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COURTS IN THE STATE OF RHODE ISLAND.
SUPREME COURT.-At Newport, 3d | Mon. in Mar., and 3d Mon. in Sept. Providence, 4th Mon. in March, and 1st Mon. in Oct. South Kingston, 3d Mon. in Feb., and 3d Mon. in Aug. Bristol, 1st Mon. in March, and 2d Mon. in Sept. East Greenwich, 2d Mon. in March, and 4th Mon. in Aug.
COURT OF COMMON PLEAS.-At Newport, 3d Mon. in May, and 3d Mon. in Nov. Providence, 1st Mon. in Mar., June, Sept., and Dec. (the March and Sept. terms are for criminal business only). So. Kingston, 2d Mon. in May, and 1st Mon. in Nov. Bristol, 1st Mon. in May, and last Mon. in Oct. East Greenwich, 2d Mon. in April, and 24 Mon. in Oct.
SUPREME JUD. AND SUPERIOR COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS. (CORRECTED 1869.)
SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT OF MASS. SUPERIOR COURT OF MASSACHUSETTS.JURY TERMS.-For Barnstable and Dukes For Essex Co., (civil)_at Salem, Ist Mon. Counties, at Barnstable, 1st Tuesday of of June and Dec., at Lawrence, 1st Mon. May. For Berkshire Co., at Lenox, 2d of March, and at Newburyport, 1st Mon. Tues. of May. For Bristol Co., at New of Sept.; (crim.) at Lawrence, 2d Mon. Bedford, 2d Tues. of Nov.; also at Taun- of Oct., at Newburyport, 2d Mon. of May, ton, 3d Tues. of April. For Essex Co., at and at Salem, 4th Mon. of Jan. Salem, 3d Tu. of April and 1st Tu. Nov. For Middlesex Co., (civil) at Lowell, 2d For Franklin Co., at Greenfield, 2d Tu. of Mon. of March and 1st Mon. of Sept.; April. For Hampden Co., at Springfield, at Cambridge, 1st Mon. of June, and 24 4th Tues. of April. For Hampshire Co., Mon. of Dec.; (erim.) at Canrbridge, 20 at Northampton, 3d Tues. of April. For Mon. of Feb., and 4th Mon. of June; and Middlesex Co., at Lowell, 3d Tues. of at Lowell, 3d Mon. of Oct. April; also at Cambridge, 3d Tues. of For Hampshire Co., at Northampton, Oct. For Nantucket Co., at Nantucket, (civil) 3d Mon. of Feb., Ist Mon. of June, 1st Tues. of July. For Norfolk Co., at and 3d Mon. of Oct.; (crim.) 2d Mon. of Dedham, 3d Tues. of Feb. For Plymouth June and 3d Mon. of Dec.
Co., at Plymouth, 2d Tues. of May. For For Franklin Co., at Greenfield, 3d Mon. Suffolk Co., at Boston, 1st Tues, of Oct. of March, and 2d Mon. of Aug. and Nov. and April. For Worcester Co., at Worcester, 2d Tues. of April.
For Hampden Co., at Springfield, (civil) 2d Mon. of March and June, and 4th Mon.. of Oct.; (crim.) 3d Mon. of May, and 1st Mon. of Dec.
LAW TERMS OF SUPREME JUDICIAL COURT OF MASSACHUSETTS.-A law term For Berkshire Co., at Lenox, (civil) 4th of the Supreme Judicial Court shall be Mon. of Feb., June, and Oct.; (crim.) held at Boston on the first Wednesday of 1st Mon. of Jan. and July. January of each year, which term may be For Norfolk Co., at Dedham, civil, 4th adjourned, from time to time, to places and Mon. in Apr., Sept., and Dec.; criminal, times most conducive to the despatch of 1st Mon. in Apr., Sept., and Dec. business and the interests of the public;| For Plymouth Co.,at Plymouth, 2d Mon. and there shall be entered and determined of Feb. and June,and 4th Mon. of Oct. therein questions of law arising in the For Bristol Co., at Taunton, 2d Mon. of counties of Barnstable, Dukes County, March and Sept., and at New Bedford, 2d Middlesex, Nantucket, Norfolk, and Suf- Mon. of June and Dec. folk; and also all questions of law arising in other counties where special provisions are not made therefor.
