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Bagdad, is it to be extended to Bussorah, of which the situation has been already described ? If so, then is German influence to extend to the mouth of the joint river and to the coast of the Persian Gulf? This is, indeed, a grave question for Britain; inasmuch as any participation by a European Power in the control of the Persian Gulf is a distinct derogation from the British position as heretofore maintained in that quarter.

In the Far East, the consolidation of Japan, the settlement of her political constitution, the development of her forces by sea and land, are all favorable to British interests. In the Japanese Britain has a really friendly Power, on the eastern flank quite able to hold its own against Russia or other ambitious European Power.

The appearance of the United States of America in the Philippine Islands is convenient and apparently beneficial to British interests, and may serve in part as a counterpoise to any possible combination of Russia, France and Germany. Although Germany has in some instances acted excellently well with Britain, yet in the transactions following on the peace after the war between Japan and China she acted with France and Russia, while Britain withheld approbation.

Further, it is now understood that American diplomacy has secured the recognition by all the European Powers of the policy of the “open door” in China, implying that they all agree to keep all ports of which they may have the control within Chinese limits quite free, and without any duties, differential or other, levied against any one. If this really be secured, without any reservations or countervailing hindrances, it will be a boon to British interests. Indeed, it is the very thing for which British merchants throughout China have long been contending. Although they may obtain by far the largest commercial sphere of all-if China were to be partitioned out into .spheres—they do not wish to have a sphere at all. For then they would have certain access to their own sphere only; in neighboring spheres they might be hindered; indeed, according to the heretofore established policy of other nations, they positively would be. They say in effect that British trade runs throughout all parts of China without exception; that, wherever British trade is, there is the sphere of Britain! Thus they will see in the general recognition of the “open door,” by other nations, a blessed relief from disputes with

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GREAT BRITAIN IN ASIA. their European neighbors, and from embarrassments without end. This will be especially the case with British affairs in Manchuria, in which province Russia has so entirely superseded Chinese authority, in many respects, that she might easily, if so minded, oppose obstacles to long established British enterprises, commercial and industrial, in that quarter. Much trouble was apprehended in this respect, as British merchants in Manchuria were not likely to submit to the usual Russian procedure. But, if there is to be the "open door in Manchuria, Britain may be glad, for really the prospect was almost too good to hope for.

There is, also, one particular trouble with France looming on the horizon of Southern China. Britain is establishing a through line of imperial communication from the Bay of Bengal to the Chinese waters on the Pacific Ocean; that is from Rangoon, at the mouth of the Irrawaddy of Burma, to Shanghai, near the mouth of the Yangtse Kiang of China. This route is to pass through Burmese railways to the borders of the Chinese province of Yunnan; negotiations are in progress with China for carrying on the line through Yunnan; thus the province of Czechuen would be reached, and then the lower course of the Yangtse Kiang, which would be controlled by gunboats from Shanghai. Whatever lines in China may be marked out by other Powers, this is par excellence the British line, and nobody knows this better than the French Government. The fact has been recognized by Russia, who gave Britain an agreement not to promote any railways near this line, in return for an agreement by Britain not to promote any railways in Manchuria. Nevertheless, France is striving to set up, as it were, a fence across this very line, just as she did across the line of British advance up the Nile at Fashoda. She is now asserting some shadowy rights in Yunnan; and she has recently, according to common report, been dispatching surveyors and other agents to search out the land in that quarter. All this on her part is incompatible with the maintenance of the British line. We are ready to respect whatever portions she may have acquired or may yet fairly acquire in China: but we expect her to do the same by us.

From this summary review of the British position in Asia, it is manifest that Britain from her imperial watchtower ought to be perpetually on the lookout to descry, discern, detect the beginning of future trouble. Transactions are undertaken by the

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European Powers, who, though they be friendly in a national sense, are yet commercially and politically jealous of British predominance, and would rejoice at any reduction or weakening of the British position. Often such transactions may, to a cursory or short-sighted view, appear innocuous at first, and yet may ultimately lead to evil conjunctures and complications. Britain, looking far behind her to see how often in Asiatic history this has happened to her, should look far before her, to beware in time before matters have gone too far for retrieval.

