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COURTS IN THE STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE.
(Corrected 1872.) SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT. LAW of May. Deerfield, Frid, after 1st Tues. TERMS. -Two terms are held each year of Aug. and Dec., and Frid. after 3d Tues. on the 1st Tu. of June and the 1st Tu. of of May.- STRAFFORD Co.: Dover, 1st Tu. Dec., both at Concord.
of Jan., Mar., May, Aug. and Oct. RochSUPREME JUDICIAL COURT. TRIAL ester, 1st Tues. of July and Dec. FarmTERMS. - At Portsmouth, 3d Tues, of ington, 1st Tues. of Apr. and Sept. SomOct., and Exeter, 3d Tues. of January andersworth, 1st Tu. of Feb., June and Nov. 2d Tu. of April, for Co. of Rockingham. BELKNAP Co.: Gilford, 3d Tues. of evAt Dover, 2d Tues. of Feb., and 1st Tues. ery month, except April and Oct.; Gilof Sept., for Co. of Strafford. At Gilford, manton Iron Works, 3d Tues. of April 4th Tues. of Mar., and the 4th Tues, of and October. - CARROLL Co.: Conway, Sept., for the Co. of Belknap. At Ossipee, 1st Tu.Jan., May, and Sept.; Tamworth, 3d Tu. Ap. and Oct. for Co. of Carroll. At 1st Tu. Feb., June, and Oct.; Ossipee Concord, 1st Tues. of Oct., and 1st Tues. Corner, 18t Tu. March, July, and Nov.; of April, for Co. of Merrimack. At Am- Wolfeborough, 1st Tu. April, Aug., and herst, 1st Tues, of May, at Manchester, Dec. - MERRIMACK Co.: Concord, 4th 1st Tues. of Jan., and at Nashua, 1st Tues. Tues. of every month.-HILLSBOROUGU of Sept., for Co. of Hillsborough. At Co.: Manchester, 4th Tu. of Jan., Mar., Keene, 1st Tues. of April and 3d Tues. May, July, Sept. and Nov. Nashua, 4th of Oct., for Co. of Cheshire. At Newport, Tues. of Feb., April, June, Aug., 'Oct. 4th Tues. of Jan, and 1st Tues. of Sept., and Dec. Hillsboro' Bridge, Frid, after for Co, Sullivan. At Haverhill, 3d Tues. 4th Tues. Jan. Francestown, Frid, after of Mar. and 3d Tues.of dept., for the West. 4th Tues. April, July and Oct. Amherst, Jud. Dist., and at Plymouth, 1st Tues. of Frid. aft. 4th Tues. Feb., June, Sept. May and Nov. for the Eastern Jud. Dist., and Dec. Peterborough, Frid. aft. 4th Grafton Co. At Colebrook, 1st Tu. of Feb. Tu. of May and Aug. Mason Village, and 3d Tu. of Aug., for North. Jud. Dist. Frid. after 4th Tues. of March and Nov. of Coös. At Lancaster, 4th Tu. of Apr. CHESHIRE Co.: Keene, 1st and 3d Tu. and 1st Tu, of Nov. for South. Jud. Dist. every month.- SULLIVAN Co.: Newport, of Coös.
last Wed. of Feb., April, June, Aug., Oct. PROBATE COURTS. ROCKINGHAM Co.: and Dec. Claremont, last: Wed. of Jan., Exeter, Wed. next after 1st Tues. of Mar., May, July, Sept. and Nov.- GRAFApr., Wed. next after 3d Tues. of TON Co.: Lisbon, 3d Tues. of Ap. and Feb. and Mar., and Wed. next_after Oct. Plymouth, 18t Tu.of May and Nov. 2d Tues. of each other month. Ports-Canaan, 3d Tu. of June and Dec. Havermouth, 1st Tu. Nov., 3d Tu. March, hill, 3a Tu. March and Sept. Bristol, 3d and 2d Tu. Jan., May, July, and Sept. Tu. July: Littleton, 3d Tu. Jan. WentKingston, 1st Tues. Aug. and Dec., and worth, 3d Tu. Feb. and Aug. Lebanon, 3d Tues. May. Derry, Wed, after 1st 1st Tues. March and Sept. - Coös Co.: Tues. Aug. and Dec., and Wed. after 3d Colebrook, 18t Tues. of Feb. and Sept. Tues. May. Chester, Thurs. after 1st Tu. Lancaster, 18t Tues. of Jan., March, May, of Aug. and Dec., and Thurs. after 3d Tu. / July, and Nov.
