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roads. Without continual repairs there can be no constantly good road. Constant and intelligent supervision is the only true method, and it is the cheapest in the end. By the system of annual repairs, so common among us, or by semiannual attention, we have a good road at no time of the year. Every one knows that a road is wretched enough just after such repairs as are then needed, that it becomes a little better as it is used, and that it soon rapidly grows worse again, till it is as bad as before.
The best roads in ancient times were made with a surface as much like solid rock as possible. The great Chinese roads were made of large blocks of solid granite, laid ou the most solid foundations. McAdam invented the method of having no large stones at all in the road, but of having them all pounded into small angular fragments, and spread over the surface of the road-bed, and without rolling or the use of any binding material. That method, though quite popular at one time, has long since been superseded, having been proved to be inferior, though it is still often adopted and applied by incompetent road-makers.
To make a macadam road, the surface material is dumped directly on the ground, without preparing a solid foundation of rough stone. This cannot result in a good and lasting road. The Telford road, which is now admitted to be the best, is a modification of the macadam, by the addition of a solid foundation of stone, with macadam for the top surface, with sufficient gravel for binding, solidly rolled and compacted, and of sufficient inclination to secure effective drainage, which experience has shown to be 1 in 20 to 1 in 30 feet. Screened gravel is sometimes used for the macadam top or surface, in place of angular broken stone.
A good road has a hard and even surface, smooth enough to enable carriages to move with the greatest case, while giving a good foothold for the horse. The hardness should be sufficient to resist the pressure from the hoofs of animals and the wheels of loaded teams. It is free from mud during a wet season, and from dust during a dry one. Its drainage, therefore, should be perfect; and this is a point of fundamental importance. This is sometimes provided for by under-drains, often by side-drains, and by the roof or centre of the road, raised six inches, shedding the water each way. The lateral slopes from the centre should be planes, and never curves, as is commonly the case in country roads.
I have seen many a road completely ruined by scraping out the side ditches, and throwing the wash of the roads, the soil of loam and sand, into the centre of the drive-way. It is the most miserable, inefficient, and lazy way of attempting repairs. The first great rain either washes it back again, or turns it into mud, to annoy the passing traveller; while a drought grinds it down into the finest dust, which is equally offensive. Everything like loam or common earth, organic matter or sand, should be kept from the road bed.
A road thoroughly drained is comparatively dry at all seasons of the year, the wear of the surface is greatly diminished, and the cost of material for repairs reduced. The action of frost upon such a road is greatly diminished also, and the annual breaking up of the surface prevented.
The condition of our public roads was regarded as of so much importance, that the Massachusetts legislature of 1869 passed a resolve offering prizes for treatises upon this subject. This offer excited great competition, and three prizes were awarded, in 1870, for essays, which were printed, constituting a volume of over a hundred pages, and embodying a great variety of information upon the construc tion and repair of roads. They are worthy of the careful study of every tax-payer.
STATEMENT OF THE PUBLIC DEBT.
The following is the statement of the Public Debt, September 1, 1870.
HOUSE PLANTS IN WINTER.
Do not fail to have a few plants in your window in winter. They give beauty to the homeliest room, and pleasure and variety to the most monotonous life. They need sunshine and tolerably pure air, however; and if you and your children manage to live without these, you may be sure that your plants cannot. But air which poisons plants is not fit for human beings to breathe. Prepare and mix your soil in the fall, if you have not done so before. Take the leaf-mould from a wood, if you can get it, and mix it with dust from the road, half and half, and add a little scrubbing sand. If you cannot obtain leaf-mould, take three parts of garden-mould, add one part of thoroughly rotted manure, and one part of sand. Pulverize finely and mix well. An old wooden box does very well instead of using several flower pots. A strawberry-box, half of a cocoa-nut shell, a small wooden kitchen-bowl, perforated for cords, make excellent hanging baskets. A few cents' worth of flower-seeds will produce many flowers. They generally cost five cents a packet. Mignonette is valuable for its perfume. Morning-glories and Nasturtiums generally thrive and flower well in the house. Almost any one could obtain slips of Geranium or Verbena from some friend. Give plenty of sunshine, but not hot enough to wilt the plants. They sometimes need to be shaded at noon. It is best to water in the morning; not a little every day; but thoroughly whenever the surface of the earth is quite dry. The leaves should be well showered every week, to remove dust and insects.
