Oldalképek
PDF
ePub

THE

CENTURY DICTIONARY

AN ENCYCLOPEDIC LEXICON
OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

PREPARED UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF

WILLIAM DWIGHT WHITNEY, PH.D., LL.D.

PROFESSOR OF COMPARATIVE PHILOLOGY AND SANSKRIT

IN YALE UNIVERSITY

IN SIX VOLUMES
VOLUME VI

PUBLISHED BY

The Century Co.

NEW YORK

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

By permission of Messrs. Blackie & Son, publishers of The Imperial Dictionary by Dr. Ogilvie and
Dr. Annandale, material from that English copyright work has been freely used in the preparation of
THE CENTURY Dictionary, and certain owners of American copyrights having claimed that undue use of
matter so protected has been made in the compilation of The Imperial Dictionary, notice is hereby
given that arrangement has also been made with the proprietors of such copyright matter for its use
in the preparation of THE CENTURY Dictionary.

THE DE VINNE PRESS.

ABBREVIATIONS

USED IN THE

IN THE ETYMOLOGIES AND DEFINITIONS.

2., adj.

mech...

abbr.. abl.

acc.

accom.

med.
mensur.
metal..
metaph.
meteor.
Mex.
MGr..

photog phren. phys. physiol. pl., plur. poet. polit. Pol. poss. pp. ppr. Pr.

MHG. milit. mineral.

ML...

act. adv. AF. agri. AL alg. Amer. anat. anc. antiq. aor. appar. Ar.. aroh. archæol. arith. art. AS. astrol. astron.. attrib. aug Bav. Beug. biol. Bohem. bot. Braz. Bret.. bryol. Bulg. carp.. Cat. Cath.

pref. prep. pres. pret. priv. prob. pron. pron.

MLG.
mod.
mycol.
myth..
n...
n., neut.
N.
N
X. Amer.
nat.
naut.

prop. pros. Prot. prov. psychol. q. V.....

nav..
NGr.

NHG

NL,

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

nom...
Norm.
north.
Norw.
numis.
0.
obs.
obstet.
OBulg.

S. Amer.

caus.

[ocr errors]

.adjective,
.abbreviation.
ablative,
accusative.
.accommodated, accom.

modation.
active.
.adverb.
Anglo-French.
.agriculture.
. Anglo-Latin.
.algebra

American. .anatomy. ...ancient,

.antiquity.
aorist.
.apparently.
Arabic.
architecture.
archæology.
arithmetic.
article.
. Anglo-Saxon.
. astrology.
..astronomy.
attributive.
.augmentative.
Bavarian.
. Bengali.
biology.
Bohemian.
.botany.
Brazilian.
Breton.
bryology.
Bulgarian.
..carpentry.

Catalan.
Catholic.
. causative.

ceramics.
.L. confer, compare.
church.
Chaldee.
.chemical, chemistry.
Chinese.

.chronology. ..colloquial, colloquially. commerce, commer

cial. .composition, com

pound.
.comparative.
.conchology.
conjunction.
.contracted, contrac-

tion.
Cornish.
.craniology.
craniometry.
.crystallography.
Dutch.
Danish.
dative.
.definite, definition.
.derivative, derivation.
dialect, dialectal.
different.
diminutive.
distributive.
dramatic.
.dynamics.
East.
.English (usually mean.

ing modern English).
ecclesiastical.
economy.
.L. exempli gratia, for

example.
. Egyptian.
East Indian.
.electricity.
embryology.
English.

ceram. cf. ch. Chal. chem. Chin. chron. colloq. com.

engin..

engineering. entom,

entomology. Epis.

Episcopal. equiv. .equivalent. esp.

.especially. Eth.

.Ethiopic. ethnog. .ethnography. ethnol.

.ethnology. etym,

.etymology. Eur.

European exclam. exclamation. 1., fem..

feminine. F.

French (usually mean.

ing modern French). Flem.

Flemish. fort.

fortification. freq.

.frequentative. Fries.

Friesic. fut.

.future. G..

German(usually mean.

ing New High Ger

man). Gael.

Gaelic. galv.

galvanism. gen.

genitive. geog.

geography. geol.

..geology. geom.

.geometry Goth.

Gothic (Mesogothic). Gr.

Greek. gram.

grammar. gun.

gunnery. Heb.

Hebrew her.

.heraldry. herpet. herpetology. Hind.