COURTS IN THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT.
(Corrected 1872.) SUPREME COURTS. – 1st District (Hart- and 3d Tues, in Nov. At New London, ford and Tolland Cos.) - 4th Tu. in Feb., 3d Tues. in Jan. and 2d Tues. in Sept. ; and 2d Tues. in Sept. 2d District (New at Brooklyn, 1st Tues. in Jan., 3d Tues. Haven and Middlesex Cos ) - 1st Tues. in in Apr., 4th Tues. in Aug., 1st Tues. in April, and 20 Tues. in Nov. 3d District Nov.; at Litchfield, 4th Tu. in Jan., 2d (N. London and Windham Cos.) -20 Tu. Tues. in April, 3d Tues. in Sept., and 1st in March, and 4th Tues. in Oct. 4th Tu. in Nov.; at Middletown, 1st Tues. in District (Litchfield and Fairfield Cos). Feb., and 1st Tues, in Dec.; at Haddam, At Bridgeport, last Tues in Jan. and 20 20 Tues. in April, and 20 Tues. in Oct.; Tu. in Oct. ; at Litchfield, 20 Tu, in June. at Tolland, 1st Tues. in Feb., 2d Tues, in
The place where each term of the April, 1st Tu. in Sept., and 1st Tues. in Court shall be held, in each judicial dis- Dec.; at Danbury, 1st Tu. June, 4th Tu. trict, is designated by the chief judge. Aug., and 3d Tu. Oct.; at Bridgeport, 3d
BUPERIOR COURTS. - At Hartford, 2d Tues. in Feb., 1st Tues. in Mar., 4th Tu. Tues. in March, 1st Tues. in July, 4th in Aug., 3d Tu. in Oct., and 20 Tu.in Dec. Tues. in Sept., and 3d Tues, in Dec., COURTS OF COMMON PLEAS, at Hartand for crim. business only, 4th Tu. in ford and New Haven, 1st Mon. in each Aug. and 1st Tu. in Dec. and March. month except July and Aug. Fairfield At New Haven, 18t Tues. in March, 20 Co.- At Bridgeport, 1st Mon. Mar., June, Tues. in May, 1st Tues. in Sept. 21 Sept., Nov., and Dec., and 1st To. April; Tues. in Oct., and 3d Tues. in Dec., and at Danbury, 1st Mon. Jan., Feb., May, for crim. business only, 1st Tu. in Jan., and Oct. New London Co.-N. London, April, July, and Oct. At Waterbury, for 18t Tues. of April, Ang., and Dec. civil business only, 1st Tu. in Feb. and Norwich, 1st Tues. of Feb., June, and June. At Norwich, last Tues, in March,' Oct.
COURTS IN THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND.
(Corrected 1872.) SUPREME COURT.- At Newport, 3d| COURT OF COMMON PLEA8. — At NewMon. in Mar., and 3d Mon. in Sept. port, 3d Mon. In May and Nov. ProviProvidence, 4th Mon. in March, and ist dence, 18t Mon. in Mar., Jane, Sept., and Mon. in Oct. South Kingstown, 31 Mon. Dec. (Mar. and Sept. terms are for crimiin Feb., and 3d Mon. in Aug. Bristol, let nal business only). 8o. Kingstown, 2d Mon. in March, and 20 Mon. in Sept. Mon. May, and 1st Mon. in Nov. Bristol, East Greenwich, 2d Mon. In March, and 1st Mon. in May, and last Mon. in Oct. 4th Mon, in Aug.