And law terms of said court shall also annually be held as follows:
At Salem, for Essex Co., 1st Tues. of November.
At Pittsfield, for Berkshire Co., 2d Tues. of September.
For Suffolk Co., (civil) at Boston, 1st Tues. of Jan., Ap't, July, and Oct. ; (crim.) at Boston, 1st Mon. of every month.
For Barnstable Co., at Barnstable, Tues. next after 1st Mon. of April, and 2d Tues. of Oct.
For Nantucket Co., at Nantucket, Ist Mon. of June and Oct.
For Dukes County, at Edgartown, fast
At Springfield, for Hampden Co., 3d Mon. of May and Sept. Mon. after 1st Tues. of Sept.
For Worcester Co., (civil) at Worcester, At Northampton, for Hampshire and 1st Mon. of March, Mon. next after 4th Franklin Cos., Mon. next after 2d Tu. Sept. Mon. of Aug., and 2d Mon. of Dec.; and At Worcester, for Worcester Co., 4th at Fitchburg, 2d Mon. of June and Nov.; Tues. after 1st Tues. of Sept.
At Plymouth, 3d Tues. of Oct.
At Taunton, 4th Tues. of Oct.
(crim.) at Worcester, 3d Mon. of Jan., 2d Mon. of May, and 3d Mon. of Oet.; and lat Fitchburg, 2d Mon. of Aug.
COURTS OF INSOLVENCY IN MASSACHUSETTS.
There is in each county a Court of Insolvency, held by the same judge as the Probate Court, at such times and places as the judge appoints.
While the Bankrupt Law of the United States is in force, the Insolvency Law is. suspended as to new cases, but not as to those previously commenced.
PROBATE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
COUNTY OF SUFFOLK.- At Boston, every Mon. in each month, except July. COUNTY OF ESSEX.-At Salem, 1st Tues. of each month; at Lawrence, 2d Tues. of each month, except April, May, July, Aug., and Oct.; at Gloucester, 2d Tues. of April and Oct.; at Newburyport, 3d Tues. of each month, except March, May, Aug., Sept., and Nov.; at Haverhill, 3d Tues. of May and Nov.; at Ipswich, 3d Tues. of March and Sept.
COUNTY OF MIDDLESEX. At Cambridge, 1st, 2d, and 4th Tues. of each month, except Aug.; at Lowell, 3d Tues. of Jan., March, May, July, Sept., and Nov.
COUNTY OF WORCESTER. -At Worcester, 1st and 3d Tues. of every month except Aug.; at Fitchburg, 4th Tues. of April and Sept.; at Milford, 2d Tues. of April and Sept.; at Templeton, 2d Tues. of May and Oct.; and at Barre, Wed. next after 2d Tues. of May and Oct.
COUNTY OF HAMPSHIRE. At Northampton, 1st Tues. of every month; at Amherst, 2d Tues. of Jan. and Aug.; at Pelchertown, 2d Tues. of May and Oct.; and at Williamsburg, 3d Tues. of May and Oct.
COUNTY OF HAMPDEN. -At Springfield, 1st Tues. of Jan., Feb., March, April, May, June, July, Sept., Nov., and Dec., at Westfield, 3d Tues. of March, June, Sept., and Dec.; at Monson, on the 2d Tues, of June; and at Palmer, on the 2d Tues. of Sept.
COUNTY OF FRANKLIN.-At Greenfield, 1st Tues. of every month except Nov.; at Northfield, 2d Tues. of May and Sept.; at Orange, 2d Tues. of March and Dec., and 3d Tues. of June; at Conway, 3d Tues. of May; at Shelburne Falls, 4th Tues. o May, 2d Tues. of Feb., and 4th Tues. of Oct.
