WALTER PRONOUNCED AS "WATER" (4th S. i. 243, 519.) — A very early instance is the following:


Byhold opon Wat Brut whou bisiliche thei pursueden." Pierce the Ploughman's Crede, 1. 657. Here Wat is the reading of the Trinity MS., but the British Museum MS. and the early printed edition of 1553 both have Water, which represents Walter at full length. The short form Wat is spelt without an . Similarly the common old English word for fault is faute, and for assault is assaut. In French u is commonly substituted for 7 in this way. WALTER W. SKEAT. 1, Cintra Terrace, Cambridge.

HEART OF PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD STUART (4th S. i. 559.) The bronze statue of Prince Charles Edward Stuart was discovered, not in the old Greyfriars churchyard, as is stated by W.H.C., but in a wooden case which lay in a kind of lumber closet attached to what was then called

the Old Church in St. Giles's Cathedral. When first found it was supposed to be a statue of the then (1810 or 1811) reigning monarch, King George III., on which supposition only, of course, it was placed in the niche where it stands in the Council Chamber of Edinburgh, for it would have been a kind of petty treason to put up a statue of the Pretender in the prætorium of the Scottish metropolis. The profile is certainly not unlike that of King George; but there seems no reason to question that it is meant for Prince Charles Edward Stuart, a conjecture which is confirmed both by its obvious resemblance to him, and by the mysterious concealment in which it was found, and as to which there exists no clue or explanation. It is still professedly exhibited as George III., but with a significant wink which is well understood. G.


THE DIARY KÉPT BY THE CARDINAL DUKE OF YORK'S SECRETARY (4th S. i. 559.) — Reference has been made to this diary in an article entitled "The Heart of Prince Charles Edward Stuart." The question was asked by your correspondent W. H. C., "Who has this diary?" I answer that it is now in possession of his Lordship the Earl of Orford, who has informed me that he purchased the manuscript in Rome a few years ago. His lordship has had it translated into English, with a view to its publication. I have perused it with great interest. The MS., however, seems to be imperfect in many places. J. DALTON.

St. John's, Norwich.


I may mention, when living in the neighbourhood some years ago, I was told by those who had heard it that the noise of the bombardment of Antwerp in 1832 was heard distinctly on the beach at Southwold, Suffolk, The explosion of

powder-mills at Hounslow, which took place in 1851 or 1852 (I am writing from memory), was felt in the same neighbourhood; and when riding with a friend, a naval man, on the north coast of Norfolk in 1855, he suddenly pulled up his horse, and said, "Listen! The fleet saluting in the Downs as it sails for the Baltic"; and he counted the number of guns fired in the salute to an admiral, which he said was correct. I noted the day and hour, and saw that the fleet had sailed at that time in the newspaper of the following day. I heard the guns distinctly myself.


"SO THICK A DROP SERENE (4th S. i. 457.) The author of The Transproser Rehearsed does not know "what dark meaning he [Milton] may have had in calling this thick drop serene." PAYNE having passed this statement unchallenged, perhaps I may be allowed to supply a short note from his own book: "In reference to the gutta



or amaurosis . . . with which he was afflicted 99 * —a form of blindness. A. H. LES ÉCHELLES (4th S. i. 315, 371, 472, 567.)— Virgil, in Æn. x. 653, uses the words "scalis" and "ponte " in the same sense as stated.

"Forte ratis

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Expositis stabat scalis, et ponte parato."

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In the new Fœdera (vol. ii. p. 805) there is a mandate of Edward III. entitled "De ponte Novi Templi Londonii reparando," which directs the reparation of the " pons, per quem transitus ad doubt, the landing-place itself, or what is now [the Thames]: meaning, no aquam prædictam called' the "stairs." And in the Inner Temple Records we find that in 18 Jac. I. "the Bridge and Stayres to the Thames were made." (Dugdale's Origines, p. 147.)

D. S.



Caius Julius Cæsar's British Expedition from Boulogne to the Bay of Apuldore, and the subsequent Formation of Romney Marsh. By Francis Robson Appach, M.A. (J. Russell Smith.)

