NOTES:-Gaspar Schott, 165- The Talmud, 166-MS. Annotations to Butler's" Hudibras," 167-Oneyers: An Heires, 168-Queen's English, not King's, 168 Method proposed for deciphering Cuneiform Inscriptions-The Admirable Crichton - Proverbs - Prolific Family, 169. QUERIES: The Ash-tree, 170 References wanted

Thomas de Beckington, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 14431466 Carey Pedigree-Jean Caffart of Arras tical Colours Courts Martial — Gildas Gillingham Roodscreen Heraldic "Iconographie avec Portraits" Special Licence - Lincolnshire Queries Malone's Shakspeare-Patrons of Scotch Parishes "St. Pawsle❞ The Pixy and the Bean: Meaning of Patshaw - Pope and Mary Wortley Montague -Bishop of SalisburyScottish Sports - Weston, Earls of Portland Weston: Naylor-Chateaux of France, 170.


QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: - -The Battle of Bannockburn Wool-winders Burs Parnell's "Poems" Lord Strafford's Dying Words - Handwriting of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries-Resignation of a Peerage, 172.


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Calderon and Corneille, 174 Espec, 176 Longevity and Centenarianism, 177- Il Penseroso," Ib.


Dice, 179-The late Sir Edmund Head Shorthand for Literary Purposes Scotch Land Measures-"Dulcar


St. Simon and Monseigneur de Paris-Wolwarde Hans in Kelder-Vaughan: Dockwra-School in Queen Square Venice in 1848-Brockett-Sisyphus and his Stone-"Auch ich in Arkadien"- Mathew BuckingerGed's Stereotypes-Ealing School-American and Spanish Notes and Queries-Masonry-Hour-glasses in Pulpits -Lots"Ultima Ratio Regum," &c., 180. Notes on Books &c.


If we go on improving in letters as fast as we have recently done in the arts of life, we may hope that some day a body of men will be found with sufficient learning and zeal to give the world a history of European civilization. A vision of such a work has floated before the eyes of M. Guizot, the late Mr. Buckle, and sundry other scholars, both notable and obscure; but the field to be gone over is so large, the details so countless, and many of them so minute, that we cannot hope that any one man will ever be blessed with energy or leisure to accomplish it. The only chance we have is that some brotherhood like the Benedictines of St. Maur will take the work in hand. But the times are now very unpropitious for religious brotherhoods, and we doubt if any merely secular body could be held together or induced to work in concert for such a purpose.


When such a work is undertaken, the writers (endeavourers our ancestors would have called them) will do well to read all the productions of the singularly learned and quaint Jesuit physician, Gaspar or Caspar Schott. He was a German, born at Koenigshofen in the diocese of Wurtzburg in 1608. He entered the Society of Jesus at the age of nineteen years. His course of

* The Biographie Universelle says 1606.

study was finished in Sicily, as he was forced to fly from Germany on account of the war then raging. He taught for many years moral theology, philosophy, and mathematics, at Palermo. After thirty years' absence from his native country, he returned to finish his earthly course there. His death took place at Wurtzburg, May 22,* 1666.† He was evidently, during his whole life, a hard student, and a most industrious experimentalist and compiler. All his books were, however, published after his return to the Fatherland. None of them are much cared for now, though all are well worth reading by those who have an interest in old methods of thought. The best known, though perhaps not the most curious, is the Magia Universalis, in four quarto volumes. It treats on optics, acoustics, mathematics, and physics, and is a perfect storehouse of fact, experiment, and legend. By far the most amusing of his works is the Physica Curiosa, a dumpy quarto of nearly fourteen hundred pages. In this great commonplacebook, the worthy physician treats of angels, demons, and spectres; of dwarves, pigmies, and giants; of tritons, nereids, nymphs, and syrens; of sleepwalkers, and of men with wonderful me-mories; of strange monsters and numerous births; of unicorns, of the uses of ice and snow, and concerning fossil horns. As might be expected, he tells some very good stories by the way, and notably that of the Pied Piper of Hameln, which has been recently popularised by Mr. BaringGould, and a strange history of a lady who had three hundred and sixty-five children at one birth.

The following is, I believe, a complete list of Gaspar Schott's works:

"Mechanica Hydraulico-pneumatica cum experimento novo Magdeburgico." Herbipoli, 1657, 4to.


Magia Vniversalis naturæ et artis." [Four parts]. Herbipoli, 1657, 1658, 1659, 4to.