COUNTY OF BRISTOL. At Taunton, 1st Frid. of March, June, Sept., and Dec.; at New Bedford, 1st Frid. of Feb., May, Aug., and Nov.; at Fall River, 1st Frid. of Jan., April, and Oct., and 2d Frid. of July. COUNTY OF NANTUCKET. At Nantucket, on the Thurs. next after the 2d Tues. of every month.
COUNTY OF BERKSHIRE.-At Pittsfield, 1st Tues. of Jan., Feb., March, April, May, June, Sept., Oct., and Dec., 3d Tues. of July, and Wed. next after 1st Mon. of Nov.; at Lee, Wed. next after 1st Tues. of Jan. Apl., and Oct., and Wed. next after 3d Tues. in July; at Adams, Thurs. next after 1st Tues. in Jan. Apr., and Oct., and Thurs. next after 3d Tues. in July; and at Great Barrington, Wed. next after 1st Tues. in Feb., May, Sept. and Dec.
COUNTY OF PLYMOUTH.-At Plymouth, 2d Mon. of every month, except July and Aug.; at Wareham, 4th Mon. of Oct.; at East Bridgewater, 4th Mon. of Feb. and Dec.; at Hingham, 4th Mon. of March; at Middleboro', 4th Mon. of April and Jan., and 2d Mon. of July; at Abington, 4th Mon. of May, Aug., and Nov.; at South Scituate, 4th Mon. of June; at Bridgewater, 4th Mon. of Sep.; at North Bridgewater, 3d Mon. of April and Oct.
COUNTY OF BARNSTABLE.-At Barnstable, 2d Tues. of Jan., Feb., Mar., Aug., Sept., and Dec., and 3d Tues. of April and June; at Harwich, 2d Mon. after 1st Tues. of May, and Mon. after 3d Tues. of Oct.; at Orleans, 3d Tues. of May, and 4th Tues. of Oct.; at Wellfleet, Wed. next after 3d Tues. of May, and Wed. next after 4th Tues. of Oct.; at Provincetown, Thurs. next after 3d Tues. of May, and Thurs. next after 4th Tues. of Oct.; and at Falmouth, 3d Tues. of Nov.
COUNTY OF NORFOLK. -At Dedham, 1st Tues. of every month, except Aug.; at Dorchester, every Wed., except during August.
DUKES COUNTY. - At Holmes' Hole village, in Tisbury, on the 3d Mon. of April, and 1st Mon. of Sept.; at Edgartown, 3d Mon. of Jan. and July, and 1st Mon. of March and Dec.; and at West Tisbury, 1st Mon. of June, and 3d Mon. of Oct.
Probate Courts, in addition to the terms now allowed by law, may transact any business within their jurisdiction, where due notice has been given to all parties interested therein, or when no notice is required, on any day when courts may lawfully be held.
COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
JUDGES OF PROBATE
Barnstable Co., Jos. M. Day, Barnstable
MUNICIPAL AND POLICE COURTS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
Municipal Courts are held at Boston, crim., every day, at 9 A. M., civil, every Saturday; Boston Southern District (Roxbury), crim., daily, 9 A. M., civil, every Saturday; at Worcester, crim., every day, at 9 A. M., civil, every Saturday; at Taunton, crim., every day, at 9 A. M., civil, every Monday.
Police Courts are held daily for criminal business, and as often as requisite for civil business, at Adams, Cambridge, Charlestown, Chelsea, Chicopee, Fall River, Fitchburg, Gloucester, Haverhill, Lawrence, Lee, Lowell, Lynn, Milford, New Bedford, Newburyport, Pittsfield, Salem, Springfield, and Williamstown.
DOES IT PAY TO CUT FODDER FOR CATTLE?
Most farmers are in the habit of cutting the fodder for their stock, and especially for horses. But the question is often asked, whether it pays? Some, to avoid the labor it requires, are disposed to doubt. If they would experiment, and observe carefully, they would soon satisfy themselves.
