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SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES.
At Washington, to commence on the first Monday in December annually.
The Supreme Court of the United States consists of one Chief and eight Associate Justices. There are nine judicial circuits, and to each of these is assigned one of the justices. By a law passed in 1869, there are also nine Circuit Judges, each of whom is to reside in his Circuit, The Circuits and Justices are as follows:
First Circuit (Maine, N. H., Mass., B. I.), Nathan Clifford, of Portland, Me., Asso. Justice. Second (Vt., Conn., N. Y.), Samuel Nelson, of Cooperstown, N. Y., As. J. Third (Penn., N. J., Del), Wm. Strong, of Philadelphia, Pa., As. J. Fourth (Md., Va., W. Va., N. C., S. C.), Salmon P. Chase, of Cincinnati, O., Chief Justice. Fifth (Geo., Fla., Ala., Miss., La., Tex.), Joseph P. Bradley, of Newark, N. J.. As. J. Sixth (Ohio, Mich., Ken., Tenn.), Noah H. Swayne, of Columbus. O., As. J. Seventh (Ind., Ill., Wis.), David Davis, of Bloomington, Ill., As. J. Eighth (Min., Iowa, Mo., Kan., Ark.), Samuel F. Miller, of Keokuk, Iowa, As. J. Ninth (Cal., Oregon, Nev.), Stephen J. Field, of San Francisco, Cal., As. J.
UNITED STATES CIRCUIT COURTS IN IN MAINBTHE FIRST AND SECOND EASTERN CIRCUITS. IN MAINE-at Portland, 23d Apr. and 23d Sept. In N. HAMPSHIRE at Portsmouth, May 8, and at Exeter, Oct. 8. In MASSACHUSETTS-at Boston, May 15 and Oct. 15. In CONNECTICUT-at N. Haven, 4th Tues. in Apr., and at Hartford, 3d Tues. in Sept. In RHODE ISLAND-at Providence, June 15, and Nov. 15. In VERMONT-at Windsor, 4th Tu. in July, at Rutland Oct. 3d., and at Burlington, 4th Tues. in Feb.
If the days happen on Sunday the Court comes in the Monday following. UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURTS.
at Portland, 1st Tues. in Feb.
COURTS IN THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT.
SUPREME COURTS.-1st District (Hart- bury, 1st Tu. June, 4th Tu. Aug., and ford and Tolland Cos.)-4th Tu. in Feb., 3d Tu. in Oct.; at Brooklyn, 1st Tues. in and 2d Tues. in Sept. 2d District (New Jan., 3d Tues. in Apr., 4th Tues. in Aug., Haven and Middlesex Cos.)-2d Tues. in 1st Tues. in Nov.; at Litchfield, 4th Tu. Feb., and 4th Tues. in Sept. 3d District in Jan., 2d Tues. in April, 3d Tues. in (N. London and Windham Cos.)-2d Tu. Sept., and 1st Tues. in Nov.; at Middlein March, and 4th Tues. in Oct. 4th town, 1st Tues. in Feb., and 1st Tues, in District (Litchfield and Fairfield Cos.). Dec.; at Haddam, 2d Tues. in April, and At Bridgeport, 1st Tues. in Feb. and 2d 2d Tues. in Oct.; at Tolland, 1st Tues. in Tu. in Oct.; at Litchfield, 2d Tu. in Aug. Feb., 2d Tues. in April, 1st Tu. in Sept., The place where each term of the and 1st Tues. in Dec.; at Bridgeport, 3d Court shall be held, in each judicial dis- Tues. in Feb., 1st Tues. in Mar., 4th Tu. trict, is designated by the chief judge. in Aug., 3d Tú. in Oct., and 3d Tu. in Dec.
SUPERIOR COURTS.- At Hartford, 2d COURTS OF COMMON PLEAS, at HartTues. in March, 3d Tues. in July, 4th ford and New Haven, 1st Mon. in each Tues. in Sept., and 3d Tues. in Dec. month except July and Aug. Fairfield At New Haven, 1st Tues. in March, 2d Co.-At Bridgeport, 1st Mon. Mar., June, Tues. in May, 1st Tues. in Sept., 2d Sept., Nov., and Dec., and 1st Tu. April; Tues. in Oct., and 3d Tues. in Dec. At at Danbury, 1st Mon. Jan., Feb., May, Norwich, last Tues. in March, and 3d and Oct. New London Co.-N. London, Tues. in Nov. At New London, 3d Tues. 1st Mo. Sept., Nov., Jan., Mar., and May; in Jan. and 2d Tues. in Sept; at Dan-Norwich, 1st Mo.Oct., Dec., Feb.Ap. June.