The landing of Cæsar in Britain was an event fraught with so much importance to the history of this country, that it cannot be matter of surprise that it becomes the frequent subject of historical investigation. The idea on which the present volume is founded-namely, that Romney Marsh was not in existence at the time of Cæsar, first struck Mr. Appach in the early part of the year 1864, as he was one day standing on the cliff which forms the eastern extremity of the Isle of Oxney; and, on subsequently testing the assumption, that in Caesar's time the sea filled the whole Bay of Apuldore, with the Commentaries, our author found it in every respect consistent with the

narrative. While, on examining the opposite coast of

France, he found that Boulogne, as it must have been in ancient days, completely answered the description which

* Studies in English Poetry, third edition, p. 327.

Cæsar gives of the port from which he sailed. Mr. Appach supports these views with considerable ingenuity and learning, and has produced a little volume which well deserves the attention of all who feel an interest in the eventful incident it is intended to illustrate.

Edited by W. G.

The Journal of Philology.
G. Clark, M.A.,
Public Orator; J. E. B. Mayor, Fellow of St. John's;
and W. A. Wright, Librarian of Trinity College.

No better evidence of the value and importance of this new half-yearly Journal of Philology could be given than that which is furnished by the names of the three accomplished scholars to whom its management has been entrusted. It may be regarded as a Second Series of the Journal of Classical and Sacred Philology, which ceased to appear in 1860; and its object may well be defined as that of Philology in its wider significance, comprising not only the criticism of language, but every topic connected with the Literature and History of Antiquity. Thus the papers will treat not only of language and literature, sacred and profane, but of the manners, arts, and institutions, the mythology and philosophy of all ancient nations..


A Supplement to the Imperial Gazetteer: a General Dictionary of Geography, Physical, Political, Statistical and Descriptive. Edited by W. G. Blackie, Ph. D. Illustrated with Views and Plans of the more Remarkable Cities, Ports, and Harbours. (Blackie & Son.)

Messrs. Blackie claim, and we dare say justly, though not having seen the work we must speak with reserve, for their Imperial Gazetteer the merit of exhibiting a satisfactory view of the state of geographical information at the time of its completion. The present Supplement, which has been compiled not only from the published labours of recent travellers through all quarters of the globe, and from a careful examination of the journals of the various Geographical Societies, but from much note(worthy information furnished by private correspondence, may justly lay claim to the merit of posting our geographical knowledge down to the latest moment. As such it is indispensable to the possessors of the original work; and will be found a very useful supplement to any Lother work of similar character.

A General Catalogue of Books, arranged in Classes. Offered for Sale by Bernard Quaritch.

Though not in the habit of calling attention to Booksellers' Catalogues, the one before us is so remarkable for its extent (it consists of nearly 1100 pages, and describes some fifteen thousand books, the majority of great rarity and value), that we feel bound to bring it under the notice of all admirers of fine books, and of students in all classes of literature.

Master, which constituted the attraction of Wednesday. The Israel in Egypt, with its galaxy of matchless Cho ruses, will, we trust, have proved equally attractive, s that the Festival may be as remunerative as it has proved creditable to those by whom it has been so well conceived and admirably carried out.




Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books, to be sent direct to the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and addresses are given for that purpose:PROVE GOD SCOBRLL, ACTS AND ORDINANCES OF THE LONG PARLIAMENT. Folio. 1658. HUSBAND, EDW., COLLECTION OF REMONSTRANCES, ADDRESS FS, ORDERS BETWEEN KING AND PARLIAMENT. 4to, 1643. The same, folio, 1643. Surtees Society Publications: 1-7, 9-12, 14-23, 25-32.

Wanted by Edward Peacock, Esq., Bottesford Manor, Brigg.


BIBLES. Folio and 8vo, 1775 to 1779.
4to, 1553.


TESTAMENT. 1552. Any early Bibles and Testaments.
Catalogues of Booksellers, when issued.

TO THE UNITED STATES. 1783 or 1784, or then about. By R. Cham-
pion; but may not have the author's name.
concerning Emigration. London, 1787. 8vo. By R. Champion; or
any edition and any work by R. Champion.

Wanted by Mr. Francis Fry, Cotham, Bristol.

