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plunge of hardy Vikings, whom we can see, red make a soup. Then the same, fried in its own and tingling from head to heel, as they fat, and, as salt and pepper were allowed, we did emerge.
not scorn our supper. P. and R. afterwards “Come!" cried P., “the steamer is about to walked over to the Skit, a small church and leave !"
branch of the monastery, more than a mile disWe all wandered down the steps, I with my tant; while I tried, but all in vain, to reproduce lilies in my hand. Even the rough peasants the Holy Island in verses. The impression was seemed reluctant to leave the spot, and not only too recent. for the sake of Alexander Svirski. We were The next day was the festival of Peter and all safely embarked and carried back to Valaam, Paul, and Alexis had advised us to make an exleaving the island to its solitude. Alexis (as I cursion to a place called Jelesniki. In the shall call our Russian friend) put us in charge morning, however, we learned that the monasof a native artist, who knew every hidden beauty tery and its grounds were to be consecrated in in Valaam, and suggested an exploration of the solemn procession. The chimes pealed out inlet, while he went back to his devotions. We quick and joyously, and soon a burst of banners borrowed a boat from the monks, and im- and a cloud of incense issued from the great pressed a hardy fisherman into our service. I gate. All the pilgrims (nearly two thousand in supposed we had already seen the extent of the number) thronged around the double line of inlet
, but, on reaching its head, a narrow side- chanting monks, and it was found necessary to channel disclosed itself, passing away under a inclose the latter in a hollow square, formed by quaint bridge and opening upon an inner lake a linked chain of hands. As the morning sun of astonishing beanty. The rocks were dis- shone on the bare-headed multitude, the beauty posed in every variety of grouping ; sometimes of their unshorn hair struck me like a new rising in even terraces, step above step, some- revelation. Some of the heads, of lustrous, times thrusting out a sheer wall from the sum. Aossy gold, actually shone by their own light. mit, or lying slant-wise in masses split off by It was marvellous that skin so hard and coarse the wedges of the ice. The fairy birches in their in texture should produce such beautiful hair. thin foliage stood on the edge of the water like The beards of the men, also, were strikingly Dryads undressing for a bath, while the shaggy soft and rich. They never shave, and thus male firs elbowed each other on the heights for avoid bristles, the down of adolescence thickena look at them. Other channels opened in the ing into a natural beard. distance, with glimpses of other and as beautiful As the procession approached, Alexis, who harbours in the heart of the islands. “ You was walking behind the monks, inside the promay sail for seventy-five versts," said the tecting guard, beckoned to us to join him. The painter," without seeing them all.”
peasants respectfully made way, two hands unThe fearlessness of all wild creatures showed linked to admit us, and we became, unexthat the rules of the good monks had been care- pectedly, participants in the ceremonies. From fully obeyed. The wild ducks swam around the south side the procession moved around to our boat, or brooded, in conscious security, on the east, where a litany was again chanted. their nests along the shore. Three great The fine voices of the monks lost but little of herors, fishing in a shallow, rose slowly into the their volume in the open air; there was no air and flew across the water, breaking the wind, and the tapers burned and the incense silence with their hoarse trumpet-note. Farther diffused itself, as in the church. A sacred picinto the woods there are herds of wild reindeer, ture, which two inonks carried on a sort of which are said to have become gradually tame. litter, was regarded with particular reverence by This familiarity of the animals took away from the pilgrims, numbers of whom crept under the the islands all that was repellent in their solitude. line of guards to snatch a moment's devotion It half restored the broken link between man before it. At every pause in the proceedings and the subject-forms of life.
there was a rush from all sides, and the poor The sunset-light was on the trees when we fellows who formed the lines held each other's started, but here in the North it is no fleeting hands with all their strength. Yet, flushed, glow. It lingers for hours even, fading so im- sweating, and exhausted as they were, the perceptibly that you scarcely know when it has responsibility of their position made them ceased. Thus, when we returned after a long perfectly prouil and happy. They were the pull
, craving the Lenten fare of the monastery, guardians of cross and shrine, of the holy the same soft gold tinted its clustering domes. books, the monks, and the abbot himself. W were not called upon to visit the refectory, From the east side we proceeded to the but a table was prepared in our room. The north, where the dead monks sleep in their first dish had the appearance of a salad, with cemetery, high over the watery gorge. In one the accompaniment of black bread. On care- corper of this inclosure, under a group of giant fully tasting, I discovered the ingredients to be maples, is the grave of King Magnus, of Sweden, raw salt fish chopped fine, cucumbers, and— who is said to have perished by shipwreck on beer. The taste of the first spoonful was pe- the island. Here, in the deep shade, a solemn culiar; of the cond, tul le; of the third, mass for the dead was chanted. Nothing could decidedly palatable. Beyond this I did not go, have added to the inpressiveness of the scene, for we had fresh fish, boiled in enough water to the tapers burning under the thick-leaved
BY J. P. SHORTHOUSE.