Whether the present is a fitting time for other Powers to try any contests with Britain, is a question for them to determine. Britain is at the acme of her “puissance"; never has she displayed such resourcefulness as she has recently displayed in South Africa, and yet her resources are very far from exhaustion; indeed, they have not even yet been adequately called forth. She is still ready to meet any combination that could reasonably be anticipated, and if the present war shall be speedily terminated, then she will have forces available in a strength never before equalled in all her eventful history. She can afford to regard other nations quite complacently, whatever they may say, realizing what her rights are throughout the world and knowing well how to guard them.

RICHARD TEMPLE

The tend ture

INDEX

TO THE

ONE HUNDRED AND SEVENTIETH VOLUME

OF THE

North American Review.

6

Abbott, LYMAN. The Power of Mr. in South Africa, 168; Military Problems
Moody's Ministry, 263.

in South Africa, 192; The Dutch in South
Adulterations, Food, 548.

Africa, 198; The Afrikanders in Natal,
Afrikanders in Natal, The, 212.

212; The Danger of Personal Rule in
After Orthodoxy, What ? 585.

South Africa, 225; Realities of the South
ALGER, R. A. America's Attitude Toward African War, 305; The Merits of the
England, 332.

Transvaal Dispute, 312; The Doom of
America-German Feeling Toward England the Boer Oligarchies, 327; America's At-

and America, 240; American Misgovern titude Toward England, 332 ; Could the
ment of Cuba, 284; America's Attitude War Have Been Avoided? 335; America
Toward England, 332; America and the and the War, 337; The Responsibility of
War, 337; The American Policy in China, Cecil Rhodes, 348; Why British Work-
642.

men Condemn the War, 518; A French
Americanism "in France, The End of, 420. General's Defense of the Boers, 538; Why
Americanism," The Genesis of, 679.

England Should Stop the War, 6-16; How
ANDERSON, THOMAS M. Our Rule in the England Should Treat the Vanquished
Philippines, 272.

Boers, 812; Cecil Rhodes's Future, 857.
An Obligation of Empire, 493.

BOULGER, DEMETRIUS C. Antagonism of
Antagonism of England and Russia, 884. England and Russia, 884.
Are Homogeneous Divorce Laws in all the Briggs, Charles A. The Present Crisis
States Desirable ? 405.

in the Church of England, 87.
Army, The British, 1.

British and Russian Diplomacy, 871,
Asia, Great Britain in, 897.

British Army, The, 1.
ATKINSON, EDWARD. Eastern Commerce: British Volunteer System, The, 715.
What is it Worth? 295.

British Workmen, Why They Condemn the
Australian Federation and its Basis, 772. War, 518.
Authors, Disappearing, 395.

BROOKS, SYDNEY. Congress and Parlia-

ment, 78; America and the War, 337.
BARAIL, Count Du. A French General's Brownlow, Rt. Hon. Earl. The British
Defense of the Boers, 538.

Volunteer System, 745.
Barton, EDMUND. Australian Federation Bryan, W.J.' The Issue in the Presidential
and its Basis, 772.

Campaign, 753.
BELMONT, Perry. The President's War Buller, Sir Redvers, 109.

Power and an Imperial Tariff, 433.
BLOCH, JEAN DE. Why England Should CAMBRIDGE, THE DUKE OF. The British
Stop the War, 646.

Army, 1.
Boers-Origin, Duration, and Outcome of Cecil Rhodes's Future, 857.

the War, 6; England and the Transvaal, Census of 1900, The, 99.
9; England, the Transvaal and the Eu-CHAMBERLAIN, MARY ENDICOTT. An Obli-
ropean Powers, 25; Great Britain on the

gation of Empire, 493.
War Path, 34; Some Boer Character- Charter Needs of Great Cities, 850.
istics, 43; The Military Situation in Chief Canses of Discontent in India, 384.
South Africa, 145; Strategical Problems China-The Powers and the Partition of

897.

China, 634; The American Policy in Far East, The-Eastern Commerce: What
China, 642.

is it Worth? 295; The Great Siberian
Church Unity, The Present Crisis in the Railway, 593; Japan and Russia in the
Church of England, and, 87.

Far East, 609; The Powers and the Par-
CLARK, CHARLES SYDNEY. The Future of tition of China, 634; The American Pol-
the National Guard, 730.

icy in China, 642; Great Britain in Asia,
COLER, Bird S. Charter Needs of Great
Cities, 850.