E. Greenwich, 20 Mon, in April and Oct.
SUPREME JUD. AND SUPERIOR COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
(Corrected 1872.) BUPREME JUDICIAL COURT OF MAss. SUPERIOR COURT OF MASSACHUSETTS.JURY TERMS.-For Barnstable and Dukes For Essex Co., (civil) at Salem, 1st Mon. Counties, at Barnstable, 1st Tuesday of of June and Dec., at Lawrence, 1st Mon. May. For Berkshire Co., at Pittsfield, 20 of March, and at Newbury port, 1st Mon. Tues. of May. For Bristol Co., at New of Sept.; (crim.) at Lawrence, Ist Mon. Bedford, 2d Tues. of Nov.; also at Taun- of Oct., at Newburyport, 2d Mon. of May, ton, 3d Tues. of April. For Essex Co., at and at Salem, 4th Mon. of Jan. Salem, 3d Tu. of April and let Tu. Nov. For Middlesex Co., (civil) at Lowell, 2d For Franklin Co., at Greenfield, 20 Tu. of Mon. of March, and 1st lon. Sept.; April. For Hampden Co., at Springtield, at Cambridge, 1st Mon, of June, and 2d 4th Tues. of April. For Hampshire Co., Mon. of Dec.; (crim.) at Cambridge, 2d at Northampton, 3d Tues. of April. For Mon. of Feb., and 4th Mon, of June; and Middlesex Co., at Lowell, 32 Tucs. of at Lowell, 3d Mon. of Oct. April; also at Cambridge, 3d Tues. of For Hampshire Co., at Northampton, Oct. For Nantucket Co., at Nantucket, (civil) 3d Mon. of Feb., 1st Mon, of June, 1st Tues. of July. For Norfolk Co., at and 3d Mon. of Oct.; (crim.) 20 Mon, of Dedham, 30 Tues. of Feb. For Plymouth June, and 30 Mon. of Dec. Co., at Plymouth, 20 Tues. of May. For For Franklin Co., at Greenfield, 3d Mon. Buffolk Co., at Boston, 2 Tues. of Bept. of March, and 20 Mon. of Aug. and Nov. and 1st Tues. of April. For Worcester For Hampden Co., at Springfield, (civil) Co., at Worcester, 3d Tues. of April. 20 Mon. of March and June, and 4th Mon.
of Oct.; (crim.) 3d Mon. of May, and 1st LAW TERMS OF SUPREME JUDICIAL Mon. of Dec. COURT OF MASSACHUSETTS.-A law term For Berkshire Co., at Pittsfield, (civil) of the Supreme Judicial Court shall be 4th Mon. of Feb., June, and Oct.; (crim.) held at Boston on the first Wednesday of 20 Mon. of Jan. and July. January of each year, which term may be For Norfolk Co., at Dedbam, (civil) 4th adjourned, from time to time, to places and Mon. in Apr., Sept., and Dec.; (crim.) times mast conducive to the despatch of 1st Mon. in Apr., Sept., and Dec. business and the interests of the public; For Plymouth Co.,at Plymouth, 2d Mon. and there shall be entered and determined of Feb. and June, and 4th Mon. of Oct. therein questions of law arising in the For Bristo) Co., at Taunton, 2d Mon. of counties of Barnstable, Dukes County, March and Sept., and at New Bedford, 20 Middlesex, Nantucket, Norfolk, and Sur-Mon. of June and Dec. folk; and also all questions of law arising For Suffolk Co., at Boston, (civil) 18t in other counties where special provisions Tues. of Jan.,Apl, July, and Oct.;(erim.) are not made therefor.
1st Mon. of every month. And law terms of said court shall also For Barnstable Co., at Barnstable, Tues. annually be held as follows:
next after 1st Mon. of April, and 2d Tues.
Mon, of June and ct.
Mon. of May and Bept.
At Worcester, for Worcester Co., 4th Mon, of Aug., and 20 Mon, of Dec.; and
at Fitchburg, 2d Mon. of June and Nov.; At Plymouth, for Plymouth Co., 3d Tu.(crim.) at Worcester, 3d Mon. of Jan., 2d of Oct.
Mon. of May, and 3á Moni. of Oct.; and At Taunton, for Bristol Co., 4th Tu. Oct. at Fitchburg, 20 Mon. of Aug.
COURTS OF INSOLVENCY IN MASSACHUSETTS.
While the Bankrupt Law of the United States is in force, the Insolvency Law is suspended as to new cases, but not as to those previously commenced.
PLEAS.- At Nap lay and Nor. Pront (ar., June, Bept., and 1. terms are for erin
8o. Kingston, a Con. in Nov. Bristo and last Mon, in On on, in April and Det
Lawrence, Ist dies
Ist Mon. of Sept.