BURKE'S ROYAL DESCENTS. 2 Vols. Large 8vo.
HENNINGR'S THEATR. GENEALOGICOM. 4 Vols. fol. Magdeburg, 1598

Wanted by Mr. Gibson, 3, Hardinge Street, Islington, N.
YESTERDAY AND TO-DAY. By Cyrus Redding. 3 Vols.
Wanted by Artist, Post Office, Glasgow.


Wanted by Mr. C. Forbes, 7, Devonport Road, New Road,



Esor's FABLES.

BIRDS. 2 Vols.

BOMBASTES FURIOSO. Illustrated by Cruikshank.
GRIMM'S TALES. 2 Vols. Ditto. Life clas

Wanted by Mr. Thomas Beet, Bookseller, 15, Conduit Street,
Bond Street, London, W.


Notices to Correspondents.

UNIVERSAL CATALOGUE OF BOOKS ON ART.-All Additions and Cor rections should be addressed to the Editor, South Kensington Museum, London, W. 12

CURIOSUS. The General Index to our Third Series is at press, and so far advanced that we hope it will be ready for delivery by the end of this month or beginning of next.

ERRATUM. 4th S. i. p. 568, col. i. line 24, for "distinct" read "dir tant.'

V6 19

Answers to other Correspondents in our next.


A Reading Case for holding the weekly Nos. of "N. & Q." is now ready, and may be had of all Booksellers and Newsmen, price 18. 6d. or, free by post, direct from the publisher, for 18. 8d.


THE HANDEL FESTIVAL.-The anticipations of those who looked upon the present Festival as destined to be crowned with marked success, in an artistic sense, have been realised to the full. The manner in which "God -save the Queen was given at the rehearsal on Friday week gave the key note to the triumph which has marked each day's performance. The "Hallelujah Chorus" and the "Dead March" on the same day, were probably the most perfect specimens of Choral and Orchestral execution ever heard in this or any other country. It is impossible


that they should be surpassed. As we anticipated, the JUSTI PRINTING PRESS, Atted with Types, Ink, Pads, Selection on Wednesday proved particularly attractive; for while The Messiah, which was never executed with so much precision and effect as it was on Monday, drew together a delighted audience of upwards of nineteen thousand, more than twenty-one thousand gathered together to listen to the varied specimens of the Great

Pricker, Frames, &c. including every necessary for printing Invita tions, Programmes, Diaries, Notes, Cards, Labels, and every description of printing required in private life. It is clearly and simple operation, forms an elegant ornament of every-day usefulness; and can be worked with ease by a lady. Delivered in London, 28. H Packed in wooden box and booked to any address in the country, Post Order or Stamps to J. and W. MURRAY, 21, Little Welbeck Street, Cavendish Square, London, W..

*** Cases for binding the volumes of "N. & Q." may be had of the Publisher, and of all Booksellers and Newsmen.

Q." may be

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, and is als issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The Subscription for STAMPED COPIES for six Months forwarded direct from the Publisher (including the Halfyearly INDEX) is 11s. 4d., which may be paid by Post Office Order payable at the Strand Post Office, in favour of WILLIAM G. SMITE, 4, WELLINGTON, STREET, STRAND, W.C., where also all CosMUNICATION, FOR THE EDITOR should be addressed.

"NOTES & QUERIES" is registered for transmission abroad.

some Plants, 601-Stevenson: Steveson: Stephenson The Authorship of the "De Imitatione Christi"- Cooee Adrian's Address to his Soul - New Slang Old, 603. QUERIES:-A-Becket-Ameliorate — Boards of Conser

vators Cornelius Valerius Ultrajectinus "Le Catéchisme des Anglais" - Gold Enamelled Coffin Greek Motto -Portrait of Walter Grubbe, Esq.- Richard Champion Motto of the Order of St. John- Lionel Mordaunt Openshawe of Openshawe, co. Pal. Lancashire - Name of Painter wanted-Parliamentarian Marriage Registers The Rev. Thomas Searle - South's Singular Monument Sultan dying of Ennui - Three Words of a Sort-Zoetrope, or Wheel of Life, 604. QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: — Sterling: Robert Sturmy Family-The Mansion House - Gemmel, Gemmell, Gamel -Quotation, 606.



