, 3 sizes. Nos. 66.

Knowles, Joseph A.,* L.I. Specimens of Palmetto Baskets (3), ditto Mat. Nos. 67, 68.

Carroll, Richard E.,* L. I. Specimens of Rope made out of Fibre of Aloe.

Not exported but extensively used in the

Bahamas. No. 69. George, Jno. S.* Specimen of Palmetto Leaves. Indigenous to the Bahamas can be extensively exported. * For presentation to the Smithsonian

Institution, Washington. No. 70. Centennial Exhibition Committee, Nassau. 1 case containing Palmetto Work, viz., 6 Fans each $i 50, 3 Pearl Edge Hats, $3, 3 Edging Hats, $2. Manufactured by Mrs. Jno. Taylor, Inagua. No. 71, letters A

CL 600.

CL 254.

MIMOSA BEAN WORK.

to C.

Cl. 605,

254.

CI. 200

Cl. 605, 254.

Grant, Misses Julia & Mary. 1 case containing Mimosa Bean Work, viz., Set of Lady's Ornaments 85, 1 Card Tray $4 50, 1 pair Watch Cases $2 50, 1 pair Mats $1, 1 case containing Cross $12. Nos. 58 and 59, letters A to D.

Centennial Exhibition Committee, Nassau. 1 case Mimosa Bean ornaments, viz., 1 Card Basket $4 50, 2 Bags $4, 2 pairs Bracelets, each $i 50. Manufactured by Messrs. Jarrett, Nassau. No. 60, letters A to C.

The Mimosa grows wild in the Bahamas.

CL 665.

CL 681

SUNDRIES. Meadows,Jno. G., Inagua, Sargent, D., Inagua, 1 case containing, viz., specimens of Salt and jar of Table Salt. This salt is largely exported to U. S. and Brit. N. America. No. 72.

Sawyer, R. E., & Co.,* Saunders, s. P., Brice, D. A.* Specimens of Cotton, produced principally at Long Island and exported to London. No. 73.

Saunders, Saml. P.* Specimen of Care Earth (Fertilizer), exported to United States. No. 74. * For presentation to the Smithsonian

Institution, Washington. Sawyer & Co., R. H. Specimens of Bark (Canella Alba and Cascarilla), to be sold to highest bidder. Exported to United States, and London. Nos. 75, 76.

George, Jno. S. Specimens of Bark (Cascarilla and Canella Alba, exported to United States and London ; Arrow Root and Casava Starch, Bahama manufacture ; Bees Wax ; Wax måde from Myrtle Berry, exported to London. Nos. 77 to 82.

Sawyer & Co., R. &. Wax made from Myrtle Berry, to be sold to highest bidder, exported to London. No. 83.

Saunders, Saml. P. Specimen of Mammee Sapota or Vegetable Sponge, excellent for bathing purposes; cost about 3c.each, No. 84.

CL 600.

FIBRES, ROPES, AND PALMETTO

WORK. Cl. 600, 666, Centennial Exhibition Committee,

Nassau.* 1 case containing specimens of Fibres, viz., Fibres of the Pita Plant, Plaintain Tree, Banana do., Pine Apple Plant, Aloe, Esparto Grass ; 1 case containing specimens of Fibres viz., Wool made from Leaf of Forest Pine, Pita Plant, Banana Tree, and Plaintain. None of the Bahama Fibres are at present utilized; could, however, be obtained and exported in large quantities. No. 61, letters A

to F; No. 62, letters G to J. Cl. 600, Knowles, Joseph A.,* Long Island. 666, 287. Specimens of wild Fig Tree (Bark), very

durable when manufactured into rope ; Rope & Net made out of above; Palmetto Rope. Nos. 63 to 65.

CI. 600.

654.
658

CI. 654

CL. 604

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BERMUDAS, Or Somers' Islands, a cluster of about 100 small islands, situated on the western side of the Atlantic Ocean, in lat. 32° 15' N. and long. 64° 51' W., at a distance of about 580 miles from the nearest land, viz., Cape Hatteras in North Carolina.

Fifteen or sixteen of these islands are inhabited : the rest are of inconsiderable size, the largest, or Bermuda proper, containing less than 20 square miles of land, and nowhere exceeding three miles in breadtb.

The islands extend from N.E. to S.W. in a curved line for about 20 miles, bending inwards at both extremities, so as to enclose spacious and secure harbours.