Fiction-Some Novels of 1899, 253; Disap-
Congress and Parliament, 78.

pearing Authors, 393; “ David Harum,"
COUBERTIN, PIERRE DE. The Meeting of 410; Some Characteristics of English
the Olymian Games, 802.

Fiction, 504.
Could the War Have Been Avoided ? Filipino Appeal to the People of the United
335.

States, A, 54.
Crisis, The Present, in the Church of Eng- FORAKER, J. B. The United States and
land, 87.

Puerto Rico, 464.
Cuba, American Misgovernment of, 284. Food Adulterations, 548.
Cust, HENRY. The Dutch in South Africa, France, The End of “ Americanism” in
198.

France, 420; The Exposition of 1900,
Danger of Personal Rule in South Africa, 472; Our European Trade, 528; A French
The, 225.

General's Defense of the Boers, 538 ; The
“David Harum,” 410.

Powers and the Partition of China,
DELBRÜCK, Hans. England, the Trans 634.

vaal and the European Powers, 25. Future of the National Guard, The, 730.
Diplomacy, British and Russian, 871.
DilKE, Rt. Hon. Sır. CHARLES W. The Genesis of “ Americanism," The, 679.
American Policy in China, 642.

Germany - German Feeling Toward Eng-
Disappearing Authors, 395.

land and America, 246 ; Our European
Discontent in India, Chief Causes of, 384. Trade, 528; The Powers and the Parti-
Divorce Laws, Are Homogeneous, in all the tion of China, 634.
States Desirable ? 405.

Great Britain in Asia, 897.
Doom of the Boer Oligarchies, The, 327. Great Cities, Charter Needs of, 850.
Dutch in South Africa, The, 198.

GOSSE, EDMUND. Sir Redvers Buller, 109.

Governed, We are Too Much, 367.
Eastern Commerce: What is it Worth? Government, Science and the, 666.
295.

Gower, G. LEVESON. The British Army, 1.
Empire, An Obligation of, 493.

Great Britain on the War Path, 34.
End of “ Americanism” in France, The, 420. Great Siberian Railway, The, 593.
England— The British Army, 1; England GREY, Rt. Hon. Earl. England and the

and the Transvaal, 9; England, the Trans Transvaal, 9.
vaal, and the European Powers, 25; Great
Britain on the War Path, 34; The Pres- Hay - Pauncefote, The Proposed, Treaty,
ent Crisis in the Church of England and

357.
its Bearings on Church Unity, 87; Ger- HAZELTINE, MAYO W. The Proposed Hay-
man Feeling Toward England and Amer Pauncefote Treaty, 357.
ica, 240; America's Attitude Toward Hell? What Has Become of, 837.
England, 332; The Responsibility of Cecil HENLEY, W. E. Some Novels of 1899, 253.
Rhodes, 348; The Proposed Hay-Paunce- Hermitage, The Picture Gallery of the, 134.
fote Treaty, 357 ; Some Characteristics of Ilili, DAVID B. We are Too Much Gov-
English Fiction, 504; Why British Work erned, 367.
men Condemn the War, 518; Our Euro- HOBBES, JOHN OLIVER.“ David Harum,"
pean Trade, 528; The Powers and the 410,
Partition of China, 634 ; Why England Hoenig, Fritz. Strategical Problems in
Should Stop the War, 646; The British South Africa, 168.
Volunteer System, 745; How England HOFFMAN, FRANK SARGENT. The Scien-
Should Treat the Vanquished Boers, 812; tific Method in Theology, 575.
Cecil Rhodes's Future, 857; British and HOLMSTREM, VLADIMIR. Great Britain on
Russian Diplomacy, 871 ; Antagonism of the War Path, 34.
England and Russia, 834; Great Britain Howard), 0. 0. Military Problems in
in Asia, 897.

South Africa, 192.
Erie Canal and Transportation, The, 121. How England Should Treat the Vanquished
ETHERIDGE, J. St. Clair. The Genesis of Boers, 812.
“ Americanism,” 679.

HUTTEN, THOMAS C. The Doom of the
European Powers, England, the Transvaal Boer Oligarchies, 327.

and the, 25.
European Trade, Our, 528.

India, Chief Causes of Discontent in, 384.
Exposition of 1900, The, 472.

Issue in the Presidential Campaigu, The, 753.

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