I do not know if the exact name, Van Dunk, really exists in Holland. If not, it so conveniently approximates to the adjective describing the nature of Mynheer, that, when once invented, it could not easily die :

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my name's Vandunke.

Hempskirke. Van-drunk it's rather." Beggars' Bush, Act II. Sc. 3. As to the "monumental bottle" of the catch, I surmise it is inseparable from the character. In the final scene of The Beggars' Bush, Mynheer enters with a drum at the head of the beggars,


Like Caesar, when he bred his

"Vandunke. SITE Commentaries; So I, to breed my chronicle, came forth Cæsar Vandunke, et veni, vidi, vici! Give me my bottle, and set down the drum." JOHN ADDIS, JUN.

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WOLWARDE (4th S. i. 65, 181, 254.)—I find this word in The Letting of Humors Blood in the HeadVaine, of Samuel Rowlands, London, 1611: "His breeches that came to him by befriending, Are desperat lik himselfe, and quite past mending. He takes a common course to goe vntrust, Except his Shirt's a washing; then he must Goe wool-ward for the time: he scorns it hee, That's worth two Shirts his Landresse should him see." Satyre 5.

In the reprint of this piece, edited by Sir Walter Scott (small 4to, Edinburgh, 1815), the following note is appended to the passage I have cited:


"Our ancestors' dress consisted of three principal parts, cloak, doublet, and hose. The former was often laid aside when the gallant was said to be in cuerpo. The hose, like the present pantaloons, comprehended breeches and stockings in one piece. They were fixed to the doublet by a vast number of strings called points, by tying or unloosing of which the person was trussed or untrussed. A slovenly, careless ruffian, like him described in the satire, went about without being trussed, unless when his only shirt was a-washing, when the hiatus between the hose and doublet would have exposed the deficiency of linen. Thus, like Don Armado, he went wool-ward for penance."-p. vii. WILLIAM BATES.


If A. H. will only take time enough he will find my explanations quite right; and if so, he will not need to be at the trouble of proving them wrong.

Meanwhile, I must comment upon his two new statements. His first is, that there is no allusion to penance in the quotation from the Crede. Of course this is quite right, for it is in the quotation from Hampole that penance is implied.

Secondly, he thinks that to go wolwarde means to go woolwards. Certainly not. In the first expression, wolwarde is an adjective; and he has not distinguished between the endings ward and wards, which were never confounded till recently in English writings. To go woolward means to go

about "with the woolly side in "; and the verb to go is here used, as elsewhere in old English, for to go about, much as in the Bible (see Gen. iii. 14.) To go woolwards, if it ever were to be used (for it never has been), could only mean that which we more commonly express by the phrase" to go a wool-gathering.” WALTER W. SKEAT. 7, Cintra Terrace, Cambridge.

MUSIC TO NEALE'S "HYMNS OF THE EASTERN Neale's Hymns of the Eastern Church is composed CHURCH" (4th S. i. 221.)-The music to Dr. by a Mrs. Barker, wife of a clergyman, unbeneficed, at Brighton.

7613 R. C. S. W.

"FAREWELL MANCHESTER" (4th S. i. 220.)— L. E. B. will find words to "Farewell Manchester in Macfarren's collection of Old English Ballads. It begins:


"Farewell Manchester, noble town farewell, Here with loyalty every breast may swell."

Only two verses are given, and I do not know if any more are extant. R. C. S. W.

"THE OUTLANDISH KNIGHT" (4th S. i. 221, 344.) In his answer headed as above, MR. LLEWELLYNN JEWITT states that

"The above old ballad is still occasionally sung among the labouring population of the Midland Counties, among their purity."" whom many of the finest old ballads are still retained in all

This is a very interesting intimation. A collection of these fine old ballads, gathered from the and from other sources, would not only be sinlips of the persons among whom they are popular, gularly acceptable to the poetical archeologist, but would be a real contribution to the cause of popular education; for reading will never be a favourite occupation for the spare time of labouring men, unless some cultivation of the imaginative faculties be attempted. What makes the Scotch comparatively an educated people is, their attachment to (the highest poetry) the Bible, and to their national ballads. Would MR. JEWITT be prevailed on to think of this? J. H. C.

