infra." Was this ever in use instead of the ancient clergyman, but perhaps some of your readers can one, "Pro fide," or "Pour la foy"? give me more definite information regarding him. R. INGLIS.

J. WOODWARD. LIONEL MORDAUNT.—I know on the best authority that thirteen sheets of a novel or story of The Life and Adventures of Lionel Mordaunt were published about 1825. They were printed by White, and were written by Jameson, the husband of Mrs. Jameson. If any of your readers could show me this fragment I should feel obliged. RALPH THOMAS.

OPENSHAWE OF OPENSHAWE, CO. PAL. LANCASHIRE. Can anyone help me to the arms of the above family? Their crest appears to be a lion rampant (argent?), holding between its paws a cross-glory (or?) ESLIGH. NAME OF PAINTER WANTED. I possess a picture about three feet seven inches by two feet eleven inches within the frame. The person represented is a member of the society of Jesus, seated in a chair. The right hand rests on the elbow of the chair, and the left hand grasps a thick pair of gloves, of a very different make to the "lavender kids" worn by some of the clergy of the present day. The hands are admirably painted. The sitter wears a biretta. There is by his side a table having a crimson cover. On the table is an open book with some leaves partly turned down, and such is the appearance of the book that a spectator would, upon going near the picture, imagine he could read written marginal notes. Behind the figure is a curtain and a window. There is a peculiar brown tint over the picture which has been much admired, and the portrait has evidently been painted by a very superior artist. Can any reader of "N. & Q." decide who the portrait represents, or by whom it was painted? R. D. DAWSON-DUFFIELD, LL.D.


Is there any register of marriages performed by the chaplains of the Parliamentarian Army? "Mr. Dall," in 1646, married Ireton and Bridget Cromwell in the Lady Whorwood's house in Holton, Oxon., and the register is in existence. Are there any others by the same chaplain in Oxfordshire or elsewhere ? Required the register of marriage of Colonel Richard Deane and Mary (Grimsdiche?) about 1645-1650. The inquirer will be happy to pay a treble fee for such certified register. I. B. D.

THE REV. THOMAS SEARLE, of Stoney Stratford, published, about 1834, a book called The Sick Visitor's Assistant. He was also author of Sacred Dramas. What is the date of this last publication, and what are the titles of the dramas ? I think Mr. Searle was a dissenting

[* Mr. Searle published in 1834, Esther, a Sacred Drama, with Miscellaneous Pieces.-ED.]

SOUTH'S SINGULAR MONUMENT.-In the History of the County of Lincoln, &c. by Thomas Allen, Esq. and other gentlemen, 1833-4, is the following extract, page 196, vol. ii. :

"Kelstern is distant about four miles north-westward from Louth, on the turnpike road between that place and Market Rasen. In this parish was formerly a seat belonging to a family named South.

"The church, which is a small uninteresting edifice, contains in the north wall of the chancel a singular monument, erected by Sir Francis South, Knight, to the memory of his wife, Elizabeth, who died in 1604; this monument is curiously ornamented with emblematical figures and inscriptions. It is embellished with a female figure, sitting in an upright posture; her left hand, which rests upon a pedestal, holds an hourglass, and her left foot is placed upon a skull; and at the foot of the pedestal is a child in a coffin. On one of the spandrels of the arch is a rising sun, with the motto 'Occidit ut oriatur,' and on the other the dial of a clock, without hands, with 'Qualibet expectus tamen.' On the cornice of one of the pilasters is a naked boy with a spade, with the motto Nil sine labore,' and in the other a Hymen with his torch of the figure is a tablet containing an epitaph in Latin inverted on a skull, and In alto requies. At the back


"On the other side of the chancel is a tablet to the memory of the second wife of Sir Francis, who died in 1620. Above the tablet are the arms of South impaling those of Irby, and on each side is a female figure weeping."