The teeth of cattle were evidently intended for eating grass. That is chiefly their food while in a state of nature. We keep them in an unnatural or artificial condition, and in a climate far colder than that, where they are generally found wild, and where they could hardly subsist during the long winter months on the natural productions of the earth. We confine them in stables, or barns, and cut and dry the grasses which constitute their food; and the nearer we can bring their food to its natural succulent condition, the more readily do they thrive upon it.
Cutting dry food saves some of the labor of mastication, always a severe work for most cattle, on account of its unnatural or artificial condition. We must therefore conclude that the finer it is cut the better; for, however fine you may cut it, it will still be far more difficult to masticate than green grass. Cutting may make it comparatively fine, while moistening, steaming, and other preparation, will make it more succulent, and soften the hard, and often wiry, fibre. The same amount of hay cut and steamed will go nearly, if not quite, twice as far as it will in its dry state; that is, it will be twice as available as food. Proof of this statement is abundant, and so ample as to place it beyond all question; and yet owing to our natural indolence, we still go on feeding uncut hay, and uncooked hay, and stalks of corn, and, often, unground grain and whole roots. The argument against cutting hay will apply with equal force against grinding grain, and yet nothing is more wasteful than feeding whole grain to stock, and few things are more wasteful than coarse ground grain. It ought not only to be ground, but ground fine, the finer the better. A very strong reason for cutting, is, that it can be made more palatable, so that everything will be consumed. The profit in this direction, alone, is equal to the cost, for a simple mixture of good hay and straw, or, swale hay, half and half, will be readily consumed, while the latter, alone, will often be rejected. The mixture will, therefore, be nearly, if not quite, as good as clear English hay uncut. Coarse hay, or hay badly cured, straw and cornstalks, are readily eaten when cut and mixed together, and moistened or steamed, even by stock inclined to be dainty. Does not this show that even poor fodder when cut and steamed is more palatable to cattle, than the best of food uncut, and uncooked? It is the judgment of the cow herself, and she ought to know.
It has been said by a very successful, practical feeder, that twenty pounds of good hay, cut and steamed, will keep a cow in better condition, than thirty pounds, uncut and uncooked. It stands to reason that it should be so; for "if the food goes into the animal at blood heat, so much of the animal heat as has to be expended in warming that otherwise cold food after entering the stomach, would be saved to go to flesh; for the animal heat has to be created by this food, and is, therefore, expended in producing it, and cannot to that extent, of course, make fat or flesh. So, also, would be saved the amount of food expended in producing the muscular strength and work of the jaws in grinding, for this power has to be furnished from some scource, and we hold that the power so produced in the internal system of the animal itself, is the dearest possible way of making it. Cooking or warming the food is, therefore, a great economy; much more, we consider, than its additional expense." This looks like the true doctrine and the true practice, and it is clearly stated. The power to grind or masticate hay must come from the food itself, and the less labor of this kind we require of the animal, the more it
The great reason why farmers neglect to prepare the fodder for cattle, is the expense. Now, see how cheap and simple an apparatus can be got up, that will answer every purpose. Let us try it, and see.
Line your feed box with tin or sheet iron. That is no great trouble. Cut your feed, and mix several kinds together, some good, and others of poorer quality. Now turn on a gallon of boiling hot water for every two bushels of this cut feed. Shut on the cover tight, and leave it for five or six hours, over night, if necessary. In mixing different kinds together in the box, a few layers of cut or sliced roots will greatly add to the value. And if the articles used are very poor, like stalks, swale hay, straw, etc., a little bran, shorts, or middlings, will be an excellent addition. If you will try this, even in this rough and cheap way, you will find it will give you a gain of at least twenty-five per cent, and probably thirty per cent over the ordinary mode of feeding, while the manure will be worth at least, double that of cattle fed on uncut hay. The digestion will be perfect, and the health, and thrift of the animal astonishing.
We do not speak from theory. It is practice and experience, intelligent practice, and long experience; and we do not hesitate to say, give it a fair trial, and then let
TIME TO TRIM ORCHARDS.
