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La Polygraphie, &c. &c., in his work, Origine des Langues, favours us with a different derivation. He says that Wednesday is from "Wedian," to wed, and that it means "wedding day." He remarks that in all the languages of the north, no deity is connected with the day. Thus, he says, in German it is mit-woch, i. e. 66 middle week"; in the Russian and Sclavonic it is chroda, which has the same meaning. But the Swedish and Icelandic are certainly northern tongues, and in them the names are Woensday and Wensday. (Vide Johnson.) Hourwitz would perhaps have argued that the Swedish and Icelandic names are derived from the same Saxon or Gothic root as woo, court, to make love." Hourwitz contends that our name is of Jewish origin. He quotes the Talmud, Cteboth, cap. i. to prove that the Hebrew name signifies "marriage-day," and that Wednesday is "especially set apart for the marriage of virgins." Perhaps some Talmudical scholar will favour "N. & Q." with a "note." Does the Catholic church consider Wednesday more appropriate for marriages than other days? I cannot remember any old Anglo-Saxon or Early English authority for "Woden's day." I know of course the
"Fine old ballad of Sir Patrick Spens,"
as Coleridge calls it, and I am aware that there we have "Woden's day"! But I am too good a balladist to rely on the authority of a modernantique by Lady Wardlaw. I leave her "Woden's day" to keep company with her" skipper" and her "cork-heel shoon," ""blood-red wine," &c. &c.
J. H. DIXON.
St. Maurice, Valais.
Queries with Answers.
SIR HENRY CAVENDISH'S "DEBATES."-May I ask you kindly to inform me how many volumes of Sir Henry Cavendish's Debates of the House of Commons, 1768-1774, have appeared in print? I have a copy of vol. i., published in London in the year 1841. ABHBA.
[Sir Henry Cavendish's Debates of the Parliament which met on May 10, 1768, and was dissolved June 22, 1774-and which, from the strict enforcement of the standing order of the House of Commons excluding strangers from the gallery, has been called "the Unreported Parliament"-were intended by the editor, Mr. Wright, to have formed four volumes; and he promised to give an account of the MS. notes in the preface to the last volume. It was published in parts, four of which were intended to form a volume; but so little was the encouragement which the editor received, that only seven of these parts were published, and the work terminates abruptly at p. 480 of the second volume, in the middle of a speech of Mr. Sergeant Glynn, on May 27, 1771, on the motion for the committal of the Lord Mayor
to the Tower. When the important period covered by these reports is considered-a period which embraces the whole of the Junius controversy, and the early stages of the dispute with our American Colonies-and that they contain upwards of 250 unpublished speeches of Mr. Burke, one almost wonders that some patriotic member of the Commons has not brought the propriety of securing their publication in a complete form before the House.
It should be added, that Sir Henry Cavendish's Debates on the Bill for making more effectual Provision for the Government of the Province of Quebec were published under the editorship of Mr. Wright in 1839.]
MERCHANT TAYLORS' COMPANY.
reader have the kindness to give the title of a work containing the biography, &c. of the citizens, &c. of the company from the commencement or incorporation up to 1600 or thereabouts?
[We have never met with a separate history of the Merchant Taylors' Company; but an extended account of it is given in Herbert's History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies of London, ii. 383-529. There is much relating to the early history of this worshipful Company in Wilson's History of the Merchant Taylors' School, 4to, 1814; and a MS. List of the Livery of this Company is in the Corporation library at Guildhall. One worthy, said to be formerly connected with this fraternity must not be passed over, namely, Robert Fitzwalter, who left a gammon of bacon at Dunmow, as we are informed in The Three Ancient and Curious Histories, printed in 1743, 4to. This, however, must be left an open question, for this Society, originally styled "The Taylors and Linen Armourers," was incorporated by Edward IV., A.D. 1466; whereas we find Dan Chaucer (ob. Oct. 25, 1400) makes his Wife of Bath say,
"The bacon was not fet for hem, I trowe,
That some men have in Essexe at Donmowe." William Winstanley also published "The Honour of Merchant Taylors, wherein is set forth the valiant deeds and heroick performances of Merchant Taylors in former
ages, &c.; together with their pious acts and large benevolences; their building of publick structures, especially that of Blackwell Hall, for a market-place for the selling of woollen cloaths: Lond. 1668, 4to." Two interesting papers on this Company appeared in The City Press of Dec. 27, 1862, and Jan. 31, 1863.]
