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rich civilities to the English ambassador for her use, which," adds the sultana-mother, "your majesty will be pleased to wear for the love of " the sultana. Haydn's Book of Dignities gives a list of English ambassadors to Turkey, but does not go further back than to the beginning of the reign of George III. (1760), to which date all his lists are limited. We can, however, trace them easily back to the year 1660, for in Pepys' Diary, i. 100, there is an entry on August 9 of that year, of his attendance at the Rhenish wine-house with "Captain Hayward of the Plymouth, who is now ordered to carry my Lord Winchilsea Embassador to Constantinople." This was Heneage Finch, the second earl, whose fifth son, Leopold William, Warden of All Souls' College, and Prebendary of Canterbury, was born there.
WHEAT (4th S. i. 270.)-A good deal of information on this subject will be found in Part I. chap. iii. (vol. i. p. 150 et sqq., 3rd edition) of Elliott's Hora Apocalypticæ. D. M. SIR WALTER SCOTT (3rd S. xi. 457, 529.)-Will DR. ROGERS kindly say whether he has any certain authority for assigning the names of Lord Chief Commissioner Adam and Sir Henry Jardine to two of the portraits in the picture of "Sir Walter Scott and his friends"? I possess a key to the print, which describes the two figures on the extreme left to be Thomas Thomson, Esq., and Sir Humphrey Davy-the latter erect, and examining a sword. C. W. M.
DICE (4th S. i. 28, 89, 136, 179, 256.)-MR. KING's interpretation of the letters on the dice seems to be more than a "guess at truth"-it is certainly ingenious, and perhaps right. Still I am rather inclined to take the letters OPTI and IIE as meaning respectively optima and cave. Thus taken, the sentence would run, "Venus alma est optima, Cave aleator." The best throw was always called Venus, and when tali were played with, consisted of odd numbers; when tessera, of sixes. Of the former Lucian says, Μηδενὸς ἀστραγάλου πεσόντος ἴσῳ σχήματι καλεῖται 'Appodirn. To the latter Persius refers in his description of a certain young Roman "hopeful". "Jure etenim id summum, quid dexter senio ferret, Scire erat in voto."
From this throw, whether of the tali or the tessera, the "regnum vini" was decided, and the "arbiter bibendi" chosen. (See Horace, ode 4, lib. 1, line 18, and ode 7, lib. 2, line 25.) The worst cast was called canis, or, according to sius, "damnosa canicula." Of the origin of either of the terms I am unable to offer any explanation. Patching Rectory, Arundel. EDMUND TEW. OVID'S "METAMORPHOSES": ROGER GALE (4th S. i. 252.) — Roger Gale, 1649, whose autograph
"This lady must have been niece to the Mistress Jane Lane, in whose escort Charles II., disguised as a servant, went from Bentley to Bristol, preparatory to his escape into France. There is a tradition that his majesty halted in this parish, and, to avoid suspicion, was glad to turn shoeblack at the Talbot Inn. It is evident that Colonel Lane had property at Knightwick, which being in the line of route from Bentley to Bristol, the royal fugitive and the young lady who rode behind him probably rested
A water-colour drawing of this Talbot Inn is now before me. I contributed it to the Exhibition of Drawings and Sketches by Amateur Artists, held at 121, Pall Mall, 1853; and it was thus described in the catalogue:
"No. 295. Knightsford Bridge Inn, Valley of the Teme, Worcestershire. (Charles II. lay hid here for some time disguised as a shoeblack. It was then inhabited by Col. Lane)."
that this house was the residence of Colonel The local tradition, as I always heard it, was Lane, and that it was not until a later period that it was converted to the Talbot Inn, so well known to anglers and pic-nic parties. The front of the house has long been modernised; but when, in 1852, I made that sketch just mentioned, of the back of the house, its stables, out-buildings, &c., all the back portion of the premises remained in their original condition, and presented very good materials for the sketcher. While I was making the drawing, the landlord of the house came to me and expressed a hope that I would not put his tumble-down premises "into a picture," but would wait for another month or two, as he was just about to rebuild all that portion of the house and out-buildings. This was soon afterwards done, and the house has lost all the distinctive features that formerly characterised it. From this, it apPer-peared that I was just in time to secure a representation of the back portion of the house as it existed from the time of Charles II.'s visit-supposing that he was ever there. But, even if this is merely a legend, the house has nevertheless been patronised by royalty; for, during the time
that the late queen dowager was residing at Witley Court, she frequently drove to this inn. CUTHBERT BEDE. QUOTATIONS WANTED (4th S. i. 269.)-The Greek epigram inquired for by STUDENT is as follows:— Τὸ ῥόδον ἀκμάζει βαιὸν χρόνον· ἣν δὲ παρέλθῃ, ζητῶν εὑρήσεις οὐ ῥόδον, ἀλλὰ βάτον. The author I have not discovered; but I have seen a German translation by JAKOBS, thus:— "Wenige Tage nur währt die Rosenzeit; sind sie verschwunden,
Siehst du die Rose nicht mehr, sondern die Dornen allein."