Berry's Encyclopædia Heraldica, vol. ii., shows that the arms of South were, Ar. two bars gu., confirmed to John South of Ferraby, Lincolnshire, by Camden, Clarencieux, June 22, 1602; and the arms of Irby, Ar. fretty sa., if nothing more; but as the description does not state which Irby, without inquiry it cannot be decided.

As the estate lapsed from the South family under very peculiar circumstances, if any correspondent of "N. & Q." could supply not only full particulars but a transcript of the Latin epitaph, it might prove interesting to readers generally. J. BEALE.

Spittlegate, Grantham.

SULTAN DYING OF ENNUI.-Where can I find a story which was issued by the projectors of the periodical called the Welcome Guest? It was about a Sultan who was tired of every thing, and was said to be dying of ennui. Many had tried to amuse him but had failed, the penalty for which was each had his head cut off.



THREE WORDS OF A SORT. - I was at Nottingham the other day, and heard a person, in describing the evidence of a certain party, make use of the expression, "She could not say three words of a sort." Whether the phrase be new or

old, can any correspondent of "N. & Q." state the precise signification, and where it is current?


"The apparatus is merely a hollow cylinder, or a moderately high margin, with apertures at equal distances, and placed cylindrically round the edge of a revolving disk. Any drawings which are made on the interior surface, in the intervals of the apertures will be visible through the opposite apertures, and if executed on the same principle of graduated actions will produce the same surprising play of relative motions, as the common magic disk does when spun before a mirror. But as no necessity exists in this case for bringing the eye near the apparatus, but rather the contrary; and the machine when revolving has all the effect of transparency, the phenomenon may be displayed w 111.full effect to a numer ous audience."


names of Robert and Rupert. He tells us, that "Rupert, for so Caius, p. 139, calls Robert Gaguinus, and see the Sorberiana, p. 86, where Prince Rupert, nephew of our King Charles I. is called Robert, as also Heylin's History

Spittlegate, Grantham.

ZOETROPE, OR WHEEL OF LIFE.-There hasf St. George, p. 251; Brian Twyne often, and others. In been lately much discussion as to the date of the Misson, ii. 415, you have lastly Rübertus."—Anonymiana, edit. 1809, p. 294.] invention of the zoetrope, or wheel of life, and I enclose you a description of it from a printed book published some years since. Will any of your correspondents, interested in such matters, kindly give me any information they may possess as to the exact title and date of the work from which this is an extract? By so doing they will oblige.

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If our correspondent had been a plodding student in the earlier volumes of "N. & Q." he would never have put the question whether Robert and Rupert are identical. In our 1st S. vi. 218, that ripe scholar, Dr. S. R. Maitland, has given a list of no fewer than two hundred varieties of spelling of the word Robert: among others we find "RUBERT, Rubret, Rupet, Rupert, Rudepert, Rudopert, Ruopert, Ruacpert, Rupreth, Rupreht, Rupraht, Rupracht, Ruprecht, Rueprecht, Rupprecht, Roupreht." But before Dr. Maitland, that indefatigable antiquary, Dr. Samuel Pegge, had enlightened us as to the identical

STURMY FAMILY.-I wish to ask for some particulars of the family of Samuel Sturmy, born 1633, the author of the Mariner's Magazine. I am told that in the Glossary of Henry Spelman (1626) under "Admiralli Boreales" occur these entries:

"18 Edw. II. Johan. Sturmy constitut. 15 Aug. al á
"19 Edw. II. Jo. de Sturmy, Borealis Admiral.
"20 Edw. II. Johan. Sturmy, boreal.”
What more is known of the Sturmy family?
E. H. K.