[Reprinted at Bamburg, 1677, 4to. The treatise on optics, which forms part 1. of the complete work, was translated into German by M. F. H. M. Bamberg, 1671, 4to; Frankfurt-am-Mayn, 1677, 4to.]

"Pantometrum Kircherianum siue Instrumentum Geo

metricum nouum.' Herbipoli, 1660, 1668, 1669, 4to. "Itinerarium Extaticum Kircherianum." [Edited by Schott.] Herbipoli, 1660, 4to.

"Cursus Mathematicus sive Omnium Mathematicarum

Disciplinarum Encyclopædia." Herbipoli, 1661; Frankfurt, 1674; Bamberg, 1677, fol.

"Arithmetica Practica generalis ac specialis e cursu mathematico ... extracta." Herbipoli, 1663, 1669, 8vo.

bipoli, 1662, 1667, 1697. "Physica Curiosa sive mirabilia naturæ et artis." Her

[The second and third editions are more complete than the first].

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The Nouvelle Biog. Générale says he died on March 22. † Ribadeneira Alengambe, et Sotwell, Bibliotheca Scrip torum Soc. Jesu. Roma, 1676; Augustin et Alois de Bacher, Bibliothèque des Ecrivains de la Compagnie de Jésus. Liège, 1835, I. Série, t. i. p. 727.

Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, part п. p. 152.

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[A curious book on secret writing, which may still

be found very useful to any one engaged in deciphering manuscripts in cipher].

"Joco-Seriorum Naturæ et Artis." Herbipoli, 1666, 4to. [In the copy of this work in the National Library the title page seems to have been altered, and "Auctore Aspasio Caramuelio" printed in the room of something else. A manuscript note on the title says "auctor est P. Gasp. Schottus." It is confidently attributed to Schott both by Brunet and Augustin, and Alois de Bucker. Indeed no one who knows Schott's style and habit of treating things can for a moment question the authorship. It would, however, be interesting to know whether any copies of the book exist with his name printed on the title].

"Iconismi 56 Machinarum Hydraulicarum." 4to. 'Organum Mathematicum, opus posthumum." Herbipoli, 1668, 1688, 4to; Nuremberg, 1670, 4to.


The Biographie Universelle says that Schott intended to publish, had not he been hindered by death, a Dictionary of Mathematics, "L'Horographie Universelle, le Monde admirable, et le Mercure Panglotte."

The Abbé Barthélemy Mercier, called the Abbé de St. Léger [born at Lyon, April 4, 1734, died at Paris, May 13, 1799], wrote a Notice raisonnée des ouvrages de Gaspard Schott. Paris, 1785, 8vo. I have not, however, been able to get a sight of it. There is no copy in the British Museum Catalogue.

I shall be glad to know if any of the unpublished works of this curious author are yet preserved in manuscript, and whether any of his correspondence still exists. He was just the sort of man to write long and amusing letters. Where was he buried ? Is there any monumental stone to his memory? What portraits of him exist? K. P. D. E.


Recent articles in the Quarterly Review and in the Revue des Deux Mondes have once more directed public attention to this prodigious mystery. The object of the Quarterly Reviewer would seem to be to show that the pure morality of the New Testament is to be found in the Talmud. Inasmuch as I apprehend that no part of the Talmud was reduced to writing till after the completion and acceptance by the churches of the

present canon of the New Testament, this is not perhaps very wonderful. But be this as it may, the subject of the present note is the immorality, not the morality, which is taught in the Talmud. A novel in the Polish language, called Levi and Sarah, or the Jewish Lovers, by the well-known Julius Ursinus Niemcewicz, the friend of Kosciusco, was translated into English from a German edition, and published by John Murray in 1830. The English translator was understood to be Mr. Jacob, the father of the late Queen's Counsel of that name, the father, like the son, being a economic science. The object of the novel is to man of talents, and author of several works of show the pernicious effect of the teachings from the Talmud, and particularly of the teachings of a sect of Ultra-Talmudists, called Chassidim; and the book contains a great number of passages which purport to be literally translated from the Talmud. These passages are in many instances so outrageously immoral, that it is difficult to conceive how any body of rational beings could ever have received them as rules of conduct. For example:

"It is permitted to a Jew to practise deceit on a Christian; with the pure to be pure, with the corrupt to be corrupt." "With regard to all who are uncircumcised, and believe not in the Prophets, we are bound not only to When we have the power, we defraud, but to beat them. may root them out; when we have not, we may by cunGoj (that is, a Christian) fall into a well or pit, and a ning prepare and further their ruin. If thou seest a ladder is at hand, take it away, and say I will call my son to help me, and will bring the ladder in a moment,' but do it not." "He who has begun the reading of the Talmud will never turn back again to the Bible; if he were to do so, he would never after find tranquillity or happiness."