TOM PAINE'S BONES.-A distinguished physician of New York, Dr. E. G. Ludlow-a successful and well-known practitioner of more than fifty years' service, and who is now in Germanyinformed me that Tom Paine, author of The Age of Reason, died in New York, and was buried at West-Chester in that state. That some years after his death, some English friend had his remains removed to England, where it was intended a monument should be erected to him. The doctor states that the last he knew or heard about
the matter was, that Paine's bones were left with Cobbett, and he thinks that they were with Cobbett when he died. Is this statement true, and was any monument ever erected to Paine in England? Dr. Ludlow communicates many interesting particulars about Paine, with whom he was acquainted, and which have never appeared in print. W. W. MURPHY.
[On the day after the decease of Thomas Paine, his body was removed, attended by seven persons, to New Rochelle, where he was interred upon his own farm. A stone was placed at the head of his grave, according to the direction in his will, bearing the following inscription: "Thomas Paine, author of Common Sense, died June 8th, 1809, aged seventy-two years and five months." In the year 1819 Cobbett disinterred his bones, and brought them to England; but instead of arousing, as he expected, the enthusiasm of the republican party in this country, he only drew upon himself universal contempt. It appears that Cobbett left the bones of Paine in the hands of a committee, who intend to honour them with a public funeral at some future day. Paine's political admirers in America erected in 1839 a showy monument, with a medallion portrait, over his empty grave at New Rochelle.]
longing to the king or to others. From the returns certain rolls were drawn up for the Court of Exchequer, containing a selection of "Extracts," which supply the deficiency of the lost original Inquisitions, as, for a few counties, no Hundred Rolls have been yet discovered. These "Extracts" are now in the State Paper Office, Fetter Lane. The Hundred Rolls and Extracts have been printed by the Record Commissioners, and entitled Rotuli Hundredorum, temp. Hen. III, et Edw. I. in Turri Lond. et in Curiâ Recepta Scaccarii West. asservati," 2 vols. folio, 1812-1818. See Sims's Manual for the Genealogist, &c. ed. 1856, p. 104.]
(3rd S. xii. 435.)
When S. S. S. says, "Of Eobanus I know little, and that not to his credit," I suppose he alludes to the great poet's having unfortunately been a votary to Bacchus as well as to the Muses. This was indeed a lamentable fact, but it was not that which caused his name to go down to posterity; and one may perhaps be allowed to question whether it would be considered altogether fair, speaking of some other master-spirits of our day, in a no less enlightened country and in a more civilized age, who were equally addicted to this deplorable failing, such as R. B. Sheridan or C. J. Fox, e tutti quanti, to say, "I know but little of them, and that not to their credit." I trow not. Eobanus, who from his love of poetry had prefixed the word Helius to his name, and added Hessus to it, from the land of his birth, was the son of poor people in the employ of the monastery of Heine in Hessen, and born-some say under a tree-in January, 1448, at Beckendorf, a small locality belonging to the convent, where it was that he received, from the prior himself, the first rudiments of learning. Later he had the good fortune to become acquainted with the Arnold family, who had him brought up with their own son, and, when fourteen years of age, he travelled with this youth to Frankenberg, where the renowned Jacob Horläus had established a school. This learned doctor soon discerned the high mental faculties of his pupil, and predicted-if he would make a good use of them-he would rise to
celebrity. Eobanus next went to study in Erfurt, and in his seventeenth year first gave out some Latin poems. He was highly favoured by nature, as well physically as mentally. Strong, tall, and handsome, he was very expert in riding, dancing, swimming, fencing, and all kinds of athletic exercises: but these accomplishments gave him, perhaps, too much youthful conceit, and he strove to excel in everything, even in undignified struggles-such, for instance, as contend against prelates and noblemen as to who should have the mastery in drinking! Camerarius, his friend and future biographer, alluding to this, says, "De palma in isto genere cum Eobano contendere nemo volebat;" but he had many redeeming qualities. In 1518 he travelled to Louvain, in the Netherlands, where that powerful genius Erasmus was then residing. At first but coldly received by him, he was, however, soon duly appreciated, and they often interchanged letters. Eobanus likewise kept up an active correspondence with such men as Luther, Melanchthon, Spalatin, Sabin, and other celebrated doctors, such as Justus Jonas, Joh. Draco, Joach. Camerarius, Jac. Micyllus, and the learned physician Geo. Sturz. That of itself shows his sterling worth. Eobanus was one of the first who frankly and openly advocated Luther's doctrines of Reformation, and he inspired his numerous scholars and friends with the same feelings. When, in 1521, Charles V. summoned the Monk of Wittemberg to appear before him at the Diet of Worms, Eobanus sallied forth from Erfurt, with many other men of note, on horseback and on foot, to meet Luther. He welcomed him in a heartfelt harangue, and all escorted him to the Imperial City.