[A brief account of the Esturmy, or Sturmy family, the lords of Wolf Hall, near Burbage, co. Wilts, is given by Fuller, Worthies of England, iii. 343, edit. 1840. The Esturmys were possessed of a very extensive property at Wolf Hall, and were lords of the noble forest of Savernake, which, as it is said, they held by a large hunter's horn, tipt with silver, and which is now in the possession of the Marquis of Aylesbury, who is also lord of the forest, Wolf Hall, &c., which devolved to him by an intermarriage between the Bruces and Seymours. A pedigree of the family of Esturmy is printed in Hoare's Wiltshire, vol. i. p. 117, Mere Hundred; see also vol. v. p. 78, Frustfield Hundred. Captain Samuel Sturmy was born at Gloucester, Nov. 5, 1633, and died in 1699. Vide Granger's Hist. of England, iv. 82; Collinson's Somersetshire, iii. 151; and Gent. Mag. lxiii. (i.) 320.]

THE MANSION HOUSE. I see it stated in Conder's Historical Review of the Progress of Religious Liberty during the last two Centuries, that the cost of erecting the Mansion House was defrayed out of the accumulated fines levied upon Dissenters elected to fill the office of sheriff, and refusing to still in force. Was this so? The writer (p. 16) serve owing to the Test and Corporation Act being speaks of Bishop Burnet again distinguishing himself by arguing strenuously in favour of Lord Stanhope's Bill for the relief of Dissenters in 1718, though the Bishop died in 1715.

E. H. A. [The fines for refusing to serve in the office of sheriff we are assured, were paid into the general city cashthere does not appear to have been any distinct fund for them. The fine is 4131. 6s. 8d. with an additional 2004, if the lesser fine is not paid within a certain time. In 1734, there were fined thirty-five persons, and eleven excused. In 1806 the fines amounted to 10,3067. 18s. 4d. and to 9,4667. 138. 4d. in the year 1815.]

GEMMEL, GEMMELL, GAMEL, is an old Ayrshire name. Whence the origin? Is it in any way connected with the heraldic charge, bars gemelles? Is it a corruption of Campbell, or could it have

any affinity (supposing vassalage) to the annulets on the Eglinton coat of arms, in allusion to the gimmel or betrothal ring? Lastly, is it simply gimmel?

SP. [The first mention of the family in the records is on July 28, 1632, Inquis. Speciales, Ayr, Nos. 280, 281, when Andrew Gemmil was retoured to his grandfather, described as portioner of Auchinmaid. The derivation is probably from the Scotch Gemmle, a long-legged, and also an old man.]


"Now fitted the halter, now traversed the cart, And often took leave, but was loath to depart." J. B. T. [By Matthew Prior, "The Thief and the Cordelier," lines 19, 20.]


till it touches the circumference of the earth on the other side of the centre, or the antipodes of Jerusalem, that will be the place of Dante's Purgatory. This line passes through the middle of the funnel, and marks the centre of each circle. The following are the circles and references to the respective cantos:

The Entrance Idle and Careless, ii. 1; iv. 7. (Acheron.)
First circle: Limbo, virtuous men not Christians, Homer,.
Plato, Cæsar, &c., iv. 38. (Elysium.)
Second circle: Voluptuous, v. 1, 39. (Minos.)
Where are these words to be Third circle: Gourmands, vi. 114. (Cerberus.)
Fourth circle: Avaricious and Prodigal, vii. 104.

Fifth circle: Angry and Passionate, vii. 127. (Styx.)
Sixth circle: Heretics, viii. 29. (Minotaur.)
Seventh circle: Division I. Tyrants, Assassins, Brigands,
xii. 100.

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Eighth circle: Fraud, xviii. 9, 70.
Pit I. Seducers.

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II. Suicides, &c.

III. Atheists, Usurers, &c., xiv. 8, 76, 80, 124; xvi. 105; xvii. 91. (Phlegethon.)


(4th S. i. 468.)