COURTS IN THE STATE OF VERMONT.
SUPREME COURTS.- Middlebury, 1st COUNTY COURTS. Middlebury, 1st Mon. after 3d Tues. in Jan. Rutland, 1st Tues. in June, and 2d in Dec. Rutland, 2d Mon. after 4th Tues. Jan. Manchester Tues. in Mar. and Sept. Manchester, 1st and Bennington, alternately, 2d Tues. aftr Tucs. in June, and Bennington, 1st Tues. 4th Tues. in Jan. Newfane, Mon. follow- in Dec. Newfane, 2d Tues. in April and ing 2d Tues. aft. 4th Tues. in Jan. Wood- Sept. Woodstock, 4th Tues. in May, and stock, 1st Thurs. aft. 4th Tu. next aft. 4th 1st in Dec. Chelsea, 1st Tu. in June, and Tu. in Jan. Chelsea, 6th Tu. aft. 4th Tu. 3d in Dec. Burlington, 1st Tues. in April, in Jan. Burlington, 1st Tu. in Jan. St. and 4th in Sept. St. Albans, 2d Tues. in Albans, 1st Mon. aft. 2d Tu.in Jan. North April and Sept. North Hero, last Tues. in Hero, 1st Fri. aft. 3d Tues. in Jan. Hyde Feb. and Aug. Hyde Park, 4th Tues. in Park, 3d Tues. in Aug. Montpelier, 2d May, and 1st in Dec. Montpelier, 2d Tues. in Aug. Irasburg, 1st Thurs. next Tues. in Mar. and Sept. Irasburg, last aft. 3d Tues. in Aug. St. Johnsbury, 1st Tues. in Feb. and 1st Tues. in Oct. St. Thurs. next aft. 4th Tues. in Aug. Guild- Johnsbury, 1st Tues. in June and Dec. hall, 4th Tues. in Aug. Guildhall, 3d Tu. in Sept. and 2d in Mar.
COURTS IN THE STATE OF NEW HAMPSHIRE.
SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT. LAW TERMS.-The Supreme Judicial Court shall hold terms thereof, to be called Law Terms, annually, within the four Judicial Districts, at the times and places following: Exeter, 3d Tues. of June, and Dover, 3d Tues. of Dec., for the counties of RockIngham, Strafford, and Carroll: at Manchester, 1st Tues. of June, and Concord, 1st Tues. of Dec., for the counties of Merrimack, Hillsborough, and Belknap; at Keene, 2d Tues. of Dec., and Newport, 4th Tues. of June, for the counties of Cheshire and Sullivan; at Lancaster, 2d Tues. of July, and Haverhill, 2d Tues. of Jan., for counties of Grafton and Coös. SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT. TRIAL TERMS.-At Portsmouth, 3d Tues. of Oct., and Exeter, 3d Tues. of January and 2d Tu. of April, for Co. of Rockingham. At Dover, 2d Tues. of Feb., and 1st Tues. of Sept., for Co. of Strafford. At Gilford, 4th Tues. of Mar., and the 4th Tues. of Sept., for the Co. of Belknap. At Ossipee, 3d Tu. Ap. and Oct. for Co. of Carroll. At Concord, 1st Tues. of Oct., and 1st Tues. of April, for Co. of Merrimack. At Amherst, 1st Tues. of May, at Manchester, 1st Tues. of Jan., and at Nashua, 1st Tues. of Sept., for Co. of Hillsborough. At Keene, 1st Tues. of April and 3d Tues. of Oct., for Co. of Cheshire. At Newport, 4th Tues. of Jan. and 1st Tues. of Sept., for Co. Sullivan. At Haverhill, 3d Tues. of Mar. and 3d Tues.of Sept., for the West. Jud. Dist., and at Plymouth, 1st Tues. of May and Nov. for the Eastern Jud. Dist., Grafton Co. At Colebrook, 1st Tu. of Feb. and 3d Tu. of Aug., for North. Jud. Dist. of Coos. At Lancaster, 4th Tu. of Apr. and 1st Tu. of Nov. for South. Jud. Dist. of Coös.
