idolatry which prevailed in them. All men are by nature equally free, their Creator made them so; and the inequalities which have grown up among them, and the governments which have been established over them, founded on other principles, have proceeded from other causes, by which their natural rights have been subverted. We must trace governments, then, to other sources; and in , doing this should view things as they are, and not indulge in superstitious, visionary, and fanciful speculations.


In the wars of the European Powers, in matters relating to themselves, we have never taken any part, nor does it comport with our policy so to do. It is only when our rights are invaded or seriously menaced that we resent injuries or make preparations for our defence. With the movements in this hemisphere we are, of necessity: more immediately connected, and by causes which must be obvious to all enlightened and impartial observers. The political system of the Allied Powers is essentially different in this respect from that of America. This difference proceeds from that which exists in their respective governments; and to the defence of our own, which has been achieved by the loss of so much blood and treasure, and matured by the wisdom of their most enlightened citizens, and under which we have enjoyed unexampled felicity, this whole nation is devoted.

We owe it, therefore, to candor and to the amicable relations existing between the United States and those Powers, to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety.

With the existing colonies or dependencies of any European Power we have not interfered and shall not interfere. But with the governments who have declared their independence and maintained it, and whose independence we have, on great consideration and on just principles, acknowledged, we could not view any interposition for the purpose of oppressing them or controlli in any other manner, their destiny, by any European

Power, in any other light than as the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States.Message to Congress, December 2, 1823.


chronicler; born in Cambrai about 1390;

died at Wallaincourt, July 20, 1453. He filled several public offices in Wallaincourt, where he was bailiff of the chapter and provost of the city. At the time of his death he was also bailiff of the city. His celebrated Chronique narrates the history of France from the date of the conclusion of Froissart's Chronicle, 1400, to 1444. It includes the story of the taking of Paris and the overthrow of the monarchy by Henry V., and an account of the expulsion of the English forces. The best English version of Monstrellet's Chronique is that by Thomas Johnes, in thirteen volumes; and the latest edition of the French is that of Douet-d'Arcq, in six volumes. The earlier editions are nearly all disfigured by spurious continuations, by which some other hand has brought the work down to 1467. His style is dignified, simple, and accurate; but it lacks the picturesqueness and the animation of the chronicle of Froissart.


Friar Thomas Conecte, a native of Brittany, and of the Carmelite Order, was much celebrated through parts of Flanders, the Tournesis, Artois, Cambresis, Ternois, in the countries of Amiens and Ponthieu, for his preachings. In those towns where it was known he intended to preach the chief burghers and inhabitants had erected for him, in the handsomest square, a large scaffold,

He was

ornamented with the richest cloths and tapestries, on which was placed an altar, whereon he said mass, attended by some monks of his order and his disciples. The greater part of these last followed him on foot wherever he went, he himself riding on a small mule.

Having said mass on this platform, he then preached long sermons, blaming the vices and sins of each individual, more especially those of the clergy. In like manner he blamed greatly the noble ladies and all others who dressed their heads in so ridiculous a manner, and who expended such large sums on the luxuries of apparel.

so vehement against them that no woman thus dressed dared to appear in his presence; for he was accustomed, when he saw any of them with such dress, to excite the little boys to torment and plague them, giving them certain days of pardon for so doing. He ordered the boys to shout after them, Au hennin, au hennin! [the name given by him to the headdresses of the fifteenth century], even when the ladies were departed from him and from hearing his invectives; and the boys, pursuing them, endeavored to pull down those monstrous head-dresses, so that the ladies were forced to seek shelter in places of safety. These cries caused many tumults between those who raised them and the servants of the ladies.

Friar Thomas, nevertheless, continued his abuse and invectives so loudly, that no woman with high headdresses any longer attended his sermons, but dressed in caps somewhat like those worn by peasants and people of low degree. The ladies of rank, on their return from these sermons, were so much ashamed, by the abusive expressions of the preacher, that the greater part laid aside their head-dresses, and wore such as those of nuns. But this reform lasted not long, for like as snails, when anyone passes by them, draw in their horns, and when all danger seems over put them forth again — so these ladies, shortly after the preacher had quitted their country, forgetful of his doctrine and abuse, began to resume their former colossal head-dresses, and wore them even higher than before.

At the conclusion of his sermons, he earnestly admonished the audience, on pain of excommunication, to bring to him whatever backgammon-boards, chessboards, ninepins, or other instruments for games of amusement, they might possess. In like manner did he order the women to bring their hennins - and having caused a great fire to be lighted in front of his scaffold, he threw all these things into it. At his sermons he divided the women from the men by a cord; for he said he had observed some sly doings between them when he was preaching.

Many persons of note, in the conviction that to serve him would be a pious act, believing him to be a prudent and holy man, followed him everywhere, deserting their parents, wives, children, homes.


lish miscellaneous writer; born at London,

May 16, 1689; died there, August 21, 1762. She was a daughter of Evelyn Pierrepont, Duke of Kingston, received an unusually thorough education, and was noted for her beauty and vivacity. In 1712 she was married to Edward Wortley Montagu, who in 1716 was sent as Minister to the Ottoman Porte.

While in Turkey she noticed the practice of inoculation for the smallpox; tried it upon her infant son, and introduced it into England after her return in 1718. She resided in England until 1729, when she went to Italy, where she remained twenty years. Her husband remained in England, and they never saw each other again, though a friendly correspondence was kept up until his death, in 1761, after which she returned to England.

Lady Mary was a voluminous letter-writer all

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