IX. Schismatics, xxvii. 133; xxix. 8.
X. Forgers and Falsifiers, xxix. 52.


Vellutello has made some calculations which may furnish a general notion, although the figures are erroneous: thus, the diameter of the circle of the idle he makes 315 miles; the first circle of hell, 280; the second, 245; the third, 210; the fourth, 175; the fifth, 140; the sixth, 72; the seventh, 70; the eighth, 35; and the ninth, 3 miles. He also assigns their depth with Ninth circle: Treason, xxxi. 7, 142; xxxiv. 68, 81, 90. equal precision. The first five of which are T. J. BUCKTON.14 miles; the seventh, 70; and the eighth, 140. Unfortunately for him, these figures fall far short of the total depth, which is the earth's semidiameter, or 3958 miles English. But if short in his measure here, he has gone far beyond all the bounds of nature on canto xxix. 8, where his method of calculation makes the circumference of the circle 57,671,682 miles: consequently six thousand times greater than that of the earth. Dante's measurements belonged to the transcendental calculus, beyond the reach of a landsurveyor. Tarver, who adheres strictly to his text, gives a description which may be thus condensed. We are to conceive then an immense circular space, divided into a certain number of concentric circles which descend, the second below the first, the third below the second, &c. This gives the form of an amphitheatre, of which the tiers are more or less wide and more or less elevated. But as the whole terminates in a pit of profound depth, it may serve to imagine a funnel or cone, of which this pit is the inverted apex. Such cone being placed in the interior, so that its apex corresponds with the centre of our globe, and its mouth, or inverted base, turned towards our hemisphere, of which Jerusalem shall occupy the middle point, it will follow that a line proceeding from Jerusalem will pass the centre; and being prolonged

II. Flatterers, xviii. 110.
III. Simonists, xix. 41.

IV. Magicians.

V. Public Prevaricators, xxi. 136; xxiii. 43. VI. Hypocrites.

VII. Thieves, xxiv. 119; xxvi. 13. VIII. Evil Councillors.

I have much pleasure in complying with the request of your correspondent REBECCA HICK, by giving her the information she requires.

A brief description of the form of the Inferno of Dante may be found in Wright's Translation of the Divine Comedy, London, 1854; and, indeed, one may say that almost every good edition of Dante Allighieri's poem contains a more or less minute description of it. In the Barbera edition, with Fraticelli's comments, there is a diagram of the Inferno, and still better plans may be found in various Italian editions. But very few commentators seem to have thought it necessary to state how this Inferno was formed, and from what part of the Commedia they derived their information as to its construction. These facts I consider essential to a just comprehension of the whole plan, and I will now proceed to mention them.

Dante supposes that, when Lucifer was cast down out of heaven, he struck the earth with such violence as to make a vast circular chasm down to the earth's centre," where he is frozen

- Dante followed the Ptolemaic system, which supand states that the displacement caused by the fall of poses that the earth is at rest in the centre of the universe; Lucifer, making the earth rise in the opposite hemisphere, formed the mount of Purgatory.

in eternal ice. This concavity, or pit, is imagined by Dante to be covered superficially by a kind of vault formed by nature; which removed, renders the infernal gulf visible from the top to the bottom, presenting the figure of an inverted cone, and looking much like the interior of an amphitheatre a fact which tends to strengthen the opinion of those who believe that the amphitheatre of Verona has suggested to Dante the idea of his Inferno. The construction of the Inferno is minutely described and explained by Dante in the eleventh canto. Here we learn that this cavity reaches from the surface of the earth down to the centre; that it is divided into nine concentric circles, gradually diminishing in circumference. The seventh circle has three rounds, or gironi; the eighth, ten fosses; and the ninth circle, four receptacles for traitors: in the last of which, the triple-visaged Lucifer

"Da ogni bozca dirompea co' denti, Un peccatore a guisa di maciulla, Sì che tre ne facea così dolenti." Inferno, xxxiv. In the twenty-ninth canto, Dante has stated that the ninth fosse of the eighth circle is twentytwo miles in circumference; in the thirtieth, that the tenth fosse is eleven miles in circumference, and half a mile in width; and in the thirty-first and thirty-fourth cantos, he has informed us of the approximate height of Lucifer. But besides these, and the depth of the Inferno, Dante has given no other dimensions. Yet, from certain data found in the poem, Antonio Manetti has made a profile and plan, with measurements, of the Inferno of Dante, in which he allowed a certain number of Italian miles to each circle. His scheme was first published in the form of a dialogue in 1506; an abridged description of it will be found in the splendid illustrated edition in square fol., Florence, 1817. G. TOSCANI.