Hindustani. hist.

history. horol.

horology. hort.

horticulture. Hung.

Hungarian. hydraul. .hydraulics. hydros. .hydrostatics. Icel.

Icelandic (usually

meaning old Icelandic, otherwise call.

ed Old Norse). ichth.

. ichthyology, i. e.

.L. id est, that is. impers. impersonal impf.

.imperfect. impv.

imperative. improp. .improperly. Ind.

Indian. ind.

indicative. Indo-Eur. Indo-European. indef.

indefinite. inf.

infinitive. instr.

instrumental interj. interjection. intr., intrans....intransitive. Ir.

Irish. irreg.

. irregular, irregularly. It.

Italian. Jap.

Japanese. L..

Latin (usually mean.

ing classical Latin). Lett.

Lettish. LG,

Low German. Kchenol. lichenology. lit.

.literal, literally. lit.

literature. Lith.

Lithuanian. lithog. .lithography. lithol.

lithology. LL.

Late Latin, m., masc. masculine. M.

Middle. mach.

.machinery. mammal. mammalogy. manuf.

manufacturing. math,

mathematics. MD.

Middle Dutch. МЕ. .

Middle English (other.

wise called Old Eng. lish).

mechanics, mechani

cal. .medicine. ..mensuration. .metallurgy. .metaphysics. .meteorology. Mexican. Middle Greek, medie

val Greek. Middle High German. .military. . mineralogy. . Middle Latin, medie

val Latin. Middle Low German, modern. .mycology. ..mythology.

noun.
neuter.
New.
North.
North America,
natural.

nautical, .. navigation. New Greek, modern

Greek.
New High German

(usually simply G.,

German).
New Latin, modern

Latin.
nominative.
Norman.
northern.
Norwegian.
numismatics.
Old.
obsolete.
obstetrics.
Old Bulgarian (other.

wise called Church
Slavonic, Old Slavic,

Old Slavonic).
Old Catalan,
.Old Dutch.
.Old Danish.
..odontography.
odontology.
Old French
Old Flemish.
Old Gaelic.
Old High German.
Old Irish
Old Italian.
Old Latin,
Old Low German.
Old Northumbrian.
Old Prussian,
original, originally.
..ornithology.

Old Saxon.
Old Spanish
osteology.
Old Swedish.
Old Teutonic.
participial adjective.
paleontology.
. participle.
.passive.
pathology.
perfect.
Persian.
person.
perspective.
Peruvian.
.petrography,

Portuguese. pharmacy. Phenician. philology. .philosophy. phonography.

.. photography,
.phrenology.

physical
physiology.
.plural.
. poetical.
political.
.Polish.
. possessive.
. past participle.
present participle.
. Provençal (usually

meaning Old Pro.

vençal). prefix preposition. present. .. preterit. privative. probably, probable. pronoun. pronounced, pronun.

ciation.
.. properly.
..prosody.
Protestant.
provincial
psychology.
.L. quod (or pl. quæ)

vide, which see.
reflexive.
regular, regularly.
representing.
. rhetoric.

Roman.
Romanic, Romance

(languages).
Russian,
..South.
.. South American.
... scilicet, understand,

supply.
Scotch.
Scandinavian.
.Scripture.
.sculpture.

Servian.
.singular,
Sanskrit,
Slavic, Slavonic.

Spanish. subjunctive. .superlative. ..surgery. ..surveying. Swedish. synonymy. Syriac. technology. ..telegraphy. ..teratology. .termination. Teutonic. theatrical. .theology. .therapeutics. .toxicology.

transitive. .trigonometry. Turkish. .typography. . ultimate, ultimately. verb. variant. .veterinary. intransitive verb. transitive verb. Welsh. Walloon. Wallachian. West Indian. .zoogeography. .zoology. .zootomy.

comp...

compar. conch. conj. contr.

Sc. Scand. Scrip. sculp. Serv. sing. Skt. Slav. Sp. subj. superl. surg. surv. Sw. syn. Syr. technol. teleg. teratol. term. Teut. theat. theol. therap. toxicol. tr., trans. trigon. Turk. typog. ult.

OCat.
OD.
O Dan..
odontog
odontol.
OF.
OFlem.
OGael.
OHG.
OIr.
Olt.
OL.
OLG.
ONorth.
OPruss.
orig.
ornith.
OS.
OSp.
osteol.
OSw.
O Teut.
p. a.
paleon.
part.
pass.
pathol.
perf.
Pers.
pers.
persp.
Peruv.
petrog.
Pg.
phar.
Phen.
philol..
philos.
phonog.