Farmers are often in doubt as to the best time to trim their fruit trees; and perhaps no question of practice is more frequently asked than this, "What is the best time to trim?""
Orchards may be trimmed late in the fall, as well as any time, and it is better to attend to it in the early part of the winter, rather than to put it off. The opinions of practical orchardists differ, as to the best period for trimming. Some prefer early spring, but partly because it is a period of leisure, while the absence of foliage, gives an opportunity to see the work as it progresses, and to watch its effect on the tree; but if undertaken at that season, the work should be stopped as soon as the buds swell, and the leaves begin to expand, because the sap is then in active motion, and the wounds bleed, and do not heal over so readily. Besides, the bark in spring, is very easily peeled off, and leaves a bad appearance. After the trees have completed their growth, and formed the terminal buds at the ends of their shoots, trimming may again be resumed. On the whole, we are quite satisfied, that the late fall offers all the advantages of early spring pruning, and fewer risks of injury to the tree. Mild weather along through the winter, will answer equally well.
In pruning large, old apple orchards, it is important to keep in view the following rules:
1. Avoid cutting off large limbs, except in cases of necessity, as old and dead limbs. 2. Admit light, equally, to all parts of the tree, by thinning out branches.
3. Remove crooked and badly growing limbs, so as to preserve a handsome, and uniform top.
4. It is better to do the work gradually, or in successve years, than to go at it too much at once. Begin at the top or centre. It lets in the light and air.
5 A good coating of shellac dissolved in alcohol, is desirable on all cuts, exceeding an inch in diameter. Make it thick enough to be of the consistency of paint. Let the wounds dry a little before it is put on. It is simple and inexpensive, and the trees withstand the operation better for it. But don't flatter yourself that heavy pruning of an old orchard, will restore vigor without good cultivation. Very moderate and gradual pruning, is the correct mode of treatment; and this, with good cultivation, will be attended by the best results. A drove of hogs will answer instead of the plough.
ATTENTION TO SPECIALTIES.
I am not inclined to advocate the cultivation of one crop or another, to the exclusion of all others, for that would be absurd,- be like putting all the eggs into one basket. I would go further, and say, that I would have the farmer raise, even a greater variety of miscellaneous crops, for the supply of his own family. There is no reason, why a much larger assortment of garden vegetables for home consumption, should not be produced upon every farm. It would promote the comfort, the health, and the economy of the household, and need interfere but little, with the general operations of the farm. But so far as the management of the farm is concerned, I wish simply to suggest the adoption of some fine of effort as a specialty, whether it be the culture of fruit, the culture of corn, or grass, the breeding of stock, the keeping of sheep, or of poultry. I would leave the particular object of pursuit to be governed by circumstances, such as the location, and character of the farm. I would study its special fitness for one thing or another. Some farms are admirably adapted to the raising of fruit. Some have a warm, south eastern exposure, with a light, warm soil adapted to the grape, where vineyards would return a profitable yield. Some have facilities for the raising of cranberries, and it is a pity not to take advantage of them. Some are remarkably well adapted to the raising of poultry, retired, and free from disturbance. Some are specially suited for grass, and the raising of stock would seem to be a leading pursuit, and so on. The idea is to study, and take advantage of the peculiar capacities of each farm; for of ten farms taken at random, scarcely any two would present the same characteristics.
APPLES FOR STOCK.
Some people appear to have an idea, that apples are of little value for stock. That is not my opinion. I have fattened many a pig on boiled apples, and I know they made a savory and palatable mess. Besides, I have a friend, a practical farmer in New Hampshire, who agrees in this opinion. He has been feeding his horse, cows, sheep, and swine, on apples cut up in a root cutter, and finds the cows give a larger yield of milk, and richer cream,-nearly equal to that from the best of grass. He goes further, and is inclined to think it more profitable in the long run, to raise good late keeping apples for feeding stock, than to grow roots for the same purpose. I cannot quite indorse this idea; but I fully believe in the value of apples for cows and sheep, and would not deprive stock of them on any account, if I had them to spare.
