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AN ENCYCLOPEDIC LEXICON
PREPARED UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF
WILLIAM DWIGHT WHITNEY, PH.D., LL.D.
PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY AND SANSKRIT
IN YALE UNIVERSITY
IN SIX VOLUMES
The Century Co.
By permission of Messrs. Blackie & Son, publishers of The Imperial Dictionary by Dr. Ogilvie and
THE DE VINNE PRESS.
USED IN THE
IN THE ETYMOLOGIES AND DEFINITIONS.
photog phren. phys. physiol. pl., plur. poet. polit. Pol. poss. pp. ppr. Pr.
MHG. milit. mineral.
act. adv. AF. agri. AL alg. Amer. anat. anc. antiq. aor. appar. Ar.. aroh. archæol. arith. art. AS. astrol. astron.. attrib. aug Bav. Beug. biol. Bohem. bot. Braz. Bret.. bryol. Bulg. carp.. Cat. Cath.
pref. prep. pres. pret. priv. prob. pron. pron.
prop. pros. Prot. prov. psychol. q. V.....
American. .anatomy. ...ancient,
.chronology. ..colloquial, colloquially. commerce, commer
cial. .composition, com
ing modern English).
ceram. cf. ch. Chal. chem. Chin. chron. colloq. com.
Episcopal. equiv. .equivalent. esp.
.Ethiopic. ethnog. .ethnography. ethnol.
European exclam. exclamation. 1., fem..
French (usually mean.
ing modern French). Flem.
ing New High Ger
Gothic (Mesogothic). Gr.
.heraldry. herpet. herpetology. Hind.
Hungarian. hydraul. .hydraulics. hydros. .hydrostatics. Icel.
meaning old Icelandic, otherwise call.
ed Old Norse). ichth.
. ichthyology, i. e.
.L. id est, that is. impers. impersonal impf.
imperative. improp. .improperly. Ind.
indicative. Indo-Eur. Indo-European. indef.
instrumental interj. interjection. intr., intrans....intransitive. Ir.
. irregular, irregularly. It.
Latin (usually mean.
ing classical Latin). Lett.
Low German. Kchenol. lichenology. lit.
.literal, literally. lit.
Lithuanian. lithog. .lithography. lithol.
Late Latin, m., masc. masculine. M.
.machinery. mammal. mammalogy. manuf.
Middle Dutch. МЕ. .
Middle English (other.
wise called Old Eng. lish).
cal. .medicine. ..mensuration. .metallurgy. .metaphysics. .meteorology. Mexican. Middle Greek, medie
val Greek. Middle High German. .military. . mineralogy. . Middle Latin, medie
val Latin. Middle Low German, modern. .mycology. ..mythology.
nautical, .. navigation. New Greek, modern
(usually simply G.,
wise called Church
Portuguese. pharmacy. Phenician. philology. .philosophy. phonography.
meaning Old Pro.
vençal). prefix preposition. present. .. preterit. privative. probably, probable. pronoun. pronounced, pronun.
vide, which see.
Spanish. subjunctive. .superlative. ..surgery. ..surveying. Swedish. synonymy. Syriac. technology. ..telegraphy. ..teratology. .termination. Teutonic. theatrical. .theology. .therapeutics. .toxicology.
transitive. .trigonometry. Turkish. .typography. . ultimate, ultimately. verb. variant. .veterinary. intransitive verb. transitive verb. Welsh. Walloon. Wallachian. West Indian. .zoogeography. .zoology. .zootomy.
compar. conch. conj. contr.
Sc. Scand. Scrip. sculp. Serv. sing. Skt. Slav. Sp. subj. superl. surg. surv. Sw. syn. Syr. technol. teleg. teratol. term. Teut. theat. theol. therap. toxicol. tr., trans. trigon. Turk. typog. ult.
Corn. craniol. craniom. crystal. D. Dan. dat. def. deriv. dial diff. dim. distrib. dram. dynam. E. E.
vet. V. i. v. t. W. Wall. Wallach. W. Ind. zoogeog. zool. zoot.
Egypt. . E. Ind. elect. embryol. Eng.
ů as in pull, book, could.
even in the mouths of the best speak. ers, its sound is variable to, and in ordinary utterance actually becomes, the short u-sound (of but, pun, etc.). See Preface, p. xi. Thus:
$ as in nature, adventure. das in arduous, education. 8 as in leisure. 2 as in seizure.
& as in fat, man, pang. å as in fate, mane, dale. ä as in far, father, guard. & as in fall, talk, naught. á as in ask, fast, ant. ā as in fare, hair, bear. e as in met, pen, bless. ē as in mete, meet, meat. è as in her, fern, heard. i as in pin, it, biscuit. í as in pine, fight, file. o as in not, on, frog. Ő as in note, poke, floor. 8 as in move, spoon, room. O as in nor, song, off. u as in tub, son, blood. û as in mute, acute, few (also new,
tube, duty: see Preface, pp. ix, x).
A single dot under a vowel in an un. accented syllable indicates its abbreviation and lightening, without absolute loss of its distinctive quality. See Preface, p. xi. Thus:
1 as in errant, republican.
as in prudent, difference. | as in charity, density. & as in valor, actor, idiot. å as in Persia, peninsula. ē as in the book. Ở as in nature, feature.
th as in thin. Tu as in then. ch as in German ach, Scotch loch. Ô French nasalizing 1, as in ton, en. ly (in French words) French liquid
(mouillé) 1. ' denotes a primary, a secondary accent. (A secondary accent is not marked if at its regular interval of two syllables from the primary, or from another secondary.)
as in prelate, courage, captain. © as in ablegate, episcopal. Ő as in abrogate, eulogy, democrat.
as in singular, education.
A double dot under a vowel in an unaccented syllable indicates that,
A mark (~) under the consonants t, d, s, z indicates that they in like manner are variable to ch, j, sh, zh. Thus:
read from; i. e., derived from. > read whence; i. e., from which is derived. + read and; i. e., compounded with, or with suffix. = read cognate uith; i, e., etymologically parallel with. V read root. * read theoretical or alleged; i. e., theoretically assumed, or asserted but unverified, form.
The capitalizing and italicizing of certain or all of the words in a synonym-list indicates that the words so distinguished are discriminated in the text immediately follow. ing, or under the title referred to.
The figures by which the synonym-lists are sometimes divided indicate the senses or definitions with which they are connected.
The title words begin with a small (lower-case) letter, or with a capital, according to usage. When usage differs, in this matter, with the different senses of a word, the abbreviations (cap.) for "capital " and [l.c.) for "lowercase" are used to indicate this variation.
The difference observed in regard to the capitalizing of the second element in zoological and botanical terms is in accordance with the existing usage in the two sciences. Thus, in zoology, in a scientific name consisting of two words the second of which is derived from a proper name, only the first would be capitalized. But a name of simi. lar derivation in botany would have the second element also capitalized.
The names of zoological and botanical classes, orders, families, genera, etc., have been uniformly italicized, in accordance with the present usage of scientific writers.
Various abbreviations have been used in the credits to the quotations, as "No." for number, "st." for stanza, "p." for page, “1." for line, f for paragraph, "fol." for folio. The method used in indicating the subdivisions of books will be understood by reference to the following plan :
Different grammatical phases of the same word are grouped under one head, and distinguished by the Ro. man numerals I., II., III., etc. This applies to transitive and intransitive uges of the same verb, to adjectives used also as nouns, to nouns used also as adjectives, to adverbs used also as prepositions or conjunctions, etc.