TOBY JUG (3rd S. xii. 523; 4th S. i. 160.)Your correspondent A. A. asks where the Bow china manufactory stood. The establishment is known to have been founded in 1744, and about a month ago, in trenching for a drain at the lucifer-match works of Messrs. Bell & Black at Bow, the cutting intersected a waste-heap, and many fragments have been found, consisting of knife-handles, cups, and plaster moulds for casting the ornaments in relief. The curator of the Geological Museum, Jermyn Street, has thus been enabled to identify, as of Bow manufacture two perfect specimens in the ceramic collection of that museum, and Mr. Bell has liberally given several of the fragments to the Museum. JOHN PIGGOT, JUN.

JOHN PHILIPOTT (4th S. i. 31, 352.)—To your own and MR. MANUEL's replies to the query respecting the Somerset herald of this name, you may add that he attended Charles I. at the siege of Gloucester, and was the bearer of the king's summons to the citizens to surrender that city, Aug. 10, 1643. He wished to read the king's summons openly at the High Cross, "but his Majesty, by his message, not requiring the same, the Governor (Massy) would no wayes permit it." He was, nevertheless, received with much courtesy, and his horse was led away and stabled while the citizens debated less upon their answer than "in satisfying Mr. Maior's scruples touching his oath of fidelity." At length they resolved to send an answer "by messengers of their own," and "within the time appointed," replied —

"We doe keepe this city, according to our oaths and allegiance, to and for the use of his Majesty and his royal posterity, and doe accordingly conceive ourselves wholly bound to obey the commands of his Majesty, signified by both Houses of Parliament, and are resolved by God's helpe to keepe this city accordingly."

See the learned and interesting introduction to the Bibliotheca Glocestrensis by Rev. J. Webb. The scene has been admirably painted by Mr. R. J. J. P. Dowling.

King's Bench Walk, Temple.

STITCHLET (4th S. i. 316.)—I am afraid that I must plead guilty to the charge of coining and uttering this word. When I wrote the paper in which it occurs, it seemed to come familiar to me; but

this doubtless arose from the fact that I had made former use of it-if I am not mistaken-in these columns. My object was to find an English substitute for the French word brochure, when wishing to indicate a book of small dimensions, stitched or sewed, and not bound. I do not pretend to justify the etymological construction of the term, in which I fear I have been somewhat inconsiderate. If any correspondent will suggest a better word, I shall be happy, for one, to adopt it. WILLIAM BATES.

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specify. Meanwhile I can name a somewhat oldfashioned volume thus entitled:

"Nuovo Metodo per la Lingua Italiana la più scelta, estensivo a tutte le lingue; col quale si possono agevolmente ricercare e rinvenire ordinatamente i Vocaboli espressivi di pressochè tutte le Cose Fisiche, Spirituali, e Scientifiche; cavati dal Vocabolario de' Signori Accade

mici della Crusca. Milano, Malatesta, 1748-50."


The compiler of the book is Girolamo Andrea Martignoni, but his name does not appear on the title-page. The first part (or first volume) professes to contain "The Words of Physical Things, subdivided under the seven Manual Arts, four of the Liberal Arts, and some of the principal predicaments and genera of all things.' In less abstruse language, the subdivision into sections gives Medicine and Food; the Chase, Fowling, and Fishing; Agriculture; Navigation; War; Building; Weaving and Clothing; Astronomy; Music; Arithmetic; Geometry and Painting; Generic Words. The second part gives the words of Moral Things, or Ethics, into the subdivisions of which I probably need not enter. The book, it should be understood, is not in any degree encyclopædic: it is a classified dictionary, giving and briefly defining the words and phrases appropriate to the several arts, &c. W. M. ROSSETTI.

I think that the Frasario Mercantile, published at both the first and second of MR. G. A. SCHRUMPF'S Trieste, within the last few years, will supply wants. The work gives each term or phrase in English, French, German, and Italian.



THE WIFE'S SURNAME (4th S. i. 343.)-In connection with your correspondent O. P. Q.'s letter, the custom of the former republic (now canton) of Geneva seems to me worth mentioning. Geneva, till within the last thirty years, it was the custom for the husband and wife to use the wife's maiden name after the husband's. Thus, if Monsieur A. married Mademoiselle B., they were thenceforth known as Monsieur and Madame A. B.; and after the death of one, the survivor continued to be so called. This custom is by no means extinct, though it is now of less universal application than formerly.


It is my belief that O. P. Q. has made rather a sweeping assertion by saying, that "all over modern Europe" a woman loses by marriage "all ostensible connection with her own family designation." In Portugal, the very country from which O. P. Q. takes his illustration, such is not the case; as it is customary there for a woman to add her husband's surname to her own, so that (to keep O. P. Q.'s example) the Senhorita Monica Mendes by her marriage to the Senhor Manoel Pereira becomes Senhora Monica Mendes Pereira. I may further add that "Senhora,” and not


"Senhorita," is the usual word for "Miss" well as "Madame," and is never used without "Dona" being put after it; therefore, the abovementioned lady would be addressed correctly as Senhora Dona Monica Mendes Pereira. HERMIT.