PROBATE COURTS. ROCKINGHAM Co.: Exeter, Wed. next aft. 1st Tues. of Apr., Wed. next aft. 3d Tues. of Feb. and Mar., and Wed. next aft. 2d Tues. of each other
month. Portsmouth, 1st Tu. Nov., Sd Tu. March, and 2d Tu. Jan., May, July, and Sept. Kingston, 1st Tues. Aug. and Dec., and 3d Tues. May. Derry, Wed. after 1st Tues. Aug. and Dec., and Wed. after 3d Tues. May. Chester, Thurs. after 1st Tu. of Aug. and Dec., and Thurs. after 3d Tu. of May. Deerfield, Frid. after 1st Tues. of Aug. and Dec., and Frid. after 3d Tues. of May.- STRAFFORD Co.: Dover, 1st Tu. of Jan., Mar., May, Aug. and Oct. Rochester, 1st Tues. of July and Dec. Farmington, 1st Tues. of Apr. and Sept. Somersworth, 1st Tu. of Feb., June and Nov. -BELKNAP Co.: Gilford, 3d Tues. of every month. - CARROLL Co.: Ossipee Corner, 1st Tues. of Mar., June, Sept. and Dec. Conway, 1st Tu. of Jan., Ap., July and Oct. Tamworth, 1st Tu. of Feb., May, Aug. and Nov.- MERRIMACK CO.: Concord, 4th Tues. of every month. HILLSBOROUGH CO.: Manchester, 4th Tu. of Jan., Mar., May, July, Sept. and Nov. Nashua, 4th Tues. of Feb., April, June, Aug., Oct. and Dec. Hillsboro' Bridge, Frid. after 4th Tues. Jan. Francestown, Frid. after 4th Tues. April, July and Oct. Amherst, Frid. aft. 4th Tues. Feb., June, Sept. and Dec. Peterborough, Frid. aft. 4th Tu. of May and Aug. Mason Village, Frid. after 4th Tues. of March and Nov.
CHESHIRE CO.: Keene, 1st and 3d Tu. every month.-SULLIVAN CO.: Newport, last Wed. of Feb., April, June, Aug., Oct. and Dec. Claremont, last Wed. of Jan., Mar., May, July, Sept. and Nov.- GRAF TON Co.: Lisbon, 3d Tues. of Ap. and Oct. Plymouth, 1st Tu. of May and Nov. Canaan, 3d Tu. of June and Dec. Haverhill, 3d Tu. March and Sept. Bristol, 3d Tu. July. Littleton, 3d Tu. Jan. Wentworth, 3d Tu. Feb. and Aug. Lebanon, 1st Tues. March and Sept.-Coos Co.: Colebrook, 1st Tues. of Feb. and Sept. Lancaster, 1st Tues. of Jan., March, May, July, and Nov.
COURTS IN THE STATE OF MAINE.
SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT. LAW TERMS.-Augusta, 4th Tues. May. Portland, 3d Tu. July. Bangor, 3d Tu. June.
SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT. CIVIL AND CRIMINAL ACTIONS.-Androscoggin Co., Auburn, 3d Tu. Jan., Ap.,and Sep. Aroostook Co., Houlton, last Tu. Feb., 3d Tu. Sep. Cumb. Co., Civil only, Portland, 2d Tu. Jan., Apr., and Oct. Franklin Co., at Farmington, 1st Tu. Mar.and 4th Tu.Sept. Hancock Co., at Ellsworth, 2d Tu. Ap.and Oct. Kennebec Co., at Augusta, 1st Tu. Mar., 1st Tu. Aug., 3d Tu. Oct. Knox Co., at Rockland, 2d Tu. Mar. and Dec., 3d Tu. Sept. Lincoln Co., at Wiscasset, 4th Tu. Ap., 4th Tu. Oct. Oxford Co., at Paris, 2d Tu. Mar., 3d Tu. Sept., and 1st Tu. Dec. Penobscot Co., at Bangor, Civil Actions, 1st Tues. Jan. and Apr., and ist Tues. Oct.; Criminal Actions, 1st Tues. Feband 2d Tu. Aug. Piscataquis Co., at Do
ver, last Tu. Feb. and 2d Tu. Sept. Sagadahoc Co., at Bath, 1st Tu. Ap. and 3d Tu. Aug. and Dec. (Dec. term for Civil Actions only.) Somerset Co., at Norridgewock, 3d Tu. Mar., Sept., and Dec. Waldo Co., at Belfast, 1st Tu. Jan., and 3d Tu. in Ap. and Oct. Washington Co., at Machias, 1st Tues. of Jan. and 1st Tues. of Oct.; and at Calais, 4th Tu. Ap. York Co., Saco, 1st Tu. Jan.; Alfred, 3d Tu. May, and 3d Tu. Sept.
