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horror and indignation in favor of these Boers, who are so worthy of her pity and admiration? And what adds still more to the infamy of this crime against humanity is the unspeakable object for which it is committed. It is for the purpose of seizing the gold and diamond-bearing lands of the South African Republics, in the interest of the London speculators and money-brokers.

I am aware that to justify itself in the eyes of the world, which has its own opinion of such a doctrine, the English Government claims that it intends to seize the Transvaal only in the superior interest of civilization. It is for the purpose of hastening the pacific and moral conquest of the inferior populations of Central Africa, that the British Government desires to realize the great boon of a railroad connecting the Cape directly with Alexandria. The English have given themselves the reputation of a colonizing people. But to colonize the populations which are not strong enough to resist them, the English simply exterminate them, either by the sword and by fire-water, as in America, or by opium, as in the Far East, or even by famine, as they are now doing in India. For a Christian people that distributes Bibles broadcast by the hand of its missionaries in every country to which it desires to extend its influence—and there is no people on the face of the earth safe from its influence, or, rather, its cupidity—that is indeed a curious way of propagating the Word of God.

It is only necessary to glance backward and remember the origin of the conflict, to convince one's self that the unjustifiable pretentions of England rest on no other foundation than the right of the stronger.

Cape Colony was founded about the middle of the seventeenth century by the Dutch, who were joined by numerous French refugees, who fled from religious persecution and endeavored to find liberty of conscience and the right to bring up their children in the faith of their fathers.

In 1806, the fortunes of war caused this beautiful colony to fall into the greedy hands of England—who is always ready to profit by the misfortunes of others. A large portion of the population soon emigrated, to escape the tyranny of an unsupportably oppressive administration, whose first requirements were to forbid the use of the national language in the courts and in Parliament, and to enjoin the use of English in all official and public acts. These emigrants, then known as the Boers, journeyed north

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ward and founded the Republics of the Orange River and Natal. As England claimed hegemony in South Africa, she wished to establish not merely a nominal but a real suzerainty over these young Republics, which were obliged to submit, at least apparently. But a portion of this proud population preferred to resume their wanderings, rather than submit to the domination of their insufferable neighbors. These independent people once more harnessed their oxen to their heavy carts and settled in the vast regions beyond the Vaal. From the outset they had to defend themselves against wild beasts, which abound in that country, and against the continual ambushes of the native savages.

When they had at last become the masters of the country, their love of independence and liberty led them to establish isolated farms and to devote themselves to hunting and to raising large flocks, instead of shutting themselves up in towns. These were not built until much later, and then on a small scale.

The English again interfered with their peaceful occupations, and about 1877, taking up the cause of the original owners of the soil, they obliged the Boers to recognize their protectorate, and it is a notable fact that, when they had set themselves up for protectors of the aborigines, they massacred ten thousand of them on some pretext that I do not now remember. It was at that time that the Zulu War broke out, in which our unfortunate Prince Imperial perished under such sad and mysterious circumstances.

The Boers then wanted to resume their independence and liberty. The result was a new conflict with the Cape Government, during which the troops of the latter were defeated by General Joubert, assisted by Krüger, in 1881, in a fight known as the Battle of Majuba. Negotiations became necessary, and a compromise was effected the same year, recognizing the independence of the Boers, with some reservations which disappeared in the new treaty concluded two years later.

Why, then, did England make a peaceful solution impossible by her increasing demands? The reason is that the gold question is at the bottom of it all; that the Transvaal war is but an odious financial speculation.

When the present ministry established its solidarity with the fraudulent manæuvres of Mr. Chamberlain, it assumed a moral and real complicity with Jameson and Cecil Rhodes, from which it will never be able to exculpate itself.

Will the fate of the Transvaal be definitively settled by the terrible campaign now going on? I hope so, because I believe in the justice of God and in the righteousness of the cause defended by the Boers, who deserve the sympathy of the whole world.

The first phase of the war is undoubtedly in their favor. The English Government is making immense and unprecedented efforts to restore the fortunes of its flag. It has sent to the Transvaal all the military forces of Great Britain and of the colonies that it can spare. It has changed its commander-in-chief, and placed in charge its most noted generals.