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He then gives satisfactory reasons for relying on his quotations as genuine.

It may be safely assumed that no living man has read the Talmud; and it may be doubted if any human being ever did read the twelve or thirteen folio volumes of which it consists. As different men have read different portions, and no man has read the whole, and as it is certain that the book is in parts good, in parts bad, in parts wise, and in parts foolish, different readers will form different opinions; and as the bulk of men will be able to judge only at second-hand—that is

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Part I. Canto ii.

Line 249. "The gallant Bruin march'd behind him."Bruin or Turk, Bear or Dog, signifye ye different Sects in those Rebellious times confederating for suppressing Kingly Governmt.

Line 365. "He Trulla lov'd," &c.-The Daughter of James Spencer, a Quaker, Debauchd by her Father, and then by Magnano, y Tinker aforemention.

Line 409. "The upright Cerdon next advanc'd."-By Cerdon is meant one-ey'd Hewson ye Cobler, who from a private Centinel was made a Coll. in ye Rumps Army.

Line 442. "Last Colon came, bold Man of War."Colon hints at one Ned Terry, an Hostler, who, tho' he lov'd Bearbaiting, was nevertheless such a strange Precisian that he would lye wh any whore but ye whore of Babilon.

Line 496. "What, Estrum"-A gad bee or breez.

Part I. Canto iii.

Line 154. "Ears of the circumcised Brethren."-Prynne, Burton, and Bastwick, who lost yr ears, noses were slit, and Branded in ye forehead for Lampooning Henrietta Maria, Q. of England and ye Bishops.

Line 312. "Upon a Widow's Jointure Land." — The precious Relict of Aminadab Wilmott, an Independant kill'd at Edge Hill fight, having £200 per annum left her, Hudibras fell in love wh her, or did worse.

Line 1122. "By him that baited the Pope's Bull."A Polemical peice of Divinity, sd to be wrote by Dr. Whittaker.

Part II. Canto i.

Line 725. "For some philosophers of late here."-Sr Kenelme Digby, who in his book of Bodys, gives relation of a German Boy, living in ye woods, and going on all


Part II. Canto iii.

Line 163. "Appear in divers shapes to Kelly."- An Irish Priest who fomented the Rebellion by preaching in Disguise among the Dissenters of those times.

Line 325. "Hight Whachum, bred to dash and draw.” -A foolish Welchman, one Tom Jones, could neither write nor read, Zany to Lilly ye Astrologer. Line 404. " found out by Fisk."-A merry astrologer, and friend of Ben Jonson's. Line 1113. "Before the secular Prince of Darkness."— The watchman.

Part III. Canto i.

Line 866. "The same with those of Lewkner's Lane.". A Nursery of Lewd women first resorted to by the Roundheads. Part III. Canto ii.

Line 220."Until he was reliev'd by STERRY.". A fanatical preacher, admir'd by Hugh Toby.

Line 351. "Mong these was a Politician."-Sr Antony Ashly Cooper, afterwards Earl of Shaftsbury, try'd at the Old Bailey, 24th Novbr 1681, for libelling ye King.

Part III. Canto iii.

Line 577." An Old dull Sot; who told the Clock.". Old Prideaux, noted equally for extorting money from Delinquents as for Disloyalty.

Line 145. "More plainly than that reverend Writer." -A. B. Dolben, whose son, or Grandson it was that impeach'd Dr Sacheverell of High Crimes and Misdemean", upon which a rigorous prosecution of him follow'd.

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Lowndes mentions the edition, but omits to state that it contains plates. There is no name of either designer or engraver to these; they may not improbably be attributable to the same hands as the plates to Ned Ward's Vulgus Britannicus, or the British Hudibrass, published in the same year. I may add that this edition was reprinted

in the same form, 12mo, 1720. The plates are re-engraved, but are not so fine and brilliant in effect; the portrait is reversed. Birmingham. WILLIAM BATES.