9, Hill Road, Abbey Road, N.W.


(4th S. i. 563.)

The following notices may interest ANGLOSCOTUS, if he have not met with them before; and perhaps he will be good enough to reply to the queries accompanying them.

According to Burke and Betham, the male line of the Comyns of Badenoch ended with John and William, sons of that John whom ANGLOScorus calls "the Red," though I find this term applied by some writers to an elder member of the family. These brothers, John and William, both died in 1314-5, and their sisters, Joan and Elizabeth, were their heirs. Who, then, does ANGLO-SCOTUS mean by the Red Comyn's "grandson Admorus," in whom he says that his male descendants failed? The Red Comyn cer

tainly had a grandson Ademar, but he was the son of his daughter Joan, and I do not therefore see how the male line can be said to have failed in him, especially since his brother David left &



These two heiresses, Joan and Elizabeth, demand a few words. Joan, who was born May 10, 1296-7 (Inq. P. Mort. of her brother John), married before 1307 David Earl of Athole, and died between June 24 and July 24, 1326. (Ibid.) She left three, if not four, sons. These were David (born circ. Dec. 1307, died 1335); Ademar, above mentioned (living in 1355, and described as "Scutifer Cameræ Regis"; his wife's name was Mary, and his daughter Isabel married Ralph de Euer (R. Pat. 50 Ed. III.); and Robert (living 1338 R. Pat. 12 Ed. III.) There is also an Emeric mentioned in R. Pat. 20 Ed. III., but it is possible that he may be identical with Ademar.

Elizabeth Comyn, the younger sister, born Nov. 1, 1299, or 1300 (Inq. of John) married, first, Richard Talbot of Goderich Castle, before Feb. 6, 1327, and after Apr. 20, 1325; and secondly, John de Bromwich, in or about 1370. (R. Pat.) She died very soon after her second marriage, as her Inq. Post Mort. was taken in 1371-2.

In Rot. Ex., Pasc. 15 Ed. III., I find the name of "Joan Comyne de Bogban.' 17 Who was this lady? By an entry in R. Pat. 24 Ed. I., I also find that John Earl of Buchan (representative of the younger branch of Badenoch) had a brother Alexander, and three years later (R. Pat. 27 Ed. L) there is mention of his wife Joan. These Joans may possibly be identical, but the latter must have been a very old woman in 1341.

Again, who was the John Comyn who (as I learn from R. Pat. 45 Ed. III., Part 1.) had been in Lombardy with Lionel Duke of Clarence, and returned to Ireland about the Feast of St. Martin (Nov. 11.) He held the manor of Kynsale, and was "recently deceased" on May 10, 1371. His wife Amabilia survived him, and he left four daughters, coheirs, Margaret, Milisenta, Joan, and Elena. Was this John a Comyn of Badenoch or Buchan, and if either, whose son was he? Could he be the son of the Alexander and Joan noticed above?

Lastly, was John Comyn who died June 24, 1315, eldest son of the Red Comyn, the same who married Margaret Wake de Lydel, afterwards Countess of Kent? HERMENTRUDE.

(4th S. i. 534.)