NOTES:-Notes on Certain Theosophists and Mystics, &c.,

597- Parodies, 600-Notelets on the Botanical Names of published by his executors. They published a

small portion of the first work named, under the following title:

"The Two Mighty and Wonderful Mysterious TREES of EDEN in the Garden of ELOHIM, Incognita Unknown ever since Man was driven out of Paradise until admitted to return in again: viz. The Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, and The Tree of Life in the midst of the Paradise of God. Taken out of a Book called The Letter and the Life, or The Flesh and the Spirit. Translated by Dr. Everard."


REPLIES: Dante's "Inferno," 607 The Comyns of
Badenoch, 608-Glass-making in England, Ib.
Breviary, 609-Modern Invention of the Sanscrit Alpha-
bet, 610-Prebends of St. Paul's Cathedral, 611-James
Teare, the Father of Teetotalism, 16.- Tauler and Luther
- Douglas Hamilton, Duke of Hamilton and Brandon
Voltaire Hogshead Irish Ballads The Cuckoo
Burns's "Tam o'Shanter " : "Fairin " for "Sairin"
L'Histoire Poétique-King Alfred's Remains - Mortlake
Potteries: Toby Jugs - Noye and Noyes - Peter Burchet,
an Avenger of the Gospel- Proverbs-Allusion in "Her.
nani"-Poem on a Sleeping Child-St. Simon: Lettres
d'État" Baliol Family The Pillory
Walter pro-
nounced as Water," &c., 613.



Notes on Books, &c.

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The earliest English_disciple of Tauler known to us is Dr. Everard. Unfortunately very little is known of this remarkable man, as may be seen from the following query made by the Messrs. Cooper of Cambridge, Nov. 7, 1857:



"John Everard, of Clare Hall, Cambridge, B.A. 1600; M.A. 1607; D.D. 1619, is author of Three Bookes, translated out of their Originall: First, The Letter and The Life, or The Flesh and The Spirit; secondly, German Divinitie; thirdly, The Vision of GOD, written 1638.' MS. Univ. Libr. Cambridge, Dd. xii. 68. We trust that some of your correspondents may be able to furnish additional information as to this person, who is casually mentioned in Wood's Athen. Oxon. i. 313."-"N. & Q." 2nd S. iv. 366.

This appeal to "N. & Q." was unsuccessful: with the Messrs. Cooper and your Keighley correspondent I looked eagerly for a reply, but in vain; and I daresay the authors of the Athena Cantab. were not more successful elsewhere, but I have not seen the volume which has since been published, and which contains, I suppose, a notice of this obscure worthy.

The "three bookes " referred to by the Cambridge writer must be MS. not printed works; and

Continued from 4th S. i. 528.

it is observable that the date he appends to one of them is the date when it was "written." The appearance of Randall's version* of the Theologia Teutsch may have prevented Dr. Everard's being

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Tenzel's work is founded on "Taulerus" and "the GERMANE DIVINITY," which are thus quoted in the 2nd and 4th pages of Dr. Everard's version.

With regard to the third translation of Dr. Everard's referred to by the Cambridge writernamely, The Vision of God, it was perhaps a translation of the Tractatus De Visione Dei by Joannes Scotus Erigena. This treatise has never been printed. Mabillon mentions a MS. copy which he found at Clairemarie, near. St. Omer, and gives the opening sentence: Omnes sensus corporei ex conjunctione nascuntur animæ et corporis. Gale tells us he endeavoured, but without success, to get a copy of this work when preparing his edition of J. S. E. De Divisione Natura published at Oxford in 1681. (See the Testimonia,

* Randall's version has long been so rare that a century ago its existence was unknown to the devout and learned Hartley of Winwick. In his Short Defence of the Mystical Writers against the scurrilous attacks of Warburton, he says: "It deserves mention here, that a little book called Theologia Germanica, containing a summary of the principles of Mystical or Spiritual Theology, which well deserves a translation into English, was highly esteemed and recommended by Luther, and was doubtless of good use to him in his great work of the Reformation. It passed thro' a new edition under the hands of that celebrated mystical divine John Arndt; and is extolled by Dr. H. More, by the name of that Golden little Book which first so pierced and affected him." After Gerard Groot, he speaks of " two other famous mystical divines, Ruysbroek and Thauler, who by their preaching and written instructions greatly helped forward the work of vital Godliness, and still preach to the heart in their writings."-Short Defence. Lond. 1764, pp. 472-3.