Eobanus, who was married to Katherine Spattarin, and had several children, seeing that he could not gain the livelihood of so many persons by his poetry alone, at first thought of following the law, which he had studied formerly; but by the advice of his worthy friend Sturz, who had given him instruction in his art, he turned his mind seriously towards medical pursuits, but more in writings than by practice. In 1526 Melanchthon induced him to come to Nuremberg, there to give lectures on oratory and poetry in the newly-established Gymnasium, which he the more willingly accepted, that his friend Camerarius likewise got a situation there. In this city of learning, where, under the protection of wise laws, every respectable citizen could live in peace and quietness, and the followers of Reform were left unmolested, Eobanus wrote a poem setting forth these invaluable advantages, for which the Council gave him 78 gold gilders, a handsome sum in those days. His wit, mirth, and humour gave him admission to the first houses, and he was in daily and most pleasing intercourse with Hieron. Paumgärtner, Bilibald Pirkhaimer, the learned lawyer
Joh. Mylius, and Wenceslaus Link, the eloquent preacher and friend of Luther. His love for the arts brought him likewise in frequent contact with the immortal Albert Dürer; and his bosom friend Camerarius rendered him great service, more especially in his translation of Theocritus in Latin verses. This work would perhaps never have been completed had not his friend unceasingly stimulated him, as Eobanus could not keep long to the same study. He thus spent six happy years in Nuremberg. During his absence from Erfurt, which had been much felt, the University had gone down a good deal, and his friends, trusting in him to give it its former reputation again, strove hard to entice him back, which he, though reluctantly, acceded to. But alas! what a falling off was there! Not only had the lustre of the University vanished, but the whole community was unhinged; a deadly religious and political strife broke out soon after his arrival, and he with his family, as well as many citizens, were obliged to flee. Thus baffled in his hopes and wishes, and wholly discouraged, Eobanus wrote many letters in which the bitterness of his soul gave vent. Erasmus answered him that what he complained of was perhaps not so much caused by the ill-will of those who governed as by the hand of a higher and All-mighty power, by way of punishment; that instead of lamentations he would do better, through his writings, to stimulate in the students the former love of learning, and that the evil would vanish. Eobanus followed this good advice, and buckled to in good earnest. An excellent work of his appeared-the Translation of David's Psalms-which he dedicated to the Landgraf Philip of Hessen, and for which he received congratulatory letters from Luther, Melanchthon, Jonas, Spalatin, and others. These letters have been printed in the Leipsic edition of 1564. The Landgraf, equally pleased with the work, gave Eobanus a lucrative and agreeable situation in the University of Marburg, frequently invited him to his table, played chess with him, and derived much pleasure and instruction from his communion with so learned a man. Eobanus thus lived happily in the midst of a numerous family, in easy circumstances, beloved and esteemed by all who knew him; seconding, to the best of his ability, the strenuous and successful efforts of Philip of Hessen towards Reformation. In 1537 he took part in the celebrated meeting of Protestant princes and theologians at Schmalkalden, the articles of which were written by Luther. He spent the remainder of his life peaceably, and would have been free from care had he not suffered much from the gout, which carried him off on the 5th October, 1540. The Landgraf, who loved him, took his sons at Court, and recommended the widow and her daughters to his spouse. Among the many writings of Eobanus
This reference is evidently a mistake of some kind; but MR. WILKINS's word "certainly" puts correction out of the question.