, 3 Mon. of Jube; and f Oet. 2., at Northampton, D., Ist Mon, of juk ; (crim.) 21 Von Dec. : Greenfield, 3d You 2. of Aug. and Nor 21 Springfield, (civa 1 June, and 4th Yo. fon. of May, and I
at Pittsfeld, feivi e, and Oct.; (cris uly. Dedham, (civil)
and Dee.; (eria 2., and Dee.
PROBATE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS. (Corrected 1872.) Suffolk.- At Boston, every Mon. in Jan., Ap., Oct., and 20 Fr. July. Nan. ea. mo., except July. Essex. - At Sa- tucket. – At Nantucket, on Thu. aft. 2d lem, 1st Tu. of ea. mo.; Lawrence, 2d Tu. Tu. of ev. mo. Berkshire.- At Pittsea. mo., except Ap., May, July, Ang., and field, 1st Tu. Jan., Feb., Mch, Ap., May, Oct.; Gloucester, 2d Tu. Ap. and Oct.; June, Sep., Oct., and Dec., 3d Tu. July, Newburyport, 3d Tu.ea.mo. except Mch, and Wed. af. 1st Mon. Nov.; Lee, Wed. af. May, Aug., Sep., and Nov.; Haverhill, 1st Tu.in Jan., Ap., and Oct., and Wed. af. 3d Tu. May and Nov.; Ipswich, 3d Tu. 3d Tu. July; Adams, Th. aft. 1st Tu. Jan. Mch and sep: Middlesex. - At Cam- and Oct., Wed. af. 1st Tu. Mch., and Th. bridge, 1st, 2d, and 4th Tu. ea. mo. except af. 3d Tu. in July; Gr. Barrington, Wed. Aug.; Lowell, 3d Tu. of Jan., Mch, May, after 1st Tu. in Feb., May, Sep., and Dec. July, Sep., and Nov. Worcester. - At Plymouth. - At Plymouth, 20 Mon. of Worcester, 1st and 3d Tu. of every mo. ev.mo., ex. July and Aug.; Wareham, 4th except Aug.; Fitchburg, 4th Tu. of Ap. Mon. Oct.; E. Bridgewater, 4th Mo. Feb. and Sep.; Milford, 2d Tu.of Ap. and Sep.; and Dec.; Hingham, 4th Mo. Mch; MiddleTempleton, 20 Tu. of May and Oct.; and boro', 4th Mon. Ap. and Jan., and 28 Mon. Barre, Wed. next after 2d Tu. of May and July; Abington, 4th Mo. May, Aug., and Oct. Hampshire. - At Northampton, Nov.; Hanover, 4th Mo. June; Bridgewa1st Tu. of every mo.;, Amherst, 2d Tu. of ter, 4th Mo. Sep.; North Bridgewater, 3d Jan. and Aug.; Belchertown, 2d Tu. of Mon. Apr. and Oct. Barnstable.- At May and Oct.; and Williamsburg, 3d Tu. Barnstable, 2d Tu. Jant, Feb., Mch., Aug., May and Oct. Hampden. - At Spring-Sep., Dec., and 3d Tu. Ap. and Jun.; Harfield, 1st Tu. Jan., Feb., March, Ap., May, wich, 2d Mo. af. 1st Tu. May, and Mo. af. June, July, Sep;, Nov., and Dec.; West-3d Tu. Oct.; Orleans, 3d Tu. May and 4th field, 3d Tu. Mch, June, Sep., and Dec.; | Tu. Oct.; Wellpfleet, Wed. af.3d Tu. May, Monson, on the 2d Tu. June; and Palmer, and Wed.af. 4th Tu. Oct.; Provincetown, on the 20 Tues. Sept. Franklin. - At Th. aft. 3d Tu. May, and Th. aft. 4th Tu. Greenfield, 1st Tu. in every mo. ex. Nov.; Oct.; Falmouth, 3d Tu. Nov. Norfolk. Northfield, 20 Tu. May and Sep.; Orange, - At Dedham, 1st and 3d Wed.,Quincy, 2d 20 Tu. Mch and Dec., and 3d Tu. June; Wed., Hyde Park, 4th Wed. ev. mo. exc. Conway, 3d Tu. May; Shelburne Falls, 4th Aug. Dukes Co. - At Holmes' Hole Tu. May, 2d Tu. Feb., and 4th Tu. Oct. village, in Tisbury, 3d Mo. Ap. and 1st Mo. Bristol.–At Taunton, 1st Fr. Mch,Jun., Sept. ; Edgartown, 3d Mo. Jan. and July, Sep., Dec.; New Bedford, 1st Frid. Feb., and 1st Mo. Mch and Dec.; W. Tisbury, May, Aug., and Nov.; Fall River, 1st Fr. 1st Mo. June and 3d Mon. Oct.