THE SUPERIOR COURT FOR CUMBERLAND COUNTY has exclusive jurisdiction in civil actions from $20 to $500, and concurrent jurisdiction with 8. J. Court in actions exceeding $500, and criminal jurisdiction in all actions. Court sits for trial of civil actions exclusively, 1st Tu. of Feb. Mar. Apr., Oct., Nov., and Dec.; and for civil and criminal cases, 1st Tues. of Jan., May, and September.
COURTS IN THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND.
SUPREME COURT.-At Newport, 3d
COURT OF COMMON PLEAS.-At Newport, 3d Mon. in May and Nov. Providence, 1st Mon. in Mar., June, Sept., and Dec. (Mar. and Sept. terms are for criminal business only). So. Kingston, 2d Mon. in May, and 1st Mon. in Nov. Bristol, 1st Mon. in May, and last Mon. in Oct. E. Greenwich, 2d Mon. in April and Oct.
SUPREME JUD. AND SUPERIOR COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS. (CORRECTED 1870.)
SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT OF MASS. SUPERIOR COURT OF MASSACHUSETTS.— JURY TERMS.-For Barnstable and Dukes For Essex Co., (civil)_at Salem, 1st Mon. Counties, at Barnstable, 1st Tuesday of of June and Dec., at Lawrence, 1st Mon. May. For Berkshire Co., at Pittsfield, 2d of March, and at Newburyport, 1st Mon. Tues. of May. For Bristol Co., at New of Sept.; (crim.) at Lawrence, 1st Mon. Bedford, 2d Tues. of Nov.; also at Taun- of Oct., at Newburyport, 2d Mon. of May, ton, 3d Tues. of April. For Essex Co., at and at Salem, 4th Mon. of Jan. Salem, 3d Tu. of April and 1st Tu. Nov. For Middlesex Co., (civil) at Lowell, 2d For Franklin Co., at Greenfield, 2d Tu. of Mon. of March, and 1st Mon. of Sept.; April. For Hampden Co., at Springfield, at Cambridge, 1st Mon. of June, and 2d 4th Tues. of April. For Hampshire Co., Mon. of Dec.; (crim.) at Cambridge, 2d at Northampton, 3d Tues. of April. For Mon. of Feb., and 4th Mon. of June; and Middlesex Co., at Lowell, 3d Tues. of at Lowell, 3d Mon. of Oct. April; also at Cambridge, 3d Tues. of For Hampshire Co., at Northampton, Oct. For Nantucket Co., at Nantucket, (civil) 3d Mon. of Feb., 1st Mon. of June, 1st Tues. of July. For Norfolk Co., at and 3d Mon. of Oct.; (crim.) 2d Mon. of Dedham, 3d Tues. of Feb. For Plymouth June, and 3d Mon. of Dec.
Co., at Plymouth, 2d Tues. of May. For For Franklin Co., at Greenfield, 3d Mon. Suffolk Co., at Boston, 1st Tues. of Oct. of March, and 2d Mon. of Aug. and Nov. and April. For Worcester Co., at Worcester, 2d Tues, of April.