F. C. H.
"NEC PLURIBUS IMPAR" (4th S. i. 275.) - A passage from Anselm may, I think, be added to MR. BUCKTON'S instances of negatives producing affirmative propositions:
"Multum usitata est hujusmodi locutio ut dicatur res aliqua posse, non quia in illa, sed quoniam in alia re est potestas; et non posse, non quoniam in illa, sed in alia re est impotentia. Dicimus namque, iste homo potest vinci, pro, aliquis potest eum vincere,' et ille non potest vinci' pro nullus eum vincere potest.' Non enim potestas est, posse vinci, sed impotentia, nec vinci non posse impotentia est sed potestas."- Cur Deus Homo, l. ii. c. xviii. p. 153, Lond. 1863. H. B. C.
U. U. Club.
WOLWARDE (4th S. i. 65, 181.)- MR. SKEAT will please allow me time for a completion of the task he has assigned me. In his edition of Piers Plowman's Crede, line 788—“And werchen and wolward gon as we wrecches usen "-the leading idea is poverty. I fail to see any allusion to pen
In the passage from Shakespere (Love's Labour's Lost, Act V. Sc. 2) the idea of penance is a transparent joke. King David wore what we call sack-cloth for penance. Roman Catholics are said to use hair shirts for this purpose. The term wolwarde, I must conclude, means to go woolwards, towards wool; as we now say northward or homeward-i. e. in the direction of wool for clothing, with a tendency to wear woollen garments;
not that one who goes wolward, as in Piers Plowman's Crede, means the temporary act of enforced penance, but a permanent habit of clothing. A. H.
THE BERBERS (4th S. i. 123, 256.)-I will add to MR. BUCKTON's list Francis W. Newman's writings on the Berber language. The French in Algeria have written on the North African languages. I have just sent a note to the Ethnological in relation to the Guanches, which refers to the position of the North African languages, which I classify, not as Sub-Semitic, but as Semitic. There is no philological justification for excluding them from Semitic. Rénan's reasons are purely ethical. His philological reasons are HYDE CLARKE. not sufficient.
AUTO DE FÉ (4th S. i. 243.)—“ Auto da Fé” is the Portuguese form, and is perfectly correct, as is the Spanish equivalent "Auto de Fé." The propriety of using either would strictly depend on the particular division of the Peninsula to which reference was made. Treating of the institution in its Spanish aspect, Mr. Ticknor always uses the phrase "Auto de Fé." The Portuguese form, however, having got into the larger dictionaries, printers and press correctors give it a preference, which accounts for its more frequent use. D. F. M. C.
The phrase "Auto da Fé," so strenuously condemned by your learned correspondent as corrupted from the Spanish, is not Spanish at all, but Portuguese. In Portuguese it is commonly used, and quite correct, da standing for de a, and a being here the article feminine. SCHIN.
"ELIZA RIVERS " (4th S. i. 246.)-The Favourite of Nature, or, as called in the French translation, from the name of the heroine, Eliza Rivers-was published by Whittaker, Ave Maria Lane, before 1821, and dedicated to Mrs. Joanna Baillie. Osmond, by the same author, was published by the same firm in 1822, and dedicated to Lady Dacre. In each case the anonymous author states that she does so "by permission." Her real name must, therefore, have been known to them. Trevelyan was by the Hon. Caroline Lucy, Lady Scott. LYDIARD. Demanne has certainly made some curious mistakes in the paragraphs cited by MR. HAMST Alice (not Eliza), Rivers, and Osmond are by Miss M. A. Kelty, who has also written Life by the Fireside, which will perhaps be Scènes de la Vie intime. I do not know anything of Miss Kelty's answering to the titles of Scènes du Grand Monde, or Laura de Montreville. The seven following works by her were all, I believe, published anonymously:- Alice Rivers, Favourite of Nature, Visiting my Relatioms, Waters of Comfort (devo
tional poetry), Osmond, Story of Isabel, Life by the Fireside.
Marriage in High Life, and Trevelyan, are certainly Lady Scott's. WILLIAM E. A. AXON.