In the preface to his True Christianity, Arndt speaks of his quotations from Tauler, who was one of his favourite authors.

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"The Sayings of a certain Divine of great note and name: viz. the judgment of John Denqui concerning the Holy Scriptures made in his Recantation, not long before his death, and printed."

All we know of Dr. Everard's personal history is derived from the editor's address "to the Reader." He appears to have been rector of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, "his benefice there being 400%. a-year." At this period, and before his mystic conversion, "when he was but a bare, literal, University preacher, as he afterwards called himself," he got into trouble for preaching violently against the match with the Infanta of Spain proposed for Prince Charles, denouncing "the great sin of matching with idolaters." For repeated offences of this kind he was six or seven times committed to prison. The editor says that "he was the only noted man that opposed and preached against" the match; but Bayley, Bishop of Bangor, was thrown into the Fleet prison at this period (July, 1621), it is believed for the same offence. Dr. Everard was eventually deprived of his benefice, and was never out of trouble † to the end of his days, being constantly brought up before the High Commission Court "for doctrine, and for conventicles kept by him," and such like charges. The poor man had to

"N. & Q." 2nd S. v. 118.

King James used facetiously to call him Dr. Neverout. I need not quote the passage, as it is given in "N. & Q." 21 S. v. 50.

give attendance "from Court to Court, and from Term to Term; "there seems to have been & standing case against him, which he vainly tried to have brought to an issue. For this purpose he had several interviews with Archbishop Laud, which are described at full length and with curious details. But "his cause was depending even till he fell sick" and lay on his deathbed, when he lingered till "Strafford and Canterbury were "put under the Black Rod, and then he was gathered to his fathers."


After Dr. Everard had become a disciple of Tauler and a professed Mystic, he seems to have almost wholly abstained from political and polemical subjects. A few exceptions may be noted: thus in one of his sermons, vol. i. p. 238, he alludes to his being told to "Prophesie no more at Bethel, for it is the King's Chapel, and it is the King's Court, but get you into America." In vol. ii. p. 178, he refers to "the High Commission and Star Chamber." At p. 182, to the Book of Sports; at p. 139, to the desire of kings to be "monarchs without control; but in this nation," he adds, lute power." Again, at p. 427, he compares the "they have been hitherto kept off from this absodevil to "some cruel Marshal insulting over his prisoners, tho' the king's best subjects: he lays them at his pleasure, neck and heels, he casteth them into noisome dungeons, and saith-'I'll bring down the proudest of you all. What, know you not me? I have his Majesty's Commission for what I do.'"

some of his ac

Tauler and Dr. Everard did not realise the practical effect of much of their teaching: their habitual depreciation of means and ordinances were by no means counteracted by an occasional repudiation of those Free Spirits and Familists who, without any circumlocution, avowed themselves to be above ordinances. Thus Dr. Everard came to be "vilified by the foul names of Anabaptist and Familist, and the Ranters came to hear him, supposing he had justified them." His friend and editor confesses that " quaintance and followers abused the precious truths he taught, insomuch that he was constrained to threaten prosecution of them to punishment, and forbade their following or hearing him." He tells us himself, that it was said in derision of him "that there was none came running out of the city [to Kensington] to hear me, but a company of Tinkers, Coblers, Weavers, poor beggarly fellows." However, from the style and charac ter of his discourses, he evidently had an intelligent audience, though no doubt it comprised a curious mixture of people. On one occasion he introduces a special exhortation to "Lords and great ones," on which the editor observes:

"Divers Earls and Lords being then present, Earl Holland, Earl Mulgrave, &c. and many other great ones his intimate acquaintance."-vol. i. p. 192.


