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During the five years of Mr. Jowett's absence, he had been resident chiefly in Malta; but he had spent a considerable time in Corfu, and had twice visited Egypt and some parts of Greece.
The result of this visit to the Mediterranean has justified the expectation which the Committee had formed of its probable utility. Besides, many incidental benefits, arising from measures taken by Mr. Jowett or other friends of the Society, and now
tical, the Covert Infidel, the Sincere Inquirer. Latins. Greeks : Doctrines-Discipline Public Worship-Domestic Devotion-Fu« neral Services-Greeks at Corfu, at Smyrna, at Haivali, at Scio, at Athens, at Hydra, at Milo: Coptic Christians and others in Egypt : Predominance of the Coptic Church-Oppressions suffered by the Coptic Church-Copts and others at Alexandria, at Rosetta, at Caïro, in Upper Egypt - Scriptural Illustrations. Abyssinians : Early and continued Establishment of Christianity-Dependence on the Coptic Patriarch-Ancient Confession of Faith, by Claudius, Emperor of Abyssinia-Modern Creed of the Abyssinian Church-Ethiopic Scriptures--Amharic Version of the Scriptures-- Tigré Version of the Scriptures--On the Encouragement of Abyssinian LearningThoughts 'on a Mission to Abyssinia. Jews: their State and Opinions--Qualifications of those who would attempt their Conversion: 1. To understand, experimentally, the root of Jewish Error and Unbelief; 2. A peculiar Line of Study. MAHOMEDANS :Causes of the continued Prevalence of Mahomedanism; 1. Ignorance of the Human Heart; 2. Want of right Moral Feeling ; 3. Vices of the Creed and Climates ; 1. Despotism; 5. Cunning, Fraud, and Extortion—Causes of the continued Depression of Christianity in Malo, medan Countries: 1. Ignorance; 2. Declension from Fundamental Doctrine; 3. Intolerance; 4. Schisms and Feuds; 5. Superstitious and Idolatrous Customs-Christian Renegadoes. MEASURES for extending the Influence of Christianity among the various Bodies of Men connected with the Mediterranean-1. Preaching; 2. Circu. lation of the Scriptures; 3. Education ; 4. The Press; 5. Use of the Vernacular Tongues in Worship; 6. Correspondence between the Eastern and Western Churches. CONCLUDING REMARKS AND SUGGESTIONS-Characteristics of a Mission to the Mediterranean : 1. Wide extent of Country to which it gives access ; 2. State of Languages; 3. Diversity of National Circumstances and Character; 4. Variety of Creeds and Opinions; 5. The near Approximation of certain Errors to the Truth; 6. The Religious Prepossessions of the great body of the People ; 7. The large proportion of Cultivated Mind; 8. The Circumstances under which Missionaries are viewed.-New Stations suggested: 1. Gibraltar ; 2. Ionian Islands; 3. Constantinople; 4. Smyrna and the Greek Islands ; 5. Aleppo; 6. Beirout; 7. Jerusalem; 8.Caïro; 9. Abyssinia; 10.Barbary States. -Advantages of Malta-Requisite Qualifications of Christian Labourers : 1. Enlightened Piety, implying Habitual Conscientiousness and Fidelity toward God, and a feeling of Supreme Enjoyment in the Service of God; 2. Natural Endowments, as a Spirit of Enterprise, Inventive Talent, Sound Judgment, a Talent for Conversation, and Competent Learning. Concluding Appeal.
in successful progress, the Committee are in possession of materials, which will enable them with greater precision to choose their future path, and by which the minds of British Christians may be excited to survey with increasing interest the varied Tribes and Nations connected with these internal seas.
A part of these materials, Mr. Jowett has, during his visit home, made the ground-work of the present Volume; the chief part of which is occupied in tracing the condition of the different bodies of men connected with the Mediterranean, according to their respective religious professions, as Christians, Jews, and Mahomedans; while, in conclusion, such Measures are suga gested, and such Remarks offered, as seemed to the Author best adapted to promote the great purpose of the Society.
It is not professed to enter at large, in this Volume, into the opinions and habits of the several bodies of men here noticed, or to present a full view of any one of them; but merely to state such Facts respecting their condition as came within the knowledge of the Writer, or have been derived from authentic sources, adding such remarks as have arisen thereon in his own mind.
Many of these remarks he would have considered in no higher light, than as hints for further Research. It seems to be in this way chiefly, that a thorough knowledge of the state of men and manners in different countries is to be attained. Recording Facts as they present themselves, and the reflections that arise from them at the time--afterward confirming or modifying these views, as a further acquaintance with Facts may direct us--this is the true Spirit of Research; and on the prosecution of this system depend mainly the accuracy and the extent of our knowledge.
The Journal of the Rev. James Connor is subjoined to the Researches of Mr. Jowett. It has already appeared in the Missionary Register for 1820, but is reprinted in the present Volume, in order to bring together into one view all the chief information which the Society has hitherto obtained relative to this field of its labours.
Mr. Jowett's account of the Greeks, and especially of their Colleges at Haivali and Scio, which he visited in 1818, will be read with melancholy feelinys; when it is recollected that these promising Establishments have been swept away by the furious torrent which has overwhelmed the Greek Nation, and their able and zealous Professors murdered or driven from their country.