Besides the main island, on which the town of Hamilton, the present seat of Government, is situated, the principal islands are St. George's, where the ancient town of St. George, the former capital, stands ; Ireland Island, where the dockyard is established ; Boaz and Watford Islands, occupied entirely by a military detachment, formerly a convict establishment; Somerset, St. David's, Smith's, Cooper's, Nonsuch, Godet's, Port's, and River's. With the exception of one break between Somerset and Watford Islands, there is continuous communication by bridges from St. George's to Ireland Island.

The climate has been long celebrated for its mildness and salubrity. The islands produce arrowroot of a fine quality, and an indigenous cedar of great durability, well adapted for ship-building and house-timber.

A few whales are occasionally taken in the neighbouring waters. Turtle are common.

The islands derive their name from Bermudez, a Spaniard, who sighted them in 1527. The earliest account of them is given by Henry May, who was cast away upon them in 1593. They were first colonized by Admiral Sir George Somers, who was shipwrecked there in 1609, on his way to Virginia. On his report, the Virginia Company claimed them, and obtained a charter for them from James I. in 1612. This company sold their right for 2,0001. to an association of 120 persons, who obtained a new charter in 1616, incorporating them as the Bermuda Company, and granting them very extensive powers and privileges.

Representative government was introduced in 1620. In 1621 the Bermuda Company in London made a Body of Ordinances for the Government of the Colony. During the civil war, great numbers of emigrants, from England were attracted thither by the favourable reports of the climate and soil. Towards the end of the reign of Charles II., grave complaints were made by the inhabitants of the misgovernment of the plantation by the Company; and its charter was annulled by process of Quo Warranto, at Westminster, in 1684–85. Since then the Governors have been appointed by the Crown, and laws for the Colony enacted by a local legislature, consisting of the Governor, Council, and Assembly.

The lands belonging to the company were forfeited to the Crown on the annulment of their charter, and with the exception of some reserved for public uses, were granted in 1759 to purchasers on small quit-rents, extinguishable on the payment of a fixed sum of money.

During the revolutionary war in North America the inhabitants suffered great privations from the scarcity of food ; and although they export largely certain articles of agricultural produce, especially potatoes, onions, tomatoes, and arrowroot, they are still dependent on foreign supplies for all the flour and most of the meat consumed.

In 1784 a printing-press was introduced.

Early in the present century the importance of the Bermudas as a naval station came to be recognized. Ireland Island was purchased exclusively by the Government, and a Dockyard established there. By Order in Council, dated June 23, 1824, the Bermudas were declared a place where male convicts might be kept at hard labour on the public works ; but these islands never were made a penal settlement, strictly speaking, where convicts might be discharged. The establishment was broken up in 1863.

On the abolition of slavery in 1834, the system of temporary apprenticeship of the emancipated slaves. permitted by the Act of Parliament in the slave-holding colonies, was dispensed with by the local legislature of Bermuda, so as to entitle the slaves to their absolute freedom six years sooner than was required by Parliament. They and their descendants now form more than a numerical half of the entire population.

In 1846, a lighthouse, visible at more than 30 miles' distance, was erected on the highest land in the Colony ; the light being 362 feet above the sea. A public library was established in 1839. In 1871 the Island of St. George's was connected with the main island by a causeway and road two miles in length, commenced in 1866, and completed at a cost of nearly 30,0001. An iron girder swing-bridge still permits the passage of vessels. Revenue and Expenditure.

Imports and Exports.
£
£

£
1865
24,946
35,627
1865 200,983

40,238
1866
26,637
25,148
1866 192,123

31,842
1867
24,268
23,219
1867 200,817

22,832
1868
36,110
37,231
1868 199,929

33,873
1869
30,040
32,039
1869 103,962

23,391
1870
33,073
33,302
1870 232,387

36,756
1871
34,969
33,700
1871 231,618

48,405
1872
33,256
32,235
1872 149,842

66,877
1873
33,030 35,146

1873 128,065

64,887
1874
29,066
29,800
1874 252,435

81,585
Public Debt in 1874, 13,2341.

1875–6, Parliamentary Grant, 2,2001. (Governor's

salary).
Population, Census 1851, 10,982.
1861, 11,461.

White. Coloured.
1871, 12,121. 4,725.

7,396. Total tonnage of vessels entered 1874, 72,212; cleared 1874, 71,935.

(From Colonial Office List, 1876.")

Cl. 102.

Ness, Ph. An assortment of Building
Stones of various qualities. A. Hard Stone
containing some fossil shells, chiefly used in
Military works, and for Road-making. B.
Bastard Stone, less hard. C. Soft Building

Stone, such as is commonly worked with a
hand-saw, but hardens a little on exposure.
They only differ in the degree to which the
grains of sand are cemented by the infil
tration of carbonate of lime in solution.

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