In the Archiv f. n. Sprachen, band xxxix. 296, and band xl. 183, I have suggested that these words may be misprints of one ears, for cutting off one ear was a punishment often inflicted formerly, by the law of England, for certain offences. For example, chap. iv. of 5 & 6 Edward VI., after reciting

"For as much as of late divers and many outrageous and barbarous behaviours and acts have been used and

acted, That

committed by divers ungodly and irreligious persons, by quarrelling, brawling, fraying, and fighting openly in churches and church-yards," enacts,-"That if any person whatsoever shall at any time after the first day of May next coming, by words only, quarrel, chide, or brawl in any church or church-yard, that then it shall be lawful unto the ordinary of the place where the same offence shall be done, and proved by two lawful witnesses, to suspend every person so offending: that is to say, if he be a layman, ab ingressu Ecclesiæ, and if he be a clerk, from the ministration of his office, for so long a time as the ordinary shall by his descretion think meet and convenient, according to the fault. And further it is enany person or persons after the said first day of May shall smite or lay violent hands upon any other, either in any church or church-yard, that then ipso facto every person so offending shall be deemed excommunicate, and be excluded from the fellowship and communion of Christ's congregation, and also it is enacted that if any person after the said first day of May shall maliciously strike any person with any weapon in any church or church-yard, or after the same first day of May shall draw any weapon in any church or churchyard to the intent to strike another with the same weapon, that then every person so offending, and thereof being convicted by verdict of xii. men, or by his own confession, or by two lawful witnesses, before the justices of assize, justices of Oyer and Determiner, or justices of peace in their sessions, by force of this Act, shall be adjudged by the same justices before whom such person shall be convicted, to have one of his cars cut off. And if the person or persons so offending have none ears, whereby they should receive such punishment as is before declared, that then he or they to be marked and burned in the cheek with an hot iron, having the letter F therein, whereby he or they may be known and taken for fraymakers and fighters; and besides that, every such person to be and stand ipso facto excommunicated, as is afore


"Gadshill. I am joined with no foot-land rakers, no long-staff sixpenny strikers, none of these mad mustachio purple-hued malt-worms; but with nobility and tranquillity, burgomasters and great oneyers, such as can hold in, such as will strike sooner than speak, and speak sooner than drink, and drink sooner than pray."-First Part of King Henry IV. Act II. Sc. 1.

Cutting off one ear was the punishment inflicted upon those who maliciously struck any person in any church or church-yard; and Gadshill says "he is joined with no long-staff sixpenny strikers, &c., but great oneyers, such as can hold

in, such as will strike sooner than speak," &c. And it may be worthy of consideration whether Shakespeare does not in these passages refer to persons upon whom this punishment had been inflicted, and who had consequently only one ear. This statute itself testifies to the frequency of this punishment, for it enacts what punishment shall be inflicted upon those who have none ears. W L. RUSHTON.

QUEEN'S ENGLISH-NOT KING'S. [The following curious specimen of modern English deserves a place in "N. & Q.]

Paris, St. Crispin.

MY DEAREST BEATRICE,-We arrived here on Monday all serene, our scheme having been well carried out. Paris is awfully jolly. The scarcity of lodgings is all bosh. It is out of my power to give you a graphic description of the Exposition, which is something marvellous and a decided success. Our country is not well represented in pictures, few being noteworthy. How idiotic not to have sent better! However, our prestige in water-colours is sustained. The pet utterance, "They do these things better in France," frequently crops up with us, but is not applicable to artistic matters. The French landscapes are less effective than ours, and their portraits are not so realistic. Such lots of lovely China, for which you know my weakness! On my return I am going in for Wedgwood, although my taste will be pooh-poohed. On leaving the "Palatial labyrinth the first day we were completely sold. It was indeed hard lines, for not a cab was to be found, and we had to trudge in the rain and through the mud for miles. What a sell it was! How I longed for our little trap! We pounced upon our new curate in the act of scrutinising the copes, chasubles, and church ornaments. Notwithstanding his antecedents and reticence, his proclivities are obvious not that there is anything yet abnormal in his proceedings. By-the-way, ritual is not likely to be stamped out. Think of our travelling with the Crofts on their wedding tour! They were spooning awfully. How strange that a fast girl should marry such a muff! It seems she has made a mull of it. They were great fun. We fell in also with the Gordon girls with their aunt, in splendid get-ups; their bonnets were stunning. A man of the party was sweet upon Clara. What gushing girls they are! We have almost done Paris already; for the governor, who knows a thing or two, has a speciality for lionising. He has many a good dodge, and has forked out well; so we have enjoyed ourselves immensely, and are indeed intensely happy. We are not due till Saturday week, but he has elected to return, vid Dover, sooner; so we may put in an appearance on the Friday. We spied poor Benson one day at a dis

tance, looking seedy. He has long been going to the bad, and I fear has come to grief. Short dresses are now an institution. Thanks many for your sensational letter. Your affectionate ZILLAH.