SOVEREIGN: SUVVERIN (3rd S. xii. 507; 4th S. i. 85, 278.)-I must dissent entirely from E. L. S.'s etymology of this word. It is perfectly true that we have in old French the word sobre, so also we have it in Provençal; but in both we have another word, su, which also means above. The latter runs as a compound term through modern French, as for instance in the phrase "L'un assit au dessus moi, et l'autre au dessous," where the first means above, and the other below me. The French word for sovereign is souverain. I have heard one of my Scotch servants almost plagiarise Shakespeare when for some small ailment of my own (I think a cold), he told me that some recipe, I forget what,
was souverain for a cauld."
Suzerain or suserain is also a common word, as indicative, not only of the sovereign, but of a subject feudal superior in old legal deeds. I hand over sovereign with the short to the mercy of E. L. S., as I am afraid it will find no friends. GEORGE VERE IRVING.
"BEHIND HE HEARS TIME'S IRON GATES CLOSE FAINTLY (4th S. i. 269.)-MR. BATES will find the fine poem from which he quotes in the Vision of Prophecy, and other Poems, by James D. Burns (2nd edit., Edmonston & Douglas). He may be further interested to know that the late Dr. James Hamilton had just put the finishing touch to a Memoir of this gifted namesake of Scotland's foremost poet, before his death; and that it may be looked for soon. A. B. GROSART. Blackburn.
OAKHAM HORSE-SHOE CUSTOM (4th S. i. 147.)This custom has not been discontinued; but, since the railway epoch, it has been not so easy to collect it as in the olden time. It is to be presumed that a nobleman who thinks proper to walk up from the station would be exempt. The collection of horse-shoes on the gates and interior of the fine country hall is very interesting. Some of the earlier ones appear to be actual shoes, and in later times Lord Willoughby D'Eresby insisted on the shoe being taken from one of his horses; but, generally speaking, they are large figures of horse-shoes in iron plate, gilt or painted yellow, and marked with the name and date. They vary in size according to the liberality of the individual; the minimum fee, I believe, being 51. It goes to the clerk of the market. When I saw them, ten years ago, the most recent was that of Lord Campbell on his going the circuit. Queen Elizabeth's is of large dimensions, but that of George IV., when Prince Regent, outstrips them
Mr. Hartshorne, in his account of the Hall of Oakham (Archeological Journal, v. 137), mentions that no trace of a toll on horses passing through the town has been found in the various records that have been consulted. The origin which has been assigned to the custom, from the early connection of the place with the Ferrars' family, he is inclined to think fanciful. It was, however, found by juries in the years 1275 and 1276, that the bailiffs of Oakham in the reign of Henry III. and Edward I. took toll of carriages, horses bought or sold, and all other merchandise at Oakham; and in this Mr. Hartshorne thinks some trace of the origin of the custom may be detected. It is worth remark, that the clerk of the market takes the toll, which seems to connect it with the matters named in the Inquisitions. The earliest known mention of it would appear to be by Camden. H. C.
THE REV. SIR WILLIAM TILSON MARSH, BART. (4th S. i. 246.)-Will MR. BINGHAM consult his Clergy List again? I find no difficulty in discovering this gentleman's name in it, and a very recent one is not needed, for I heard him preach seventeen years ago. Sir W. R. Tilson Marsh is the only son of the late Dr. Marsh, Rector of Beckenham, the grandson of Sir Charles Marsh, and the brother of Miss Catherine Marsh, the well-known authoress of English Hearts and English Hands, and other popular works. Sir William has inherited the baronetcy recently, since the death of his venerable father,
Your respected correspondent would, I think, regret saying anything undeservedly offensive against anyone of "the cloth." He will find much about the Rev. William R. Tilson Marsh
in the interesting Life of the late Rev. Dr. Marsh, of Leamington and elsewhere, by his daughter, the author of Hedley Vicars, &c. Mr. Marsh is of kin to Sir Henry Marsh, an Irish baronet, but not in the line of succession: to which dignity, according to the peerages, there is not at present any heir at all.
A. H. JOHN PHILIPOTT (4th S. i. 31.)-As the question-"Who was John Philipott?"-asked by your correspondent MR. J. M. COWPER, is not so fully answered in the editorial note as that gentleman and possibly other readers of "N. & Q." may desire, it occurs to me that the following information, taken from Gough's British Topography, 1780 (ii. 285), may be worth insertion.