Scouring.-In scouring knives, dip the cork in soft soap instead of water and it will take out black spots. A small potato, with one end cut off, is better than a cork to use with brick-dust. COAL-ASHES are good to scour with. WOODASHES scour soap-stone nicely. HARD COAL-ASHES remove very black spots from paint and plaster. WHITING applied with a damp piece of flannel will instantly remove finger-marks from paint. SALT rubbed on silver removes egg
stains. DISH-WATER or MILK AND WATER is said to clean a stove better than clear water.
Kerosene Oil is said to destroy bed-bugs.
To Remove Ink Stains from White Cotton.-Put some Cream of Tartar on each spot, and tie it up with a thread; put it in a saucepan of cold water over the fire, and let it boil.
A Cooling Application for Headache or Feverishness.-Put a teaspoonful of Saleratus or Cooking Soda into a pint of warm water, and bathe with it. It takes paint from tin or wood, and must not be poured into a painted sloppail. It also stains straw carpets; so that it must be used with some care.
For Sore Throat.-Take a teaspoonful of powdered Chlorate of Potash, mix it with an equal quantity of sugar. Take a little at a time, and let it dissolve slowly in the mouth. This can be taken in the course of the day, by a grown person; and a child three years old can take nearly as much safely. A teaspoonful of Chlorate of Potash alone, dissolved in a pint of water, makes an excellent gargle.
Wash Hair Brushes with a teaspoonful or more of powdered borax dissolved in a pint of warm water, or with saleratus and water.
A little Vinegar added to the water in which meat is stewed makes the meat more tender.
Rye Cup-Cakes.-Very good and wholesome for tea or breakfast. Take about an equal quantity of wheat flour and rye meal, a little salt, four eggs. Mix with milk, making a batter as thick as batter pudding. Bake for fifteen minutes in a slow oven, and then increase the fire. This makes about fifteen cakes baked in cups. Olive Oil, commonly called sweet oil, is often useful in a family. A teaspoonful or two given to a child who has a cold, at bed-time, will soothe the irritation, and quiet coughing. A little oil rubbed on the chest relieves the breathing, when the lungs are oppressed. It can be rubbed over the bridge of a baby's nose, when it is stuffed, and greatly helps the breathing. A few drops, applied with a feather at the hinges, stops the creaking of a door. It must be remembered, however, that it is liable to stain clothing and straw carpets.
CARRIAGE FARES IN BOSTON.
FOR one adult, from one place to another within the city proper (except as hereinafter provided), 50 cents. Each additional adult, 50 cents.
For one adult from any place in the city proper, south of Dover street and west of Berkeley street, to any place north of State, Court, and Cambridge streets, or from any place north of State, Court, and Cambridge streets to any place south of Dover street and west of Berkeley street, One Dollar. For two or more adults, 50 cents each.
Children under four years, with an adult, no charge.
Children between four and twelve years old, with an adult, 25 cents each. From twelve at night to six in the morning the fare for one adult is double
ONE pleasant winter afternoon Mrs. Brown went to make a call on her neighbor, Mrs. Frost. She was received with a hearty welcome, and urged to take off her cloak, and stay to tea; to which she consented.
"Well, now," said her hostess, "do tell me how you all are at home this winter. It seems a long time since I have known anything about you."
"O, dear!" said Mrs. Brown. "It's first one and then another. We've all had dreadful colds, and the baby has been very sick with croup, and the children are always having headaches, or something, to keep them from school. I'm almost discouraged. The work of the house is hard enough, and when sickness comes, it
makes it ten times worse."
"I'm sorry to hear so poor an account of your family," said Mrs. Frost. "If I wasn't afraid of seeming like interfering, I should like to make a few suggestions to you."