It has always been a matter of surprise to us that so few of our farmers appreciate the value of the root crop, as an article of food for stock. The labor is not so great as to deter us from raising roots, for it is well known that, if judiciously managed, the amount of labor required is but little, if any, greater than that required for a crop of corn or any other of our cultivated crops.
The soil, the climate, or the atmosphere, with us, may not in every respect be so favorable as in England, where the root crop is regarded as second to none in importance; yet what difficulties we have are, to some extent, within our control, and the reason for our neglect can be only that the real value of Swedes and mangolds is not so generally understood as it ought to be.
The soil requires to be well pulverized. That is the first condition. But there is no doubt that the larger amount of food of the turnip is derived from the atmosphere, and the smaller amount from the soil, and much of this latter is really taken from the atmosphere in the soil rather than from the soil itself.
Root crops want a good supply of phosphates. When it is considered that a large crop of Swedes on an acre of land often amounts to many tons, it will readily be seen that they can hardly find a full supply of food in the soil. Phosphate of lime may be called the essential food to be supplied artificially for most root crops, and hence it is desirable to add it in a soluble form, so that the plant may the more readily take it up. The English farmer has adopted the plan of liberal supplies of artificial manures, and the trade in these substances has become immense. The whole world has been ransacked for phosphates to supply the demands of the English market, and we have suffered them to be taken from us to fertilize the soil of England, when we needed them on our own soil.
With regard to the mangold, which is a variety of the beet, probably a mixture of guano and super-phosphate would produce better results than either alone. The mangold needs artificial assistance in the shape of manure in its early stages of growth, in order to force it into the rough leaf. If you get a good growth in the early stages, it soon gets on to a condition when it can help itself liberally from the atmosphere, and a good bulb will be the result. We get our best mangold crop in our dry summers. It is a native of a warm climate, and it likes the sun. Though it does better on a stiffer soil than the Swede requires, yet it often succeeds well on a sandy loam. On such a soil, no doubt, a compost of clay and manure, well soaked in the urine of the barn cellar, would suit it best. A most thorough ploughing should be given as carly in the spring as practicable, and a second ploughing just before the seed is to be sown.
If the ground is full of couch-grass, or weeds of any kind, the more care bestowed in cleaning the land the less trouble will there be in the after culture. The English throw the land into ridges. We are inclined to think a level culture preferable here. The distance apart may vary from eighteen to twenty-four inches. It is better to allow plenty of room for the horse-hoe, and to save a good deal of labor which Iwould otherwise be required. A good tilth and careful horse-hoeing are essential to success. The hoe should be started as early as practicable; the sooner after the leaves are well formed the better.
The mangold is one of the most valuable roots we have, and it ought to be more extensively cultivated than it is. It keeps late into the spring, and furnishes a muchneeded article of food at a season when some sort of succulent food is required. The Swede comes next. That is useful in the early part of the winter. The English turnip is a sort of makeshift which answers very well in December, or in making the change from grass to winter feed. It can be raised easily and in large quantities after any early crop of oats or peas.
KEEP BETTER STOCK.
To improve the breed of animals, it is by no means necessary to incur a great ex pense in bringing animals from a distance. If a farmer will mount his horse and ride across the country some fine day, and view the live stock of his neighbors, he will soon perceive that there are abundant means of bettering his circumstances by a cross, or exchange, at a slight cost; and he by this plan is improving his judgment by comparison, and hoarding up, by experience, for a future day, that which will be of more value to him than the expense of many such excursions; and improvements once begun and persisted in for a short time, will produce such a corresponding improvement in the mind and circumstances of the farmer as will insure their continuation, and richly reward all his labor and outlay.
Many of our farmers destroy the hope of improving their stock by a system of false economy in the selection of the males from which they breed their stock; many do not keep a male from which to breed their horses or horned stock; nor is it necessary, as one will do for a neighborhood; but this one should be the best; and in order to keep a good one, a good price can, and must, and should be charged for his services. Remember there is a great difference in the money value of the young animal coming from good and poor stock difference enough to leave a