For Hampden Co., at Springfield, (civil) 2d Mon. of March and June, and 4th Mon. of Oct.; (crim.) 3d Mon. of May, and 1st
LAW TERMS OF SUPREME JUDICIAL Mon. of Dec. COURT OF MASSACHUSETTS.-A law term! For Berkshire Co., at Pittsfield, (civil) of the Supreme Judicial Court shall be 4th Mou. of Feb., June, and Oct.; (crim.) held at Boston on the first Wednesday of 1st Mon. of Jan. and July. January of each year, which term may be For Norfolk Co., at Dedham, (civil) 4th adjourned, from time to time, to places and Mon. in Apr., Sept., and Dec.; (crim.) times most conducive to the despatch of 1st Mon. in Apr., Sept., and Dec. business and the interests of the public; For Plymouth Co.,at Plymouth, 2d Mon. and there shall be entered and determined of Feb. and June, and 4th Mon. of Oct. therein questions of law arising in the For Bristol Co., at Taunton, 2d Mon. of counties of Barnstable, Dukes County, March and Sept., and at New Bedford, 2d Middlesex, Nantucket, Norfolk, and Suf- Mon. of June and Dec. folk; and also all questions of law arising For Suffolk Co., at Boston, (civil) 1st in other counties where special provisions Tues. of Jan., Ap'l, July, and Oct.; (crim.) are not made therefor. 1st Mon. of every month.
And law terms of said court shall also annually be held as follows:
At Salem, for Essex Co., 1st Tu. of Nov. At Pittsfield, for Berkshire Co., 2d Tues. of September.
At Springfield, for Hampden Co., 3d Mon. after 1st Tues. of Sept.
At Greenfield, for Hampshire and Franklin Cos., Mon. next after 2d Tues. of Sept. At Worcester, for Worcester Co., 4th Tucs, after 1st Tues. of Sept.
At Plymouth, for Plymouth Co., 3d Tu. of Oct.
At Taunton, for Bristol Co., 4th Tu. Oct.
For Barnstable Co., at Barnstable, Tues. next after 1st Mon. of April, and 2d Tues. of Oct.
For Nantucket Co., at Nantucket, 1st Mon. of June and Oct.
For Dukes County, at Edgartown, last Mon. of May and Sept.
For Worcester Co., (civil) at Worcester, 1st Mon. of March, Mon. next after 4th Mon. of Aug., and 2d Mon. of Dec.; and at Fitchburg, 2d Mon. of June and Nov.; (crim.) at Worcester, 3d Mon. of Jan., 2d Mon. of May, and 3d Mon. of Oct.; and at Fitchburg, 2d Mon. of Aug.
COURTS OF INSOLVENCY IN MASSACHUSETTS.
There is in each county a Court of Insolvency, held by the same judge as the Probate Court, at such times and places as the judge appoints.
While the Bankrupt Law of the United States is in force, the Insolvency Law is suspended as to new cases, but not as to those previously commenced.
PROBATE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS. (Corrected 1870.)
COUNTY OF SUFFOLK. At Boston, every Mon. in each month, except July. COUNTY OF ESSEX.-At Salem, 1st Tu. of each month; at Lawrence, 2d Tu. each month, except April, May, July, Aug., and Oct.; at Gloucester, 2d Tu. Apr. and Oct.; at Newburyport, 3d Tu. each month, except March, May, Aug., Sept., and Nov.; at Haverhill, 3d Tu. May and Nov.; at Ipswich, 3d Tu. March and Sept.
COUNTY OF MIDDLESEX.-At Cambridge, 1st, 2d, and 4th Tu. each month, except Aug.; at Lowell, 3d Tu. of Jan., March, May, July, Sept., and Nov.
COUNTY OF WORCESTER. At Worcester, 1st and 3d Tues. of every month except Aug.; at Fitchburg, 4th Tues. of April and Sept.; at Milford, 2d Tues. of April and Sept.; at Templeton, 2d Tues. of May and Oct.; and at Barre, Wed. next after 2d Tues. of May and Oct. COUNTY OF HAMPSHIRE. At Northampton, 1st Tues. of every month; at Amherst, 2d Tues. of Jan. and Aug.; at Belchertown, 2d Tues. of May and Oct.; and at Williamsburg, 3d Tu. May and Oct. COUNTY OF HAMPDEN. At Springfield, 1st Tu.Jan., Feb., March, April,May, June, July, Sept., Nov., and Dec.; at Westfield, 3d Tu. March, June, Sept., and Dec.; at Monson, on the 2d Tu. June; and at Palmer, on the 2d Tu. Sept.