The arrival of Mr. Jowett and his family at Mar
seilles, on his return to Malta, has been before stated*. It would have given the Committee pleasure to report that his health had been entirely re-established while in this country, and that he had been accompanied, on his return, by some able and devoted men, who would rejoice to share with him the interesting toil of his sphere of observation and exertion. In both respects, the hopes of the Committee have been disappointed: yet they trust that it will please God so to confirm Mr. Jowett's improving health, as to enable him to continue his labours, with pleasure, for many years, in a scene in which his whole heart is engaged, and for which he is remarkably fitted by his talents, his acquirements, and his experience; nor are the Committee without the prospect of sending some Labourers to the Mediterranean, who will count it their honour to aid in cultivating that ample field which Mr. Jowett's Volume opens before them.
With what views and feelings the Committee and Mr. Jowett separated, on his return to his Station, will be seen in the Instructions given to him on that occasion, and in the very affectionate and able Address delivered at their request by the Rev. William Dealtry; together with the Reply returned by Mr. Jowett. The Committee will quote, on the present occasion, from a communication addressed to the Society by Mr. Jowett, his own view of the scene of his labours:
It is impossible for an intelligent Christian, taking Malta as his centre, to review on every side what has been, and what now is, the condition of innumerable myriads of our race, without cherishing the hope that better days may gladden the prospect. Now, the thickest clouds of Ignorance spread over many lands a long-protracted night; or Guilt and Misery display, in the gloom, their most atrocious and appaling forms. The heart of the humane Traveller often recoils on itself, with the humiliating question-" Is this Man ?" But the Christian prevails, and answers-" There is Hope!"
In these countries, rendered memorable by the greatest Moral Movements in the History of Mankind-the establishment of Christianity, the Dispersion of the Jewish People, and
* Intelligence has been received, since the Amiversary, of their safe arrival at Malta on the 27th of April.
the diffusion of Mahomedanism nearly co-incident with the rise of the Papacy-there is scope for a peculiar line of exertion. By enlightening and exciting to holy activity, the yet-surviving Christian Churches, he may expect to bring the Jew and the Mahomedan to the confession of Christ Crucified. even confidently hope, that the beams of Christian Truth shali burst, under the gracious influences of the Holy Spirit, on these primæval scenes, to an extent, and with a glow and lustre, of which past History gives no examples.
Recent and passing events have awakened in every humane heart warm sympathy with our suffering Fellow-Christians, within the sphere of this Mission; and the Committee feel, that, while it is the duty of the Members to pray that Almighty God would direct the interests and affairs of nations to the promotion of His own Glory, it is equally their duty to seize every opportunity which His Providence may afford by humbling the Members of fallen Churches through their sufferings, to pour in the instructions and consolations of the Divine Word: they now mark His overruling hand, in opening ways for its diffusion under apparent impossibilities; nor can they doubt but that a peculiar blessing will attend the patient and redoubled exertions of Christians, favoured as we are with light and security, to lead the Members of suffering and fallen Churches to hear the rod, and Him that hath appointed it.
In mentioning the providential openings for the diffusion of the Scriptures, the Committee are reminded of a fact which has been reported to them from Malta—that the Vice-President of the Athens Bible Society had apprised the Malta Bible Society, that a number of cases of the Scriptures, forwarded by the British and Foreign Bible Society to Athens, had fallen into the hands of the Turks; and had been sold by them, by auction, to an Armenian Merchant, at three paras (about three farthings) per copy: so that these copies of the Scriptures would find their way into circulation, under authority and at a very cheap rate, at a time when their warnings and consolations would be most likely to be heard and received at the charge, indeed, of that Institution which sent them forth on their errand of mercy; but which is never more nobly
expending its funds, than when it is freely breaking the Bread of Life to the hungry and the perishing.
CALCUTTA AND NORTH-INDIA MISSION. The Fourth Report of the Society's Corresponding Committee at Calcutta, with some other communications from that quarter, furnish ample materials for a review of the Calcutta and North-India Mission.
The Corresponding Committee enter on their Report with the following remarks on the importance of diffusing Missionary Intelligence in India :
Secluded as many Christians necessarily are in this country from the sources of information, and hearing but little in detail of the progress of Divine Truth in the earth, the mind is too apt to become dispirited, as to any good to be expected from the efforts of a few individuals, on the great mass of a population so constituted as that of this country; and the necessity of encouraging Missionary Labours is rather assented to as a point of Christian Doctrine, than engaged in as a necessary part of Christian Duty.
To counteract a feeling so injurious to the Christian state, and with a view
to the encouragement of Missionary Labours in India, the Committee some time ago contemplated the publication of a periodical work, of the nature of the Christian Observer: this design was abandoned for want of the assistance necessary to carry on a work of that kind in an efficient man
To make up, in some measure, the defect, a Member of the Committee, with the consent of his colleagues, engaged to supply a compilation of Missionary Intelligence, from accounts connected with this country and places more immediately in communication with it, to be published quarterly. This undertaking commenced on a very limited scale; but it is hoped that as the subject attracts the attention which it deserves, assistance will be afforded which may render it more effectual to the purpose intended.
In adverting to the LABOURERS employed by the Society, the Corresponding Committee express their deep regret at the loss of Mr. Schroeter and the return of Mr. La Roche; and notice the appointment of Mr. Perowne to Burdwan and of Mr. Morris to Benares, with the arrival in Calcutta and subsequent Ordination of Abdool Messeeh.
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