"N. & Q." keeps watch over the English language. Will you have the kindness to arrest the rapid downward progress of the unfortunate word 66 loyalty"? It used to mean devotion to the crown, and we possess no other single word which expresses this so well. Newspapers are now beginning to use "loyal" as simply synonymous with "faithful " or "honourable." The Times recently commended King Victor Emmanuel for his loyalty. Loyalty to whom or what? to himself? I know of no one else to whom an independent sovereign can be loyal, unless indeed the word had been used in its highest sense (which in this case it was not) of loyalty to the King of Kings. HERMENTRUDE.

METHOD PROPOSED FOR DECIPHERING CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS.-Assume the language to be Chaldee, Zend, or Persian. (1.) Count the number of distinct characters of like form in all the accessible monuments, which I assume to be betwixt twenty and forty. If considerably more, say to the extent of forty to eighty, then there will be two distinct languages. If still more, say sixty to one hundred and twenty, there will be three distinct languages. (2.) But suppose that twenty to forty separate and distinct characters should be found, then we have only one language to deal with, such being about the number of letters in any language of this class. (3.) Count the number of times the occurs in Chaldee, for example, from all the accessible books in that language. Do the same with, with 1, &c., to the end of the alphabet. (4.) Then note the ratio that each letter bears to the whole; and supposing that was found to be by far the letter most frequently occurring, then it may be inferred that the cuneiform character oftenest occurring in inscriptions stands for N. (5.) Proceed in the same way with the letter that occurs seldomest in books, and assume that to be the one for that character which occurs

seldomest in inscriptions. (6.) The intermediate

letters must be dealt with in the same way until the whole twenty-two letters of the Chaldee alphabet are appropriated. (7.) If there still remain some charaeters on the inscriptions unappropriated, they may be disposed of as terminal letters, D, 1, &c. If the inscription is still unintelligible, treat the Zend and Persian in succession as you have just done the Chaldee.

The principle on which I proceed by this general method of deciphering is derived from the knowledge that the printer requires a stock of

each letter according to the number of each used, of which his successive bills of parcels will supply the numbers of each letter: the e, for example, occurring oftenest, and next s. T. J. BUCKTON. Wiltshire Road, Stockwell, S.

THE ADMIRABLE CRICHTON.-The following may be added to the note I formerly sent (see "N. & Q." 3rd S. viii. 85.)

"The Passions of the Minde in generall. In six bookes. Corrected, enlarged, and with sundry new discourses augmented by Thomas Wright.' 4to, London, 1630. At 55 is the following passage:


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"I remember that when I was in Italy there was a Scottish Gentleman of most rare and singular parts, who was a retainer to a Duke of that countrey, he was a singular gond Scholler, and as good a Souldier; it chanced one night the yong Prince, either upon some spleene, or false suggestion, or to try the Scot's valour, met him in a place where hee was wont to haunt, resolving either to kill, wound, or beat him, and for this effect, conducted with him two of the best Fencers hee could find, the Scot had but one friend with him; in fine, a quarrell is pickt, they all draw, the Scot presently ranne one of the Fencers thorow, and killed him in a trice, with that he bended his forces to the Prince, who fearing, lest that which was befallen his Fencer might happen upon himselfe he exclaimed out instantly, that he was the Prince,

and therefore willed him to looke aboute him what he did: the Scot perceiving well what hee was fell down upon his knees demanding pardon at his hands, and gave the Prince his naked rapier, who no sooner had received it, but with the same sword he ran him thorow to death." T. A. C.

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Rustington, Littlehampton, Sussex. PROLIFIC FAMILY.-The following extract from the seventh volume of the Funeral Entries in Ul

ster Office, Dublin Castle, is probably unique: —

"Capt. Paule Arundell of Mayne in the County of Limerick, Esq., 25th sonne of William Arundell of Chediocke in the Kingdome of England, departed this mortall life at Mayne aforesaid, the day of ——— - 1636, and was interred in the Abbey of Ardskettace in the said county."

He married Ellen, daughter of Sir George Thornton, Knight, and Marshal of Munster, by whom he had surviving issue seven sons and six daughters. The certificate is dated Nov. 24, 1636, and signed by his eldest son and heir, George Arundell. H. LOFTUS TOTTENHAM.

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