Judges of Probate Courts in Massachusetts.
Barnstable Co., Jos. M. Day, Barnstable.
DISTRICT COURTS are held as follows: For the towns of Adams, Cheshire, Clarksburg, Florida, and Savoy, at Adams, crim., daily, 9 A. M., civil, weekly at north village of Adams, and Ist Wed. of each month at south village. For the towns of Dalton, Hancock. Hinsdale, Lanesborough, Peru, Pittsfield, Richmond, and Windsor, at Pittsfield, crim., daily, 9 A. M., ciril, weekly. For Alford, Egremont, Great Barrington, Monterey, Mt. Washington, New Marlborough, and Sheffield, ai Great Barrington, for criminal business, daily, at 9 A. M.; for civil business, every Sat., 10 d. M. For Palmer, Brimfield, Monson, Holland, Wales, and Wilbraham, on and after July 1, at Palmer, crim., daily. 9 A. DI., civil, Ist and 3d Sat. of each month. For Sturbridge, Southbridge, Charlton, Dudley, Oxford, and Webster, crim., at Southbridge, Mon., Wed., and Fri., and at Webster, Tues., Thurs., and Sat., 9 A. M.; civil, at Southbridge, Mon., Webster, Tues., weekly. For Blackstone, Uxbridge, Douglas, and Northbridge, on and after Aug. 1, crim., Blackstone, every Mon., Wed., and Frid., Uxbridge, every Tues., Thurs., and Sat., 9 A. M.; civil, at Blackstone, every Mon., at Uxbridge every Sat. For Milford, Mendon, and Upton, on and afte July 1, at Milford, crim., daily, civil, 1st and 3d Wed. of each month. For Worcester, Milbury, Sutton, Auburn, Leicester, Paxton, W. Boylston, Boylston, Holden, and Shrewsbury, on and after May 1, at Worcester, crim., daily, at 9 A.M., civil, every Sat For Northborough, Southborough, Westborough, and Grafton, on and after July 1, crim., Westborough, every Mon., Wed., and Frid., at Grafton, every Tues., Thur., and Sat., 9 A. M.; civil, at Westborough, every Mon., at Grafton, every Tues. For Ayer, Groton, Pepperell, Townsend, Ashby, Shirley, Westford, Littleton, and Boxborough, on and after July i, at Ayer, crim., daily, 9 A. M., civil, Ist Mon. of each month. For Randolph, Braintree, Cohasset, Weymouth, Quincy, and Holbrook, on and after June 1, at Quincy, crim., daily, 9 A. M., civil, every Monday
MUNICIPAL COURTs are held at Boston, crim , daily, 9 A. M., civil, every Sat.; Boston, Southern Dist. (Roxbury), crim., daily, 9 A. M., civil, every Sat.; Dorchester (Ward 16 of Boston), crim., daily, 9 d M., civil. every Saturday: at Worcester (until May 1), crim., daily, at 9 A. M., civil, every Sat : at Taunton, crim.: daily, at 9 A. M., civil, every Monday,
Police Courts are held daily at Cambridge, Charlestown, Chelsea, Chicopee, Fall River, Fitchburg Gloucester, Haverhill, Holyoke, Lawrence, Lee, Lowell, Lynn, Milford, New Bedford, Newburyport, Salem, Somerville, Springfield, and Williamstown. (Corrected 1872.)