Corn. craniol. craniom. crystal. D. Dan. dat. def. deriv. dial diff. dim. distrib. dram. dynam. E. E.

V.

var.

eccl., eccles.
econ.
e. g.

vet. V. i. v. t. W. Wall. Wallach. W. Ind. zoogeog. zool. zoot.

Egypt. . E. Ind. elect. embryol. Eng.

KEY TO

TO PRONUNCIATION.

ů as in pull, book, could.
ü German ü, French u.
oi as in oil, joint, boy.
ou as in pound, proud, now.

even in the mouths of the best speak. ers, its sound is variable to, and in ordinary utterance actually becomes, the short u-sound (of but, pun, etc.). See Preface, p. xi. Thus:

$ as in nature, adventure. das in arduous, education. 8 as in leisure. 2 as in seizure.

& as in fat, man, pang. å as in fate, mane, dale. ä as in far, father, guard. & as in fall, talk, naught. á as in ask, fast, ant. ā as in fare, hair, bear. e as in met, pen, bless. ē as in mete, meet, meat. è as in her, fern, heard. i as in pin, it, biscuit. í as in pine, fight, file. o as in not, on, frog. Ő as in note, poke, floor. 8 as in move, spoon, room. O as in nor, song, off. u as in tub, son, blood. û as in mute, acute, few (also new,

tube, duty: see Preface, pp. ix, x).

A single dot under a vowel in an un. accented syllable indicates its abbreviation and lightening, without absolute loss of its distinctive quality. See Preface, p. xi. Thus:

[ocr errors]

1 as in errant, republican.

as in prudent, difference. | as in charity, density. & as in valor, actor, idiot. å as in Persia, peninsula. ē as in the book. Ở as in nature, feature.

th as in thin. Tu as in then. ch as in German ach, Scotch loch. Ô French nasalizing 1, as in ton, en. ly (in French words) French liquid

(mouillé) 1. ' denotes a primary, a secondary accent. (A secondary accent is not marked if at its regular interval of two syllables from the primary, or from another secondary.)

as in prelate, courage, captain. © as in ablegate, episcopal. Ő as in abrogate, eulogy, democrat.

as in singular, education.

A double dot under a vowel in an unaccented syllable indicates that,

A mark (~) under the consonants t, d, s, z indicates that they in like manner are variable to ch, j, sh, zh. Thus:

SIGNS.

read from; i. e., derived from. > read whence; i. e., from which is derived. + read and; i. e., compounded with, or with suffix. = read cognate uith; i, e., etymologically parallel with. V read root. * read theoretical or alleged; i. e., theoretically assumed, or asserted but unverified, form.

read obsolete.

SPECIAL EXPLANATIONS.

[blocks in formation]

The capitalizing and italicizing of certain or all of the words in a synonym-list indicates that the words so distinguished are discriminated in the text immediately follow. ing, or under the title referred to.

The figures by which the synonym-lists are sometimes divided indicate the senses or definitions with which they are connected.

The title words begin with a small (lower-case) letter, or with a capital, according to usage. When usage differs, in this matter, with the different senses of a word, the abbreviations (cap.) for "capital " and [l.c.) for "lowercase" are used to indicate this variation.

The difference observed in regard to the capitalizing of the second element in zoological and botanical terms is in accordance with the existing usage in the two sciences. Thus, in zoology, in a scientific name consisting of two words the second of which is derived from a proper name, only the first would be capitalized. But a name of simi. lar derivation in botany would have the second element also capitalized.

The names of zoological and botanical classes, orders, families, genera, etc., have been uniformly italicized, in accordance with the present usage of scientific writers.

Various abbreviations have been used in the credits to the quotations, as "No." for number, "st." for stanza, "p." for page, “1." for line, f for paragraph, "fol." for folio. The method used in indicating the subdivisions of books will be understood by reference to the following plan :

Different grammatical phases of the same word are grouped under one head, and distinguished by the Ro. man numerals I., II., III., etc. This applies to transitive and intransitive uges of the same verb, to adjectives used also as nouns, to nouns used also as adjectives, to adverbs used also as prepositions or conjunctions, etc.

[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]
« ElőzőTovább »