boughs, the light smoke curling up in the shade, another good-bye, and the under-abbot, blessing the grave voices of the mopks, the bending R., made the sign of the cross upon his brow heads of the beautiful-haired crowd, and the and breast. dashes of white, pink, scarlet, blue, and gold in When we reached the golden dome of St. their dresses, made a picture the solemnity of Nicholas, at the outlet of the harbour, the which was only heightened by its pomp of boats had set their sails, and the lake was no colour. I can do no more than give the features ; longer lonely. Scores of white wings gleamed the reader must recombine them in his own in the sun, as they scattered away in radii from mind.
the central and sacred point, some north, some The painter accompanied us to the place east, and some veering south around Holy Island, called Jelesniki, which, after a walk of four Sergius and Herrmann gave them smooth seas, miles through the forests, we found to be a de- and light, favourable airs; for the least roughserted village, with a chapel on a rocky head- ness would have carried them, overladen as they land. There was
a fine bridge across the were, to the bottom. Once more the bells of dividing strait, and the place may have been Valaam chimed farewell, and we turned the as picturesque as it was represented. On that point to the westward, steering back to Kexside of the islands, however, there was a dense holm. fog, and we could get no view beyond a hundred Late that night we reached our old moorage yards. We had hoped to see reindeer in the at Konewitz, and on Saturday, at the appointed woods, and an eagle's nest, and various other hour, landed in St. Petersburg.. We carried curiosities; but where there was no fog there the white cross at the fore as we descended the were mosquitoes, and the search became dis- Neva, and the bells of the churches along the couraging.
banks welcomed our return. And now, as I On returning to the monastery, a register was recall those five days among the islands of the brought to us, in which, on looking back for Northern Lake, I see that it is good to go on a several years, we could fiod but one foreign pilgrimage, even if one is not a pilgrim. visitor-a Frenchman. We judged, therefore, that the abbot would possibly expect us to call upon him, and, indeed, the hospitality we bad received exacted it. We found him receiving
ADIEU. visitors in a plain, but comfortable room, in a distant part of the building. He was a man of fifty-five, frank and self-possessed in his manners, and of an evident' force and indi
In life's fair morn, when cloudless skies viduality of character. His reception of the
And snnlight gilds the scene visitors, among whom was a lady, was at once When Hope's bright flowers in myriads rise courteous and kindly. A younger monk brought Nor storm nor blight are seen ; us glasses of tea. Incidentally learning that I had visited the Holy Places in Syria, the abbot When trusting to a loving heart, sent for some pictures of the monastery and its P’rhaps tremblingly thon’rt led chosen saints, which he asked me to keep as a To be a husband's better part, souvenir of Valaam. He also presented each O'er him thy sweetness shed; of us with a cake of unleavened bread, stamped with the cross, and with a triangular piece cut
When round thee in the spell-bound sphere out of the top, to indicate the Trinity. On
Affection’s glances play, parting, he gave his hand, which the orthodox
Reflected from the eyes so dear, visitors devoutly kissed. Before the steamer
So happy ’neath thy sway; sailed, we received fresh evidence of his kind. ness, in the present of three large loaves of con
When rolling year's and Time's dread scythe secrated bread, and a bunch of lilacs from the
Hope's flowers shall prostrate lay,
The wan, cold messenger arrive, garden of the monastery.
And beckon thee awayThrough some misunderstanding, we failed to dine in the refectory, as the monks desired, and their hospitable regret on this account was the
In all, through all, for thee I pray only shade on our enjoyment of the visit.
Heaven's choicest blessings still Alexis remained, in order to complete his de
May follow on thy life-long way,
Sustain thee, keep from ill, yotions by partaking the Communion on the following Sabbath; but as the anniversary 80lemnities closed at noon, the crowd of pilgrims
And upward to that glorious home prepared to return home. The Valamo, too,
Thy footsteps gently lead, sounded her warning bell, so we left the
Till to its pearly gates thou’rt come,
From all Time's evils freed. monastery as friends where we had arrived as strangers, and went on board. Boat after boat, gunwale-deep with the gay Careljans, rowed And now, my much-low'd friend, farewell i down the inlet, and in the space of half an hour A long time's last adien! but a few stragglers were left of all the multi
While lips or heart the wish can tell, tude. Some of the monks came down to say
My prayer will be for
ELIZABÉTH ELSTOB, THE SAXONIST.