Dr. Everard's discourses appear under great disadvantage: they were extempore utterances "preached to the capacity of his auditors," not written down beforehand, but "taken from his mouth by a notary, and afterwards owned and approved by himself; moreover, they were published in the most miserable way, with poor blind type and wretched paper. Such as they are, the editor says, "thou must accept of these or none, for here is all can be hoped for or expected; and we had much ado to keep them out of the Bishops fingers, the Pursuivant upon search for anything of his missed them very narrowly." They were published in two parts or volumes thus entitled:

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Rapha Hartford, or Harford, the editor, prefixes some interesting prefatory matter, and we have An Approbation written by Thos. Brooks, and subscribed also by Matthew Barker, two eminent and excellent Puritan divines. This Approbationing will no doubt be included in the edition of Brooks' Works which is being issued under the careful editorship of Mr. Grosart. Brooks quaintly says :

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"Let me intreat thee, Reader, that as thou readest this Book, to read also thine own Heart; and by this thou mayest come to find thine heart in the book, and the book in thine heart; and [this] will make thee fall upon thy face, with that Idiot, and worship God, and report, God is in this Word of a truth, 1 Cor. xiv. 25."

This Approbation is followed by an Imprimatur signed "Joseph Caril, Decemb. 6, 1652," and "Testimonies freely given by Mr. John Webby ster, and by Mr. John Cardel, in their public preaching at Allhallows, Lombard Street." "Next we have some verses on the author's Picture, subscribed W. C. and L. D. My copy unfortunately wants the portrait. We are told by the editor that Dr. Everard "was a man of presence and princely behaviour and deportment, and of a choice, courageous, and discerning spirit." Several of his "preached for Mr. Hodges at the public Meeting-place at Highgate." Is anything known of this Mr. Hodges?

sermons were

In his sermons, Dr. Everard quotes by name Plato and Plotinus, p. 248; Proclus on the Eu

phemism of the Greeks, ii. 380; Origen, i. 139; Dionysius, i. 375, ii. 25; S. Austin and S. Bernard, and "the Primitive Fathers" frequently; and twice he refers to "that godly speech of St. Francis" of Assisi, "that he called every creature his brother," ii. 69, 229. He also quotes anonymously from Epictetus, i. 327, and various other writers. While his style is grave and devout, our author not unfrequently uses homely proverbs; thus in one place he says: "I have known many old priests who, as for experience in grace, could not so much as say Boe to a goose, as the proverb is but I upbraid no man, for I know grace is God's gift," ii. 266. Again: "Tis said in a proverb, Who so bold as blind Bayard, but we may as truly apply it to Opinion," i. 51. Cf. pp. 162, 225, 306, 345.

With all drawbacks and disadvantages, Dr. Everard's discourses have a great and peculiar value of their own, and contain some of the very best specimens of mystic piety in the English language. Though they follow Dionysius, Scotus, and Tauler in speculations on Being and Nonbeing, inviting us to lay aside all beggarly elements and accidents, and "see how God in all His creatures works;" yet their pervading character is not metaphysical, but spiritual and practical. The discourses "Of suffering and reigning with Christ" contain the essence of the whole book, and, under the figure of the Six Steps of Solomon's Throne, contain the most complete account we possess in English of the devout Mystic's Progress in the Inward and Spiritual Life. As Dr. Everard's works are very rare (notwithstand

three editions), and very little known, I shall quote a few short passages as specimens. The first extract reminds one of some remarks on the personal pronoun "I" which occur, I think, in

Hare's Guesses at Truth :

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"All that thou callest I, all that Selfness, all that Arrogancy, all that Propriety, that thou hast taken to thyself,-all this must be brought to nothing. Whatsoever creates in us I-ness or Self-ness, or our own applause or estimation, this is pulvis et cinis, nay, worse than dust and ashes,-lies and vanity; for take away these, and we are glorious creatures, the workmanship of GOD Himself; but these things, Iness and Selfness, Pride and High-thoughts being let in,-these make us deformed, This word these make us like the Devil himself. or letter I, tho' it be a very small one, yet it is very comprehensive, and includes in it a world of iniquity, both towards God and our neighbour and ourselves; and indeed is the very source and fountain of all wickedness." vol. i. 290.


"We have need of Patience, that we may be moulded to GOD's Will, that we may be as pliable to His Will, as wax is to the seal: and then we shall be sure always either to please God, or God shall please us, or both then all shall be at peace; for if we were come to this, that nothing that God doth did displease us, then nothing that we did should displease God. He that hath attained the practice of this Life I speak of, he is a man always satisfied. But so far as we come short, when we desire anything, and God gives it not, then we fall at wars with

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