COUNTY OF FRANKLIN.-At Greenfield, 1st Tues. of every month except Nov.; at Northfield, 2d Tu. May and Sept.; at Orange, 2d Tu. March and Dec., and 3d Tu. June; at Conway, 3d Tu. May; at Shelburne Falls, 4th Tu. May, 2d Tu. Feb., and 4th Tu. Oct.
COUNTY OF BRISTOL.-At Taunton, 1st Frid. of March, June, Sept., and Dec.; at New Bedford, 1st Frid. of Feb., May, Aug., and Nov.; at Fall River, 1st Frid. of Jan., April, and Oct., and 2d Frid. of July. COUNTY OF NANTUCKET. At Nantucket, on the Thurs. next after the 2d Tues. of every month.
COUNTY OF BERKSHIRE.-At Pittsfield, 1st Tues. of Jan., Feb., March, April, May, June, Sept., Oct., and Dec., 3d Tues. of July, and Wed. next after 1st Mon. of Nov.; at Lee, Wed. next after 1st Tues. of Jan. Apl., and Oct., and Wed. next after 3d Tues. in July; at Adams, Thurs. next after 1st Tues. in Jan. Apr., and Oct., and Thurs. next after 3d Tues. in July; at Great Barrington, Wed. next after 1st Tu. in Feb., May, Sept., and Dec.
COUNTY OF PLYMOUTH.-At Plymouth, 2d Mon. of every month, except July and Aug.; at Wareham, 4th Mon. of Oct.; at East Bridgewater, 4th Mon. of Feb. and Dec.; at Hingham, 4th Mon. of March; at Middleboro', 4th Mon. of April and Jan., and 2d Mon. of July; at Abington, 4th Mon. of May, Aug., and Nov.; at Hanover, 4th Mon. of June; at Bridgewater, 4th Mon. of Sept.; at North Bridgewater, 3d Mon. of April and Oct.
COUNTY OF BARNSTABLE.-At Barnstable, 2d Tu. Jan., Feb., Mar., Aug., Sept., and Dec., and 3d Tu. of Apr. and June; at Harwich, 2d Mon. after 1st Tu. of May, and Mon. after 3d Tu. of Oct.; at Orleans, 3d Tu. of May and 4th Tu. of Oct.; at Wellfleet, Wed. next after 3d Tu. of May, and Wed' next after 4th Tu. of Oct.; at Provincetown, Thur. next after 3d Tu. of May, and Thur. next after 4th Tu. of Oct.; and at Falmouth, 3d Tu. of Nov.
COUNTY OF NORFOLK.-At Dedham, 1st and 3d Wed., Quincy, 2d Wed., Hyde Park, 4th Wed. every month except Aug.
DUKES COUNTY.At Holmes' Hole village, in Tisbury, on the 3d Mon. of April, and 1st Mon. of Sept.; at Edgartown, 3d Mon. of Jan. and July, and 1st Mon. of March and Dec.; and at West Tisbury, 1st Mon. of June and 3d Mon. of Oct.
Judges of the Probate Courts may transact business out of court at any time and place when all parties entitled to notice therein assent thereto in writing, or voluntarily appear.
COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
JUDGES OF PROBATE
Bristol Co., E. H. Bennett, Taunton.
Barnstable Co., Jos. M. Day, Barnstable.
DISTRICT, MUNICIPAL, AND POLICE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS. A District Court for the towns of Adams, Cheshire, Clarksburg, Florida, and Savoy, is held at Adams, crim., daily, 9 A. M., civil, weekly, at north village of Adams, and 1st Wed. of each month at south village. For the towns of Dalton, Hancock, Hinsdale, Lanesborough, Peru, Pittsfield, Richmond, and Windsor, at Pittsfield, crim., daily, 9 A. M., civil, weekly. For Alford, Egremont, Great Barrington, Monterey, Mt. Washington, New Marlborough, and Sheffield, at Great Barrington, for criminal business, daily, at 9 A. M.; for civil business, every Sat., 10 A. M.