Outlines of the Life of a Learned Lady, in the (80-called) Augustan Age of English Literature
BY MRS. CAROLINE A. WHITE.
In spite of Dr. Hick's recommendation the
English Saxon Homily found but a few subThe old city of Canterbury must have always scribers at Oxford, which according to the had a special interest for Elizabeth Elstob, not epigram was wholly Tory: only from her girlish associations with it, but from its connection with her Saxon studies, and “The King to Oxford sent his troops of horse ; the lives of the early saints and prelates. City For Tories own no argument but force. and suburbs must have been full of interesting With equal care to Cambridge books he sent; reminiscences, hidden and remote from anti- For Whigs allow no force but argument ;" quarians who were not Saxonists like herself. The quaint carved-timbered
houses of which
the and the dedication of the book to the Queen principal streets consisted, were as yet undis- offended their party prejudices. At Cambridge turbed—and the remains of ecclesiastical build-it met with greater success, and it must have ings, crypt-like cellars, archways with sunken been very gratifying to the author to find that steps, vaulted passages, and canopied niches nearly forty of the subscribers for it were her more numerous and striking than modern townsmen, who to this day are proud of, and visitors to the shrine of A'Becket can imagine, love to describe her as “the most learned must have afforded abundant subjects for her woman who ever lived.”.
."* A gentleman of Newpencil, although the only one of her sketches castle who has kindly made some inquiries on of it which has been preserved for us in words the subject, has informed the writer that a copy is the "cut” (as Broome calls it) of the font of the Homily in 8vo., 1709, is preserved in of St. Martin's Church, which she probably en- Dr. Tomlinson's Library, connected with St. graved—a font so crude in form and ornamen- Nicholas' church in that town; in which is also tation, so old and rugged, that all antiquarians a thanksgiving sermon of William Elstob's on agree in believing it of Saxon workmanship, the accession of Queen Anne, 1709. The very font, perhaps, in which the Saxon In one of the " blooming letters,” which Queen Bertha received, at the hands of St. Au- Thoersby describes as adorning her work (the gustine, the repetition of the sign of Christianity, initial G of the “Englisb Saxon Homily on the Thus she busies herself, in spite of the needful birthday of St. Gregory") appears the portrait rest her studious London life requires.
of the author ;t while the countenance of the In the meantime her work, which she dedi- saint in the Saxon L., is that of their learned cated to the Queen (Anne), was announced
as friend, Mr. Thwaites, to whom William Elstob "An English Saxon Homily on the Birthday had been much indebted for his knowledge of of St. Gregory, anciently used in the English Saxon, and who was as remarkable for the Saxon Church giving an Account of the Con- beauty of his countenance as for his charming version of the English from Paganism to manners and the agreeableness and vivacity of Christianity. Translated into modern English, his
conversation. with notes, by Elizabeth Elstob. London," &c. The portrait of Elizabeth, not more than an This edition (a large octavo, beautifully printed inch in length and less in breadtb, gives
us the by Bowyer the elder, at the White-house, Little idea of a young person, pleasing and intelligent, Britain) contains a copy of the original Saxon looking, rather than handsome; her forehead is Homily, with Mrs. Elstob's translation on the broad and high, her nose straight, with a short opposite column, and desrves the character of upper lip and rather full under one; the chin
pompous book," which Thoersby, who in- is small and round. It is a pleasing face, tended to give a notice of its publication in the neither wanting in dignity or firmness. She Ducatus Lead (p. 129), calls it. Here be styles its authoress the "justly-celebrated Saxon nymph”-a proof that her remarkable studies * Mackenzie's History of Newcastle. had already attracted attention, and that her † Also in the initial G of the Saxon grammar. brother made no secret of the important assist- The copy of the Homily on the Birthday of St. ance she bad intermediately afforded him. Un- Gregory, in the Bodleian, has marginal corrections, fortunately for the service which Thoersby made most probably by E. E. herself, and on the titlemeditated, his work did not appear till after the page she has written after “By Elizabeth Elstob,” publication of the homily to which he was a Quae et hoc exemplar grati animi ergo Bibliothecæ gubscriber, and thus fell still born,
Bodleiane dono dedit,"
wears a gown, cut square and low upon the “Which Dr. Hickes," says, Ballard, "well knowing bosom; and her hair, which is dressed rather what use had been and might be made of them in the high, is laid in curls all over the head, and falls Church of England, designed to publish, but for want in one long full one on the shoulder, such as of further encouragement (subscriptions] he could not Queen Caroline, wife of George II., wears in her carry out his scheme. It was therefore no small portrait at Hampton-Court.