O, say what you like. I know you mean it all in kindness," replied her friend. Well, to begin with the baby. If I were you, I shouldn't let him go with bare neck and arms at any season, and least of all in winter. You wouldn't feel comfortable yourself, so thinly dressed, and he is more tender than a grown person. I should let him wear woollen dresses made high in the neck and long in the sleeves. I have heard that it is a great preventive of croup and lung fever, and it might be the means of saving his life. Then I should manage differently about his food, and I think he would be stronger and rosier. He is under a year and a half old, but you let him eat anything that is on the table- hot griddle-cakes, baked beans, or doughnuts. If you go on as you are doing, his poor little stomach will be worn out before he has cut all his teeth. Give him plain, wholesome food, like mealy potatoes, oatmeal porridge, bread and milk, or something similar. Let bim have his regular meals, and never let him nibble at luncheon, between meals. Put him to bed early. If you let him sit up till nine o'clock, even if he does frolic and seem to enjoy it, it will be likely to make him nervous and miserable. Never give him candy. It can do him no good, and is very likely to do him harm.
"Then there are Mary and Frank, about seven and ten years old. Do make up your mind to stop giving them pies and cake. Their headaches come from their eating indigestible food, I believe; and they will grow sicklier every year that they continue to do so. Don't give them hot bread, rich puddings, or tea and coffee. If they are hungry between breakfast and dinner, give them a slice of bread at least a day old, without butter or any other relish, except, perhaps, an apple or two. If they are really hungry, they will eat it with enjoyment, and if they are not, they can wait till the next meal time. Depend upon it, their appetites will improve. Never put mince-pie or doughnuts into their baskets. I think that one reason why you are always having colds at your house is, because you keep your sitting-room so hot and close. An air-tight stove in a room with no fresh air coming into it, soon spoils the air, and turns it to poison. You become over-heated without knowing it, and are chilled the moment you go to a cooler place. If you must use a stove, and cannot manage to have an open fire, contrive to have one of your windows let down from the top a little. Half an inch will improve the air very much, and will not make you take cold. I suppose you will think I am very notional, but I believe that these little things make a great difference in the health of a family. So I hope you will excuse my freedom in speaking so plainly." "O, yes,' " said Mrs. Brown. “I thank you kindly; and I shall try to practise some of what you have told me."
The Tides given in the Calendar pages are for the Port of Boston. The following_table contains the approximate difference between the time of High Water at Boston and several other places. The reader is warned that this table will not always give the exact time of the tide, as the difference varies from day to day. It is hoped, however, it will be near enough to be useful. The difference is to be added to, or substracted from, the time as given in the Calendar pages.
h.m. sub 0 19
66 0 14
Sandy Hook, N.Y. sub 3 58 Philadelphia, Pa. add 2 17
3 14 Baltimore, Md.
0 25 Washington, D. C.
Beaufort, Ñ. C.
sub 4 01
66 0 11
Charleston, S. C.
66 3 14
POST-OFFICE REGULATIONS. (Corrected Sept. 1870.)
Domestic Letters. -The rate of postage on all domestic letters not exceeding one half oz. is 3 cts.; and for each half oz., or fraction thereof, of additional weight, an additional rate of 3 cts., to be in all cases prepaid by postage stamps. DROP or LOCAL LETTERS, 2 cts. per half oz., at offices where free delivery by carrier is established; at other offices 1 ct., prepaid by stamps. IRREGULAR MATTER.-Letter rates are to be charged on irregular matter, part writing and part print, except that publishers may send and receive proof-sheets, and advise patrons, by writing on publications, when their subscription is up, at printed matter rates. On unclassified matter, where no specific rate is set down, letter postage is charged. Letters not finding owners at the office named, must be forwarded, when the place is known, free. CIRCULARS. One, two, or three circulars in an unsealed envelope, 2 cts.