CANNING'S DESPATCH (4th S. i. 267, 302.)—I beg leave respectfully to observe that the version which G. says is correct is not so. It ran thus:"In making of treaties* the fault of the Dutch

Is giving too little, and asking too much.
With equal advantage the rest† are content,
So we'll clap on Dutch bottoms a twenty per cent.
Twenty per cent,
Twenty per cent,
Nous frapperons Falcke with twenty per cent."


SIR JOHN DAVIES (4th S. i. 245.)—The present owner of Bottisham Hall, George Jenyns, Esq., says that he does not remember any picture answering to the description given by your correspondent; but it is possible such an one may have been stowed away in a lumber room. The place is at present let; but he expects to be there in July next, when he will institute a search, the result of which shall be communicated. F. H. H. THE TEN COMMANDMENTS (4th S. i. 360.)-I was sorry to find in the respectable and impartial pages of "N. & Q." an unjust and often refuted charge revived, and in these very uncourteous terms: "In this copy the second Mosaic commandment is left out, as was usual in Romanist times." The writer of this offensive sentence ought to know that Catholics include what he would call the second commandment in the first, considering it as merely an explanation of the foregoing words. Therefore, if it was at any time omitted, it was merely for the sake of brevity, as in the metrical version which he adduces, and not to favour idolatry, as the accusation evidently insinuates.

F. C. H. YEW TREES IN CHURCHYARDS (4th S. i. The general tradition, which I have heard in almost all parts of the country, is, that these trees were planted to provide the best material of which the long-bows were made. The wakes, churchales, &c., were generally held in the churchyards, and, among other sports, the shooting at the butts was one of the principal: so that the archers may have watched the growth of the tree, and have selected from time to time the branches best suited for the purpose. A. A.

Poets' Corner,

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Vestiarium Christianum. The Origin and gradual Development of the Dress of Holy Ministry in the Church. By the Rev. Wharton B. Marriott, M.A., F.S.A., &c. (Rivington.)

At a moment like the present, when the question of vestments is agitating the whole body of the church, the admirers of what is called a higher ritual seeing in the more ornate vestments the symbolism of their peculiar views, while less advanced churchmen regard their introduction at least with regret, and the Evangelical party with mingled feelings of alarm and repugnanceat such a moment, a careful inquiry into the origin and gradual development of our ecclesiastical costume must command general attention. Mr. Marriott seems to have spared no pains in investigating the question, and his publishers no expense in giving forth the result of his inquiries in a most suitable manner, for it is illustrated by cuts; and the value of such illustrations in a work of no less than sixty-three plates, besides numerous woodthis character it is impossible to overrate. The volume, which will no doubt be widely studied, will be found by no means favourable to the novelties which have given rise to so much recent controversy. It would seem that for the first four centuries the dress of Christian ministry was in form, in shape, in distinctive name identical with the dress worn by persons of condition, on occasions of joyous festival or solemn ceremonial. In the four succeeding centuries, after this older costume had disappeared from common use, it was still preserved in the state dresses of Roman official dignitaries, and in the vestments which alone were considered seemly for such as ministered in


the various offices of the church and it was not till the
age of Charlemagne that the peculiarities of ecclesiastical
dress began to attract the attention of churchmen, and
an attempt was made to trace out in detail a correspond-
ence between the "eight vestments" of the Jewish High
Priest and those of Christian ministry. The type of dress
thus established has been maintained in the Roman

Church, with slight variations, to our own time. But at
and, to use Mr. Marriott's words, "the result has been
the Reformation we rejected the medieval type of dress,
that the customary ministering dress of the English
clergy, during the last three hundred years, has been in
colour and appearance, though not in name, all but
exactly identical with that which we find assigned to the
Apostles in the earliest monuments of Christendom; and
which, upon similar evidence, we shall find reason to
conclude was,
in point of fact, the dress of Christian
ministry in the primitive ages of the Church."
work is one which commends itself to the special atten-
tion of all who take an interest in the subject of vest-
ments; and those who may most dissent from Mr. Mar-
riott's views must acknowledge their obligations to him
for the vast amount of materials for the discussion of the
question which he has accumulated in this very hand-

some volume.