If MR. WILKINS had read Mr. Paley's Introduction, he would have seen (pp. xviii. and xix.) that there are more arguments against Pindar's knowledge of reading and writing than his use of λéyew and ypáþew.
MR. WILKINS's communication leads me to tell you that, since my last letter, it has been suggested to me by an old Homeric student-who is a learned, candid, and very intelligent manthat the way to obtain any comprehensive and satisfactory information regarding the Homeric question, is by forming a Homeric Society, with a periodical publication, specially or chiefly devoted to the promotion of its particular object;. exactly similar to the late Shakespere Society,
WRITING KNOWN TO PINDAR: A HOMERIC and to the Classical Societies in every university
the best are his Translation of the Psalms, that of Theocritus, and Homer's Iliad. His Latin Elegies are worthy of the best Latin age. His Sylvas, his Bucolics, are highly esteemed; also his Hessi et amicorum Epistola, and the treatise mentioned by S. S. S., De tuenda bond Valetudine. In the Bibliothèque de David Clément are to be found copious extracts of many of Eobanus's works, some of which have become very scarce.
"Qui fuerit vati vultus, dum viveret, Hesso,
Expressit tabulis ingeniosa manus.
Magnum opus ingenij magno celebratur in orbe:
(3rd S. xii. 397, 510.)
Lord Wellington's silence regarding the word "telegram" is not analogous to Pindar's use of λέγειν and γράφειν.
MR. WILKINS's quotation from Herodotus (v. 58) is too brief to show the absurd credulity of Herodotus regarding the art of writing, and the story there connected with it. We must take in, at a general view, what Herodotus says in v. 55-59. He says there that Aristogiton and Harmodius were by extraction Gephyreans, and that the Gephyreans were "of the number of those Phoenicians who came with Cadmus to the country now called Boeotia." And the credulous historian observes:
If a Homeric Society told the students of Homer the new arguments and views on the subject each year, such a society would be of use. This is taking the lowest view of the matter. But it is self-evident that a Homeric Society, properly organised, could achieve a great deal more.
6, Chichester Street, Belfast.
DANCES MENTIONED IN SELDEN'S "TABLE-TALK" (3rd S. xii. 477.)—MRS. GATTY has not italicised all the dances mentioned by Selden in the passage she has quoted. "First," says he, "you had the grave Measures." Measures were indeed "solemn" dances, in our usual acceptation of the word. They were more fit for lord chancellors, judges, and for solemn aspirants to those dignities, to
tread," with stately dames, drawing long trains behind them, than for the "light heels and giddy pates" of Charles II.'s courtiers and favourites.
The correct mode of inviting a partner was to "have the honour of treading' a Measure, not to "dance one. It was the stately opening movement to a ball. An Elizabethan writer (Sir John Davies) says in his poem, Orchestra, of this
"Yet all the feet whereon these Measures go,
Are only spondees-solemn, grave, and slow." Corants or Corantos were in country-dance time, but more for vertical than for horizontal skipping: "There they did dance
As in France;
Not in the English lofty manner."