Foreign Letters (except to England and Ireland) should indicate on the outside the route by which they are to be sent, as the difference by various routes is great. The rate given is for 1⁄2 oz. or under, unless otherwise stated. A star (*) against the rate denotes that prepayment is optional, except for registered letters; where there is no star the postage must be prepaid. Great Britain and Ireland, *6c. France, including Algeria, via England, *4c.; by direct steamer, 10c. Belgium, *10c.; via Bremen and Hamburg, *12c. Holland, *10c. Spain and Portugal, via England, 4 oz. or less, 16c.; 1⁄2 oz. or less, 28c. Italy, via N. Ger. Un. direct, *11c.; via N. Ger. Un. closed mail, via England, *14c.; closed mail, *10c. Prussia, Austria, and German States, via N. Ger. Un. direct, *7c.; via N. Ger. Un. closed mail, via England, *10. Switzerland, via N. Ger. Un. direct, *12c.; via N. Ger. Un. closed mail, via England, *15c.; closed mail, *10c. Norway, via N. Ger. Un. direct, prepaid, 12c., unpaid, *15c.; via N. Ger. Un. closed mail, via England, prepaid, 15c., unpaid, *18c. Denmark, via N. Ger. Un. direct, prepaid, 10c., unpaid, *13c.; via N. Ger. Un. closed mail, via England, prepaid, 13c., unpaid, *16c. Sweden, via N. Ger. Un. direct, prepaid, 11c., unpaid, *13c.; via N. Ger. Un. closed mail, via England, prepaid, 14c., unpaid, *16c. Russia, via N. Ger. Un. direct, prepaid, 12c., unpaid, *15c.; via N. Ger. Un. closed mail, via England, prepaid, 15c., unpaid, *18c. Greece, via N. Ger. Un. direct, *15c.; via N. Ger. Un. closed mail, vía England, *18c.; via England, *20c. Constantinople, via N. Ger. Un. direct, *12c.; via N. Ger. Un. closed mail, via England, *15c.; via England, not more than 4 oz., 16c., not more than oz., 28c. CANADA, including New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, 6c., if prepaid; 10c., if not prepaid. Newfoundland, 10c., (15c. if over 3000 miles). Cuba, Bermuda, Mexico, Panama, Aspinwall, 10c.' Brazil, by American packet, 10c.; via England, 28c. Sandwich Islands, 6c.
EAST INDIES, by British mail via Southampton, 22c.; British mail via Marseilles, 30c.; via N. Ger. Un. direct, 24c.; via N. Ger. Un. closed mail, via England, 27c.; via San Francisco, *10c. Australia, British mail, via Southampton, 16c.; British mail via Marseilles, 24c., via San Francisco, 10c. China [except Amoy, Canton, Foochow, Hong Kong, Swatow], via San Francisco, 10c.; do., except Hong Kong, British mail, via Southampton, 28c.; via Marseilles, 36c.; do., via N. Ger. Un. direct, 24c.; via N. Ger. Un. closed mail via England, 27c.
Newspapers, Magazines, &c. - Newspaper, or second-class postage, is, for papers not over four ounces each, per quarter, once a week, 5 cts.; twice, 10 cts.; three times, 15 cts.; six times, 30 cts.; seven times, 35 cts.; paid quarterly or yearly in advance, either at the mailing office, or office of delivery. Publishers of weekly newspapers may send to actual subscribers one copy only, within their county, free. On newspapers and periodicals issued less often than once a week, one cent for four ounces to actual subscribers. Special bargains may be made by the PostmasterGeneral for transporting packages of newspapers, &c. Publishers must be notified when papers are not taken out for one month, which notice may be sent free. BILLS AND RECEIPTS for subscriptions may be enclosed in papers, and go free; any other written enclosure imposes letter postage. Publishers may exchange papers and periodicals, one copy only, free, not exceeding sixteen ounces in weight.
Books- - Not over 4 oz. in weight, 4 cts.; between 4 and 8 oz., 8 cts.; between 8 and 12 oz., 12 cts.; &c., up to 4 lbs., prepaid,
Miscellaneous - Including pamphlets, occasional publications, transient newspapers, handbills and posters, book manuscripts and proof-sheets, whether corrected or not, maps, prints, engravings, sheet music, blanks, flexible patterns, sample cards, phonographic paper, letter envelopes, postal envelopes or wrappers, cards, paper, plain or ornamental, photographs, seeds, cuttings, bulbs, roots, and scions, packages not over 4 oz. in weight, 2 cents; over 4 oz. and not over 8 oz. 4 cts.; over 8 oz. and not over 12 oz., 6 cts.; over 12 oz. and not over 16 oz., 8 cts. and so on, up to 4 lbs. weight (except seeds, cuttings, roots, and scions, the weight of which is limited to 32 oz.), all prepaid. All matter not above specified is charged at letter postage.
Money Orders - For any amount not exceeding $50 on one order, are issued in the principal offices, on payment of the following fees: Orders not exceeding $20, 10 cts.; over $20 and not exceeding $30, 15 cts.; over $30 and not exceeding