Morte D'Arthur. Sir Thomas Mallory's Book of King
Arthur and of his Noble Knights of the Round Table.
The original edition of Caxton, revised for modern Use.
With an Introduction by Sir Edward Strachey, Bart.
The Globe Edition. (Macmillan.)

This is a marvellously cheap and neat reprint of a book which for nearly four centuries has been more or less a public favourite. It has been especially prepared for the perusal of ordinary readers, more especially boys, from whom the chief demand for it may be expected to come. It is a book well deserving to be in

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BALLAD SOCIETY.-Not discouraged by the difficulties which he has encountered in bringing out the Percy Ballads, Mr. Furnivall proposes to start a Ballad Society for printing the Pepysian Roxburghe Collections, and indeed all our Ballads, printed and manuscript. Great as is Mr. Furnivall's energy, we doubt if it will suffice to carry this scheme into effect. What moderate library will be ably to devote room for the volumes which these ballads alone will occupy?

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Notices to Correspondents.

UNIVERSAL CATALOGUE OF BOOKS ON ART.-All Additions and Corrections should be addressed to the Editor, South Kensington Museum, London, W.

PERCY'S RELIQUES.-The printing of Bishop Percy's Folio Manuscript is at length finished, and Part 2 of Vol. II. and Vol. III. will be in the publisher's hands for delivery next week. The subscription list is closed, except for the five and ten guinea editions. The prices of the others are raised, and the demy and extra octavos are now procurable only through the trade. There is a heavy debt still on the book, which it is to be hoped that the trade-sales will clear, as it would not be creditable that the promoter of the printing of this interesting folio should be a pecuniary sufferer from his zeal in securing Hing DATES of HISTORICAL EVENTS, and of PUBLIC an object which all admirers of Percy's world-renowned collection have long desired to see accomplished.


and PRIVATE DOCUMENTS: giving Tables of Regnal Years of English Sovereigns, with leading Dates from the Conquest, 1066 to 1856. By JOHN J. BOND, Assistant Keeper of the Public Records. Crown 8vo, cloth, gilt top, 15s.

MESSRS. BELL & DALDY, 45 & 46, York Street, Covent Garden.


Wanted by Mr. John Wilson, 93, Great Russell Street, W.C.

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publication, in one volume, demy 8vo," Sacred Archeo-Wimmediate answer to the inquiry, and a SPEOMEN BOOK

logy; a Popular Dictionary of Ecclesiastical Art and Institutions, from Primitive to Modern Times."

OF TYPES, with information for Authors, may be obtained, on application to


J. M. C. is thanked, but we have not room for the long extract from Wood's Athenæ respecting Bishop Harley, nor for the account of Owen's College.

G. K. will find the alliterative poem, "An Austrian Army," &c., in our 3rd S. v. 46.

J. M. COOPER. The superstition respecting persons dying on pillows stuffed with game or pigeons' feathers is very common.


MR. STEWART's Query is too speculative.

M.A. CANTAD. There can be no difficulty in ascertaining whether yours really is the First Folio Shakspeare. Consult Lowndes' Bibliographer's Manual.

"NOTES & QUERIES" is registered for transmission abroad.


BOOKBUYERS.-Now ready, post free for

prising 700 Rare and Valuable BOOKS in History, Topography, Voyages and Travels, Natural History, Greek and Latin Classics, the Fine Arts, Architecture, and the Belles-Lettres.

NATTALI & BOND, 23, Bedford Street, Covent Garden, W.C.


A Gentleman, Member of Cambridge University, the son of a Nobleman, having access for twenty-five years to the British Museum Libraries, Record Offices, &c., offers his Services as a Searcher of MS8., Transcriber, Collator, &c.-M. S. S., 9, High Holborn.


BOOKS, Black-letter Books, Works illustrated by BawiCK and CROIESHANK, and a singular Collection of Trials, Ballads. Jests. Wit, Drolleries, &c. Sent by post on receipt of three stamps.-THOMAS BEET. 15, Conduit Street, Bond Street, London, W.

Libraries and small collections of books purchased.



plete, and extensively illustrated, commencing 1817, concluding 1837. 8vo, bds. clean. Price 51. 53.

Apply to MR. COOK, 28, Polygon, Seymour Street, St. Pancras.

BE SOLD, Seventy-three Copies of BERROW's

CARTWRIGHT, Severn Side, Bewdley.



NOTES:- Myrtle Wreaths and Orange Blossoms, 429 Shaksperian Pronunciation, 431 Madge Hilton, the Witch of Plumpton, Lancashire, Ib.-A Jewel from the Order of the Garter-Inedited Letter of Lord Nelson Occleve's "Poems" -Miss Edgeworth's Comedies - The French Invasion of Wales-" Boddice "-" Profanazione Litteraria"-Result-Verdant Green, 432.