Municipal Courts are held at Boston, crim., daily, 9 A. M., civil, every Sat.; Boston So. District (Roxbury), crim., daily, 9 A. M., civil, every Sat.;. Dorchester (Ward 16 of Boston), crim., daily, 9 A. M., civil, every Sat.; at Worcester, crim., daily, 9 A. M., civil, every Sat.; at Taunton, crim., daily, at 9 A. M., civil, every Monday.
Police Courts are held daily at Cambridge, Charlestown, Chelsea, Chicopee, Fall River, Fitchburg, Gloucester, Haverhill, Lawrence, Lee, Lowell, Lynn, Milford, New Bedford, Newburyport, Salem, Springfield, and Williamstown. (Corrected 1870.)
WINTER FEED OF COWS.
IT cannot be denied that the general practice in wintering cows and other neat stock in New England, is one of low and insufficient feeding. Most farmers, no doubt, think this system is one of economy, and that they cannot afford to feed any grain or meal on account of the cost. But many go still farther, and neglect or refuse to supply even their best animals, on which they rely for the income of the farm, in the form of dairy products, with roots or other succulent food in winter, even when they know it will add materially to their productiveness through the whole of the succeeding summer. They forget or overlook the fact that the true system of feeding cows would lead us to induce the cow to take as much palatable food as her system is capable of assimilating.
What is the cow but a machine on which we depend for earning an income on the investment? What is the food we give her but the raw material for the manufacture of so much milk? If a cotton or a woollen manufacturer should neglect to keep up the supply of the raw material, or let it run short, so as to run on half time, or below the fair working capacity of his mill, in ordinary or prosperous times, when his goods found a ready sale in the market, what should we think of his judgment or skill as a business man ? Now the farmer's position is precisely similar. He has a certain amount of capital invested in the farm buildings, the barns, the tools, and appliances, and in the cows, as the machinery. He wants to obtain the largest income from this capital and the labor applied that is consistent with the present capacity and the wear and tear of the machinery. Nothing can, therefore, be so short-sighted as to neglect to supply the requisite amount of raw material to keep the machinery running up to its full reasonable capacity for production.
The idea which some farmers appear to entertain, that a cow gives the largest yield when she is in low condition, and that this yield depends upon this state of the system, is quite absurd. To be sure, a large milker, at the time of her full flow of milk, will often fall off in condition, especially if inadequately fed, but both reason and common sense show that the abundant yield is in spite of the low condition, and not dependent on it. If the condition is low and the system emaciated, the yield of milk is of necessity small compared with what the cow would be capable of yielding on the same food if in a better condition. And if the yield is large in quantity it will be poor in quality, because much of the food which should go to yield milk will necessarily be drawn upon by the animal to maintain its bodily condition.
But let us look, for a moment, at the actual comparative cost of a little better system of feeding, and see if we are not making a mistake in feeding our cows so exclusively on dry hay, or other kinds of dry fodder, with the idea that it is the only cheap way of getting on. We will take good English hay as the standard of value, because that is the most common basis of our winter feed, and all other kinds of feeding substances are good or poor, dear or cheap, as compared with that.
We take the nutritive equivalents of different feeding substances as established by careful chemical investigation. Make whatever allowance you please for any inaccuracies in these investigations. They may not be positively and precisely accurate in every detail, but, as between each other, they furnish us with the only tolerable comparison we have, and they are, probably, not far from the truth anyhow.
According to these, the nutritive equivalent of one hundred pounds of good English or upland hay would be as follows:
Now to get a given amount of nourishment out of good English Hay, at $20 per ton, would cost, we will say,.
To get the same from Indian Meal, at $40 per ton, the ordinary price, would cost.
To get the same from Linseed Meal, at $60 per ton, the usual price, would cost
To get it from Turnips, at $10 per ton, would cost.
To get it from Carrots, at $20 per ton, would cost the same, namely,
Of course the price of these articles will vary a little, according to locality, but any one can calculate for himself, from the prices in his own neighborhood. As to the roots, they are to be credited with their effect on the health of the animal, and even if they cost more they could not be given up.
Now it is clear that, making all due allowance for possible inaccuracies, there is still a very large margin in favor of a higher system of feeding. We hope every reader will consider this subject, and experiment, and give the cows the benefit of