Notwithstanding all this, I persist in my hope. How could I do otherwise, on seeing with what heroism General Cronje is fighting the English generals sent to pursue him, and with what consummate science and skill he mancuvres to escape their endeavors to surround him? But if at last he should be deserted by fortune and succumb in so disproportionate a struggle, even then all would not be lost to the Boers. The distance from Ladysmith to Pretoria is long, and the Boers will not make peace. They are resolved to rival the marvellous American War of Independence and to defend themselves with the most unconquerable energy.

And who knows but that Europe, electrified by the sight of such heroism, will then emerge from her selfish apathy, and make England understand that the trident of Neptune is not yet the sceptre of the world.

In any event, this war will not add to the glory of England, and it is not impossible that it may mark the beginning of her decline.

DU BARAIL. February 25, 1900.

FOOD ADULTERATIONS.

BY W. E. MASON, UNITED STATES SENATOR FROM ILLINOIS.

THE United States of America, the greatest food-producing country in the world, is suffering from the adulteration of food products. The extent of this adulteration it is difficult to comprehend, but it grows largely, in fact almost entirely, out of excessive competition. There is hardly an article of food that has not been at some time more or less adulterated; flour, butter, chcese, tea and coffee, syrups, spices of all kinds, extracts, baking powders; and yet, notwithstanding this great adulteration of food, every manufacturer will testify that he is perfectly willing to stop the adulteration if his competitors will stop so that he can honestly compete with them.

This was especially true in the case of flour, and investigation during last session of Congress showed that very dangerous and absolutely insoluble substances were being used to adulterate flour, and it became very well known that this fact impaired the credit of American flour in foreign countries. The adulteration became so extensive that the manufacturers who would not use adulterants appealed to Congress for protection, and the law as applied to oleomargarine and filled cheese was made applicable to mixed flour. At the present time it is perfectly clear that the mixing of flour has practically stopped in the United States. This not only assists the honest manufacturer of flour, but it protects the consumer and at the same time gives us a reputation for manufacturing honest goods, and its influence has already been felt in our export trade to all the countries that buy our flour.

The Committee on Manufactures has had presented to it letters that come from at least twelve or fifteen of the large cities of the world, all of the same tenor and general effect as the following:

"London, October 12, 1899. "Dear Sirs: Replying to yours of the 16th ultimo, with regard to the pure food law now in operation in your country, since this act was passed by Congress it has certainly restored confidence on this side, and in my opinion will materially assist your export trade. “Yours faithfully,

W. M. MEESON, "The 'Modern Miller,' St. Louis.

Per JOHN STANMORE."

It is a well-known fact that our meat products have had a greater demand and better sale since the Government undertook their inspection, and it is safe to say that nothing will more encourage our export trade than for the Government of the United States to have some standard fixed, to which the food products of the United States must rise before they can be sold to our own people or our customers abroad.

It is not the purpose of this article to go into details, either as to the different adulterations or as to the remedies proposed, but a general discussion may be advisable to give the reader an idea of the needs of legislation and of the legislation which is pending

In the first place, it would seem apparent that national legislation is necessary, for the reason that different State Legislatures have different ideas as to food products and food standards. Take for illustration the subject of beers and malt liquors. Practically every manufacturer of these goods ships from one State to another. What would be satisfactory under the law of New York might not be satisfactory under the law of New Jersey. As a matter of fact, the Government tests and analyses that have lately been made by Dr. Wiley, the Chief Chemist of the Agricultural Department, at the invitation of the Senate Committee, show that the American malt liquors are actually superior as a rule to the imported malt liquors, and that in the language of Dr. Wiley, "out of the analysis of about fifty American beers, I think only two contained the least trace of a preservative, which is not the case in the imported beers.”

Practically every manufacturer of this product is willing to have a Government standard fixed whereby the article shall contain at least a certain percentage of malt extracts, etc., but the reader can see at once the manifest injustice if one standard were to be fixed by the Government and the States fixed another standard. The law would lack uniformity in its application, and a practical law must be uniform.

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