QUERIES:- Banges: Freeman: Dillingham - Bealais

Beamish Beaumont

Box found near Holbeach-" Make

a Bridge of Gold for a flying Enemy"-" Dead as a Rat" - Dramatic Situation Essex's Colours Faith, Hope, and Charity-French Retreat from Moscow The Gordon Riots, 1780 Heart of Prince Charles Edward Stuart Heraldic Musgrave Heighington Lindisfarne

Thomas Percy, Bishop of Dromore-Playford and Playfair Families -Pre-Christian Cross-Quotation wantedProverb-Sundry Queries - Bishop Robinson-Ancient Scottish Seals-"Stradella," &c., 433.

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QUERIES WITH ANSWERS:- - Reformado, &c. - Red Uniform of the British Army-Old Proverb -"De Londres et de ses Environs"- Coronation Medals, 487. REPLIES:-Canning's Despatch, 438-Sir Walter Scott's Head, Portrait, &c., 439-Early Editions of the English Bible, 442-Clan Chattan, Ib. Plagiarism, 443

Chasles and Euclid's Porisms, 444- Pictures of the Ele

phant-Lych-Gate-Familiar Words: the Exclamation of Brutus - Organ Accompaniment to Solo Singers Composition of Bell-Metal-Painter wanted: Herman Vander Myn-Bishop Harley-Holy, Healthy, Heiland -"Funeral of the Mass Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham-Lane Family - Douglas Rings - Passage in "Piers Ploughman," &c., 445.

Notes on Books, &c.


MYRTLE WREATHS AND ORANGE BLOSSOMS. "Et vos, O lauri, carpam, et te, proxima myrte, Sic positæ quoniam suavis miscetis odores." VIRGIL, Ecl. ii. 54.

Nothing has ever appeared, to my own individual liking, more in bad taste than the bridal orange blossom on or in a bonnet, the latter ranging from "coal scuttle" to the present style of dessert plates. The orange flower is a stiff awkward flower, which owes its great prerogative merely to its former exalted state as a rare, and afterwards as a scented flower; and even in its natural state it would form but a wiry wreath, and of course still more so if made of leather and cambric. Fashion has put her veto down, and, stiff and unbecoming, the flower is essential to the bridal attire in England, though her Saxon kinsmen in Germany and Scandinavia have remained faithful to the myrtle, dedicated to the goddess of love (Venus: Freia). It has always struck me as very remarkable how rarely English poets mention the orange blossom in this its relation to Hymen; whilst, on the other hand, German poets love to dwell on the bridal myrtle. Thus Fouqué, the author of Undine, sings:

"Auch du gingst einst, die Myrt' im Haare, An Bräut'gam's Arme zum Altare, Frischblühend wie der May."


"Die Greisin."

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To the German bride, then, high and low, the myrtle wreath is the real bridal emblem, to which only the virgin has a right, and which, of course, the widow (in case of her being married again) has no right to wear. Young girls will plant a myrtle when a child, and watch its growth till the happy day on which they will cut it for a bridal wreath. It is considered unlucky to give away the graceful branches of such a myrtle to a fair friend who is going to be united "for better for worse"; these branches must form the wreath of the young girl herself who planted the myrtle, or become at least her "Todtenkranz (death wreath), if she should not marry. It is also considered unlucky to make a bridal wreath"Brautkranz"-with the natural flowers of the myrtle; artificial ones are always substituted for the former, even if the little bush were to have blossoms at the time its branches are used. Such a wreath, then, is very becoming to a fresh youthful face; and there is a German saying, that there is no plain German bride, meaning that her attire at least her wreath-is so becoming.


If a young girl dies, she also wears such a myrtle wreath in her coffin; and it was the custom formerly to hang up a similar wreath or crown, made of artificial myrtle, in the churches and in the chapels in the churchyards, especially in the Todtenkranz." country. This is the so-called It must be an old Greek custom, probably derived from the usage of adorning the altar of Venus with myrtle wreaths when a young girl died. Pliny mentions such an altar of Venus, afterwards called Murtia; he also speaks of three different kinds of myrtles-Patritia, Plebia, and Conjugalis. Virgil speaks of Æneas encircling his brow with the "materna myrto" when visiting the grave of his father:

"Die Löwenbraut."

"Das Lied von der Glocke."

The libretto is by Friedrich Kind.

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