4th Mon. of Oct. aunton, 2. Von, ni at New Bedford, 2
Boston, feini) y,
and Oct.; (eris h. t Barnstable, Tees April, and 21 Tees at Nantucket
, 15 at Edgartova, las civil) at Worceste? on, Dext after fi Mon, of Dee.; of June and Nor
Mon. of Jan., Mon. of Oct;
Compost for Grass Lands. The production of grass and hay is the great leading specialty of New England agriculture. Anything, therefore, which bids fair to increase this crop is worthy of the careful attention of every farmer. It is also conceded that, as a general rule, the farm cannot produce manure enough to continue and increase its fertility as long as we keep up the practice of selling milk and other produce, or hay, as is often the case, so that, where these sales take place, the farmer will be under the necessity of buying fertilizers to make yood the constant removal of the elements of fertility from the soil. We ought, therefore, to study the wants of plants, and to be able to supply them with the greatest economy.
Different plants require different elements, some requiring a food of one kind, and others of another. If we wish to raise a particular crop, no matter what, it is not good economy to apply those materials which, though they may be of the highest importance to some other crop, are quite useless for that. If we knew exactly the composition of every plant, we should know just what elements it required to meet its wants. We could then supply those elements, and produce that plant in the greatest abundance, giving it a strong and healthy growth, with out the cost of adding other, and, for that plant, quite useless elements, to remain in the soil for an indefinite length of time, with the loss of interest on the original cost of application, till a plant for which it was just adapted were put into that particular soil.
Now, a special manure for grass must consist of a mixture of elements. Grass requires nitrogen or ammonia to promote its growth, and it cannot succeed without it. But ammonia, if applied alone, is altogether too stimulating a fertilizer, and if applied alone, a comparatively small amount will be an overdose. It will cause a wonderful luxuriance of growth, with the richest deep-green color, but it will not be a healthy growth. It will possess the conditions of premature decay. Its quantity will be largely increased, but it will be at the expense of its quality. It will not produce the best and most nutritive food for stock. The extremely stimulating fertilizer used will have the same effect as a too stimulating diet for man, - give it a tendency to gout.
Grass requires, also, phosphoric acid almost as much as it does ammonia, but if this alone were applied, the result would be very similar to that from the application of ammonia. It would stimulate the plant to a certain extent, give it more of one kind of food than it actually needed, but it would not give it that strong and healthy growth which we want. Grass needs potash, also; and if it does not find it in the soil, it must be applied artificially, if we would produce a satisfactory growth. Neither one of these substances - ammonia, phosphoric acid, or potashwould constitute a good grass fertilizer in itself. It would be defective in certain essential constituents, and so would fail to give entire satisfaction,
A first rate special fertilizer for grass, therefore, must contain all these constituents in fair and requisite proportions. Other and less important elements in the composition of grass usually exist in the soil in sufficient abundance, but these must be artificially supplied in some form or other. Most stable or barnyard manures contain them in varying proportions, and such as contain them all in sufficient proportions may be regarded as almost perfect manures for grass lands; and if we could produce or obtain such manures in abundance, it would not be necessary to resort to the purchase of artificial compounds.
For the sources of supply of these great essential elements we must look to commerce. Nitrate of soda will furnish us with the ammonia. That is found in a crude state in vast quantities on a desert called Atcacama, in Chili and Peru; and as it comes in this form, it is known as “Chilian salt petre,” the common saltpetre being the nitr:te of potash. Phosphoric acid we can get from bones, or bone phosphates, or most commonly by the addition of superphosphates in the requisite proportions. The discovery of the phosphate beds of Charleston, S. C., are, therefore, regarded as invaluable to the interests of agriculture. These deposits are practically inexhaustible, and treated with sulphuric acid, they become soluble and available as a fertilizer. The potash is obtained most cheaply and easily from the great potash salt-beds of Stassfurth, in Germany, and is now being imported to a very large extent into this country.
Green Fodder Corn. Most farmers have now adopted the practice of raising a liberal supply of green corn to cut up for fodder during the usual drought of July and August. It is difficult to know what we should do without it, though some think that it is much less milk producing than millet. If there is any doubt on this point, it ought to be settled by practical experiment. Take, say half an acre – or if that is too much, a quarter of an acre- of each, and give them equal advantages as to land and manure, estimating the comparative cost of labor applied to each, and then feed out in the same way. It will be easy to see which produces the best result. The labor of raising the millet will probably be found to be less, and if the results are equal, it will decide the question in its favor. It is worth rying arefully, and we
Hungarian Grass. This is a variety of millet that was originally introduced into cultivation in France as early as 1815, and has since been introduced and cultivated in this country, where it is regarded as a very useful addition to our forage plants. Its value has been more fully appreciated within the last three or four years, on account of the severe droughts and the open and severe winters, which have greatly injured our mowing lands, killed out the trne grasses in many places, and reduced the yield very generally, making it necessary for farmers to adopt some plan, late in the season, to meet the exigency of a short crop of hay and high prices in prospect for a coming winter.