pleasure to him to see one of the most considerable of Both of these portraits,” Nichols tells us, incredible industry hath furnished a Saxon Homila
them attempted by Mrs. Elizabeth Elstob, who, with " were engraved by Gribelin, though Michael Burghers, David Loggins' Dutch journeyman, learned and nseful notes, and for the printing of
rium, &c., which she hath translated and adorned with who succeeded his master at his death, and was
which she hath published proposals. 'And I cannot considered the best general engraver in but wish,' he adds, in his heavy English, 'that, for England, was then engraver to the University for her own sake, as well as for the advancement of of Oxford; and had, not improbably, given Septentrional learning, the service of the Church of lessons in his art to the fair authoress."
England, the credit of the country, and the honour of Warm summer weather and soft winds bring her sex, that learned and studions gentlewoman may healing with them to consumptive patients ; and find such encouragement as she and her great anderWilliam Elstob seems for the time to have had taking deserves.' renewed visions of health and strength. He has planned for himself sufficient work to occupy a Dipping again into Thoersby's diary I find, long life, and in his scholarly ardour, buoyed up under the date of August 11, 1712, Die Dom: by the encouragement of friends, his own entbusiasm, and the persuasive hopes of his be- "Heard Mr. Elstob preach at St. Swithin's. He loved sister, pooh ! poohs! the sudden flushes and expatiated upon the Apostle's character of a Bishop, cold sweats that mark the encroachments of his paraphrasing that part of the chapter relating to the disease. He has too much to do to note the office of a minister. I dined with him, and was growing frequency of their recurrence, and is much pleased with his learned design of the Salon
laws, which he showed me in manuscript, and the thus working unconsciously against time. He is busy with a translation of St. Gregory's curious transcript of the Textus Roffensis, and gave
me a specimen of it, wrote, as is the whole mani. Pastorals, which Keppist thinks was intended to include both the original and Saxon version, script, from the original, by a boy ander ten years of and with the adorning of which Elizabeth had age, who waited at table.” charged herself. He is also engaged on a From the antiquary's silence on the subject tral.script of King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon version of the learned lady, as he delighted to call Miss of “ Orosivus,”'I and while writing on various Elstob, it is probable she was from home at the other subjects, especially a work on the period of this visit
. Meanwhile, it became " Affinity of Law and Religion,” is seized with a necessary to stimulate the interest of clergy; desire to produce an edition of the “ Saxon laws with great additions, and a new Latin success of her work; and accordingly, while
men and scholars generally in the progress and version, with notes of various learned men, and Dr. Hicks canvassed for subscribers amongst a prefatory discourse on the origin of the his friends and acquaintances, we find Bowser English laws and their progress down to Magna- printing for the author some testimonies of Charta."
learned men” in a letter from the publisher to The preparation of an edition of " *St. Gregorie's Pastorals” appears to have been in favour of the intended edition of the Saxon
a Dr. of Divinity (probably Dr. Hicks himself) commenced immediately after the publication of Homilies and the advantage to be boped from the Saxon Homily ; and Elizabeth, writing to
them. Thoersby in the autumn of the same year, October, 1709, tells him, that having nothing taking, Elizabeth, accompanied, in all proba
Having finished some portions of her under else to do, she thinks of bringing out a set of bility, by her brother, proceeded to Oxford, for Saxon Homilies. This is the Saxon Homil the purpose of submitting specimens of her arium, or collection of English Saxon Homilies, work to the chief Teutonic linguists, and of of Alfric, Archbishop of Canterbury:
procuring subscribers to it.*
It was on this occasion that Dr. Hicks wrote
to bis friend and fellow-septentrionalist, Dr. * The Rev. J. T. Treacher has informed the author Charlett, under the date of December 23rd, that there is in the Hope collection of portraits at 1712, Ormond-street : Oxford one of Elizabeth Elstob, a print by Reading, copied from the one engraved in her English Saxon " I suppose you may have seen Mrs. Elstob, sister grammar.
to Wm. Elstob, formerly Fellow of your college, and † At the fire in the manuscript-room of the British the MSS. she bronght to be printed at your press. Museum, the Anglo-Saxon MS. known as St. Gregory The University hath acquired much reputation and the Great's Pastorals, given by Alfred the Great to Plegmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, was destroyed 18th, 1865.