According to the Acts of the Bishops of York, S. Wilfred (died 702) was the first to use it in England by bringing French, workmen over for purpose. "Artifices lapidearum et vitrearum


fenestrarum primus in Angliam ascivit." S. Benedict Biscop, Abbot of Wearmouth, Bede tells us, brought over glass-makers from France in 715, to make the windows of his church and monastery. Glass was not applied to the windows of domestic buildings in this country till the thirteenth century. Mr. Hudson Turner tells us that glass drinking vessels were so rare in England at this time that Henry III. had but one glass cup, which was presented to him by Guy de Roussillon. The king sent it to Edward of Westminster, the famous goldsmith, with directions to take off the glass foot, and to mount it on one of silver gilt; to make a certain handle to it, answering to the foot, and to surround it with silver gilt hoops. There is not a particle of evidence to prove that glass was manufactured in this country before the fifteenth century, though the art of colouring and enamelling it for church windows was generally employed here during the Middle Ages. Large quantities of glass we obtained from the Flemings in exchange for wool; and even as late as the seventeenth century the drinking glasses ordinarily sold in England were made at Venice from patterns sent out by our glass dealers. In the Addit. MS. 855 (Brit. Mus.) a collection of patterns for beer and other glasses, with copies of letters sent by a London dealer to his agent at Venice in 1667, may be seen.

Edward, the king's glazier (vitrearius) at Windsor, had an annual pension from Henry III. A master glazier was attached to the royal household in the time of Henry VI., who granted to John Prudde "the office of glaserye of oure werkes," to hold as "Rogier Gloucestre " had held it, "with a shedde called the Glazier's logge standing upon the west side within oure paloys of Westm." (Privy Seal, 19 Henry VI.) He was the same John Prudde who covenanted to paint the windows of the Beauchamp Chapel at Warwick in 1439: he was to use no "glasse of England." This, which is the earliest specific mention of English glass, shows that it was not much esteemed. (Dugdale's Warwickshire, p. 355.)

Mr. Turner draws attention to a writ of Richard II. in the year 1386, empowering one Nicholas Hoppewell to take as much glass as he could find or might be needful in the counties of Norfolk, Northampton, Leicester, and Lincoln, "as well within liberties as without, saving the fee of the church," for the repair of the windows founded at Stamford in honour of the king's mother, Joan, Princess of Wales. He had also authority to impress as many glaziers as should be requisite for the work. If it was necessary to search four counties for glass to restore a few windows, there could not have been much in the country. In the reign of Edward I. the price of glass was threepence halfpenny a foot including the cost of glazing, or about four shillings and fourpence of

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Guiet.-GUYET (Carolus), è Societate Jesu, scripsit de rebus liturgicis, præsertim de Festis propriis locorum. Obiit anno 1684.

G. Ep. S.-Guillelmus DE LA BRUNETIÈRE du PlessisGesté, patriâ Andegavensis, Vicarius generalis Parisiensis, deinde Episcopus Santonensis, cujus sedem tenuit annos 26, boni pastoris partes adimplens. Obiit anno 1702.

G. Vict.-GOURDAN (Simon), Presbyter Parisinus, et Canonicus regularis, sanctissimè vixit in Abbatia S. Victoris, in quâ obiit anno 1729, ætatis 93.

H. Vabr. Ep.-HABERT (Isaac), Doctor Sorbonicus Ecclesiæ Parisiensis Canonicus Theologalis, Episcopus Vabrensis renuntiatus est anno 1654; vitâ decessit die 11 Januarii, 1668.

J.-JANNET (Joannes-Philippus), Clericus Parisinus, plurimos composuit hymnos, qui in Breviario Viennensi et aliis inserti sunt. Annos natus 75, obiit anno 1817.

Muret.-MURET (Marcus-Antonius), in agro Lemovicensi natus anno 1526, in omni litterarum genere peritus, multa opera, præsertim critica et poetica, edidit. Roma sacris Ordinibus initiatus, philosophiam et theologiam docuit; eaque in urba obiit die 4 Junii, 1585.

N. T.-LE TOURNEUX (Nicolaus), Presbyter Rotomagensis, Breviario Cluniacensi operam dedit, multosque libros de theologia et pietate vulgavit, quorum alii damnati sunt, alii cautè legendi. Obiit Parisiis anno 1686.

Petav.-PETAU (Dionysius), Aurelianensis, Societatis Jesu Presbyter, eruditione clarissimus. Annos natus 69, Parisiis obiit die 11 Decembris, 1652.

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