Hungarian grass, or as the French call it, Moha de Hongrie, or Hungarian millet, is the Panicum germanicum of Linnæus, and differs from common millet in appearance by having a close and upright head or panicle, while that of common millet is open and diffuse or spreading. It is thought to be more nutritive, also, while the yield is quite as abundant, and by many thought to be much more so.
Hungarian grass is an annual, and requires to be sowo every year. It is best adapted to light lands, and endures our droughts remarkably well. It should be sown late. The first of June is quite early enough, and it will do as well as late as the tenth, fifteenth, or twentieth of that month. This gives an opportunity to turn over any “bound-out” old sward land, or to use any piece of land that could not be planted with corn. It requires good corn weather and good corn land, and does not make much growth till the warm nights come. If sown early it will come up, but will not make any growth to speak of till the season is well advanced, and then it will grow with great rapidity, and may be cut in the milk in July or early in August, so that it occupies the land but a short time. If the land is ploughed early in spring, and allowed to lie a little while, the weeds will start, when a thorough harrowing, and cross harrowing occasionally, will destroy them. It operates as fallowing, and by repeated surface cultivation the soil is mellowed and the weeds destroyed. We have found the Shares or the Nishwitz harrow very excellent for this work. They do not tear up the old sod as much as the common tooth harrow. Upon sod land turned over in the fall or early spring we use the Shares harrow first, after the weed seed, if there is any in the land, has germinated. Then, a few days after, we harrow crosswise with the Nishwitz harrow. That has a series of sharp disks, that cut and chop up the weeds most admirably, leaving the ground mellow and in good tilth, without making the surface rough and unmanageable by turning up the sods.
It is easy to see what effect a repeated cultivation of this kind, which does not take much time or expense, has. It destroys the weeds. That is of great importance. It gives a mellow surface for a seed-bed, and the work comes after the planting season and the great hurry of spring work is over. If the manure has all been used up on the corn, potatoes, and roots, use some concentrated fertilizer that contains a Jenty of ammonia, phosphoric acid, and potash. Ward's special grass fertilizer gave excellent results last year, and we know of nothing better. Four hundred pounds per acre of this article ought to insure a satisfactory yield..
A half bushel per acre of Hungarian grass-seed is a heavy seeding. If it is all fresh and good, fourteen quarts is abundant, but we always make a little allowance for
poor seed and loss by birds, too deep covering, and other casualties. It is to be harrowed and brushed in just as is common with other grain crops or grass seed. The time to cut is soon after the blossom has passed, or when the seed is in the milk, and it is excellent feed for milch cowa and horses. It is good, also, to cut green, as fodder.
Improvement of Land. THE improvement of soils is to be effected chiefly by mechanical means, - by drainage, deep ploughing, clearing of rocks, and similar processes, - and by the application of the coarger, organic manures, like thore of the barnyard. The idea which some farmers have, that the application of artificial fertilizers may contribute to the permanent fertility of soils, even if they do not see the benefit of them in the weight of the crop to which they are applied, is undoubtedly fallacious. If the farmer does not get his money back in the increased weight of the crop, the first or the second year, he may as well make up his mind that he is 80 much out of pocket, and charge it off to profit and long. If such fertilizers are not immediately taken up and appropriated by the crop, they sink down into the subsoil, or go off in the drainage water, and are lost. They do not remain to add to the fertility of the soil. They are useful to promote the rapid growth of the present crop, but they must be applied often and with judgment, with å view to getting a return for them the first year.
Artificial fertilizers ought to contain ammonia in the form of nitric acid, nitrate of soda, or'some similar substance, but ammonia, after its application to the soil, undergoes rapid changes, and if it is not lost by washing into the subsoil, or by drainage, its fertilizing power may be lost or impaired. The object, therefore, in the use of these fertilizers, should be to benefit the present crop alone, and not to increase the permanent quality of the soil; and if the weight of the present erop is not increased to such an extent as to pay back the cost of the artiche, the application will never pay.