Trenchmore, the Cushion Dance, and the Galliard will be found described (so far as I could obtain materials) in Popular Music of the Olden Time, with their tunes. For the Galliard, the index of
Subjects" should be referred to, as well as the index of "Tunes." The "omnium gatherum,
tolly polly, hoite come toite," are but Selden's expressions of contempt. WM. CHAPPELL.
An account of the dance and the tune of Trench-
Farewell and adieu to you, ladies of Spain !
We'll rant and we'll roar across the salt seas,
Whether this is a genuine sea-song, or a clever imitation of one by Captain Marryat, I cannot say. He allowed no ranting and roaring on board his own ship, he being a very good and very strict officer. Mr. Midshipman Easy would have had very little scope for his pranks under the command of such a captain. Poor Jack is a capital novel, and the illustrations, by Clarkson Stanfield, are very beautiful. C. W. BARKLEY.
"Now farewell to you, ye fine Spanish ladies," another with
"Farewell and adieu to you, Spanish ladies." Here alone was enough variation to baffle an index. From these three, and from Captain Marryat's version, I chose the copy I have printed, sometimes guided in the selection by the accents of the tune. WM. CHAPPELL. "ULTIMA RATIO REGUM" (3rd S. xii. 436.)-Louis XIV. perhaps took his motto from Cal
deron, whose En esta Vida todo es Verdad y todo
which Spanish literature held the first place.
Son la pólvora y las balas.".
Jorn. ii. t. i. p. 594, ed. Keil. I cannot trace the thought farther back, but suspect that it was a proverbial phrase in Calderon's time. He cared little for such an anachronism as powder and ball under Phocas, but he would not deliberately have given them to the Duke of Calabria when the Queen of Trinacria's soldiers have only bows and arrows. On her ordering them to search for some fugitives, Ismenia "Y todas procuraremos, Pues todas arcos y flechas Manejamos, en su busco Ser, Señora las primeras."
Jorn. i. 579.
U. U. Club.
J. L. will find the song for which he enquires in Captain Marryat's novel of Poor Jack. Also, another version (slightly differing), and with the tune, in Popular Music of the Olden Time, ii. 737. I believe the first publication was in my early collection, entitled National English Airs (printed in 1838, 39, 40). Lord Vernon had then favoured me with a copy of the tune, and with the first verse, only, of the words. Three complete copies of the words were subsequently collected for me, from different sources, through the kind instrumentality of my friends W. Durrant Cooper, Esq., F. S. A.; W. Sandys, Esq., F. S. A.; and The may procure a beautiful transfer of the most Oliphant, Esq. These versions differed as much delicate fines upon an etching-ground, and that as old songs, collected from tradition, usually without having recourse to the rolling press. differ. For instance, one commenced with the line
AN ETCHING QUERY (3rd S. xii. 346.)—As an amateur wood-engraver and a professional engraver on steel and copper, and consequently well versed in the nature of grounds upon wood and the two metals just mentioned, I think it doubtful whether F. M. S. will ever meet with an ink which will prove satisfactory in its results upon such a tender thing as an etching-ground upon copper or steel. If, however, F. M. S. will read a paper written by myself, and printed in No. 392 of All the Year Round, under the title of "Engraved on Steel," I thing F. M. S. will there see how, by a very simple process of tracing and burnishing,
THE SILENT WOMAN (3rd S. ix. 431.) — In France you not unfrequently meet with signs over inn-doors representing a woman without a head, and with the inscription beneath, "A la bonne femme; because, having no head, it is supposed she can do no mischief. This, I fancy, is likewise the meaning of The Silent Woman at Chelmsford. P. A. L.
LOUIS XIV. AND CHEVALIER D'ISHINGTON (3rd S. ix. 409.)-I have to apologise for this late notice of J. M.'s query. The elder sons of the last