John Philipott was born at Folkstone; appointed Blanchelyon, then Rougedragon, Nov. 19, 1618; Somerset Herald, July 8, 1624; and carried the Order of the Garter to the Elector Charles Ludovic in Brabant. He attended the king at Oxford, 1642; and being seized by the Parliament soldiery, was sent to London about 1644, where
Thus far MR. ADDIS. I confess this seems to me by no means "the required meaning." "Vse," if I am not mistaken, here signifies "burn," from the Latin urere, ustum. I recollect seeing, not long ago, a jeer against a passage in some book (named, I think, Directorium Anglicanum) issued by the Ritualist party in the English Church; which passage enjoined that, if any fly or other insect fell into the consecrated chalice, said insect was to be carefully extracted therefrom and burned. This seems to be exactly the same precept as laid down by John Myre. According to this sense of line 1940, I understand line 1939 to mean "If thou darest to plunge [thy fingers] thereinto "i. e. into the chalice, in order to fish out the insect. Were I to understand line 1940 as MR. ADDIS does, I should be at a loss what to make of line 1939.
I should add, in conclusion, that I have not by me the book from which MR. ADDIS quotes; and, therefore, have not the advantage of seeing the several contexts.,
W. M. ROSSETTI.
GUNDRED DE WARREN (4th S. i. 268.)- The entire absence of dates from W. C. M.'s extract renders it more difficult to answer his queries than it might otherwise have been, but the following facts may afford him some help in unravelling the difficulty:
or ap; coire, a and there are J. H. TODD.
I. Gundred de Warren. Gundred, Countess of Warren (whose relationship to William the Conqueror is extremely doubtful), had a daughter Gundred, who married Ernisius de Colunchis, and was living in 1152. The countess had also a granddaughter Gundred (daughter of her son William), who was thrice married (1) Roger, Earl of Warwick; (2) about 1153, William de Lancaster, Baron of Kendal; (3) Roger de Glan... (probably Glanville). No other Gundred appears in the pedigree of the Earls of Warren and Surrey; but Gundred de Valoines may have been a Warren of Wirmgay, a younger branch of that family.
2. Christian and Lora de Valoines. This Christian was not a Valoines. The relationship stands thus: Peter de Valoines =
Gundred, or = Gunnora,
Lora Henry (not Alexander) de Baliol, granduncle of John K. of Scotland.
William de Mandeville, E. Essex. Raymond de Burgh.
The following extracts may help W. C. M.:—
"Robert, son of Warresius, son of John de Valoignes. Robert, son of Walter de V. Henry de V., Knight, with Hamo, Warresius, John, William, Thomas, and Stephen, brothers of the said Henry. Lora de V. and Maria her sister, and Warresius, son of Thomas de V."
These are entered merely as names of plaintiffs or defendants in lawsuits, and no further informa
tion given, 1337. (Rot. Pat. 11 Edw. III. Part 3, in dorso.)
"J. P. M. Evæ de Valeynes, Essex, 21 E. I." (1292-3). Eschators' Accounts, Exchequer, No. 5. "Warresius de Valoignes, lately killed; Margaret his widow." (Mar. 20, 1336.)—Rot. Pat. 10 E. III. Part 1.
Burke (Extinct Peerage) says that Lora de Valoines was one of the coheirs of (her half sister) HERMENTRUDE. Christian, Countess of Essex.
LONDON MUSICK SOCIETY, 1667 (4th S. i. 268.) Of the members of this society, three are chronicled by old Pepys-Piggott, Pelling, and Wallington. The first is described by Playford as a "gentleman," and the other two as citizens." "(14 Sept. 1667) We also to church, and then home, and there comes Mr. Pelling, with two men, by promise, one Wallington and Piggott, the former whereof, being a very little fellow, did sing a most excellent bass, and yet a poor fellow, a working goldsmith, that goes without gloves to his hands. Here we sung several good things. They supped with me, and so broke up."
Of Wallington we have also a notice (not very flattering) in Roger North's Memoirs of Musick, a MS. edited by me some years back:
"In a lane behind Paul's [a music meeting was held] where there was a chamber organ that one Phillips played upon, and some shopkeepers and foremen came weekly to sing in consort, and to hear, and enjoy ale and tobacco; and after some time the audience grew strong, and one Ben Wallington got the reputation of a notable base voice, who also set up for a composer, and had some songs in print, but of a very low excellence."
From these extracts we are assured that the members of the "Musick Society" of 1667, although doubtless "choice spirits" in their way, were not of a very refined order.
Wallington's compositions may be seen in Catch that Catch Can, 1666; Banister and Low's New Ayres and Dialogues, 1678; Choice Ayres and Songs, 1679; and in a MS. set of Part-Books in the library of York Minster. I have examined them all, and quite agree with Roger North as to their "low excellence."
Another member of the "Musick Society," Charles Pigeon, was the author of some verses, "To his ingenious Friend Mr. John Playford, upon his Musical Companion"; and also of some Latin lines, "Ad Magistrum Johannem Playford de Musica Sodali," both of which are to be found in the Catch that Catch Can, edit. 1667. He appears to have been a member of Gray's Inn.
EDWARD F. RIMBAULT.