* The folio manuscript of Mrs. E. E.'s Homilies # The exquisite transcript of Orosivus in William will be found in the Lansdown MSS., British Museum, Elstob's own hand, clear and precise as the best manu- + The first few pages of this beautiful folio were scripts, is preserved in the Bodleian Library.
printed at the Theatre, Oxford,
honour, at home and abroad, by the Saxon books | lady Saxonists' exquisite transcript and careful printed there, as well as by those printed in Latin and translation of Bishop Alfric's Homilies ! Greek, and the publication of the MSS. she hath
Subsequently, we find the brother and sister brought (the most correct I ever saw or read) will be again at Oxford, for the purpose of completing of great advantage to the Church of England against arrangements for the printing of the "Saxon the Papists, for the honour of our predecessors, the Homilarium;" and Dr. Hicks, who appears to English Saxon clergy-especially of the episcopal have been as warm a friend as he could be a order, and the credit of our country, to which Mrs. Elstob will be counted abroad as great an ornament in bitter hater, repeats his application to Dr. her way as Madame Dacier is to France. I do not de Charlett on behalf of his protégée in a letter sire you to give her all encouragement, because I be- dated February 24th, 1712-13 : lieve you will do it of your own accord, from your natural temper for promoting good and great works. “Mr. Elstob and his sister (he writes] set out toBut I desire you to recommend her and her great un- morrow for Oxford. I renew my hearty request to dertaking to others; for she and it are both very you to promote subscriptions to her most usefal book. worthy to be encouraged, and, were I at Oxford, I Had I the honour of so much acquaintance with Mr. should be a great solicitour for her; and had I ac- Vice-Chancellor as to write to him, I would entreat quaintance enough with Mr. Vice-Chancellor, I had him also to be one of her subscribers; for the reputa. troubled him with a letter on her behalf. I will add tion of the Oxford subscription will procure many here no more but to tell you that the news of Mrs. Elstob's and in Cambridge.” encouragement in the University will be very acceptable to me; because it will give her work credit here, where it shall be promoted to the utmost power by
Few things, I think, go farther to prove the your philosax and philogoth, and
unoffending and amiable dispositions of the “Most faithful humble servant,
brother and sister than the fact that at a period “GEORGE Hickes."*
when party spirit raged most fiercely, and Whig
and Tory were the watchwords of violent Visiting Oxford must have been at all times political and religious antagonism, the like going home to the Elstobs ; but especially Elstob’s, who, in common with the most liberal at this season of the year, for it is more than
and learned persons of the day, had given in probable, from the date of Dr. Hick's letter, that their adherence to the ruling powers, and had ihey took advantage of a Christmas invitation ranged themselves on the side of the whigs, were , to carry down the precious MSS. with them. yet upon the most friendly terms with many of A few years previously, the stage," or
the opposite party, and especially high in favour “ leathern conveyance,” as it was called, would with this most sternly-prejudiced of the have occupied two winter days in the journey Nonjurors, Dr. George Hicks, Dean of Worfrom London to Oxford, but at this date the cester, who appears to have believed with
flying coach” performed the whole distance Eubuluis in the old drama of Gorboduc: between sunrise and sunset, and landed its passengers at six o'clock, or a little after,
No cause serves, whereby the subject may opposite tbe ancient front of All-Souls. How Call to account the doings of the Prince. pleasant the familiar streets, the recognition of acquaintances in them, the visiting of old friends, No, not in secret thought, the subject may rebel agains and the kindly criticism of that knot of Teutonic his lord, scholars, who vied in admiration of the first or judge of him who sits in Cæsar's seat
With grudging mind, to damn those he mistakes,
Though Kings forget to govern as they ought * Dr. Hicks was the younger brother of that unfortu. Yet subjects must obey as they are bound.” vate John Hicks, who had been found hidden in the malt-house of Alice Lisle. James had, in spite of ail solicitations, put both John Hicks and Alice Lisle to For though James had proved his royal prerogadeath.
tive by putting his brother to death for no other Persons who did not know the strength of the crime than that of being a dissenter, the Dr. Dean's principles, thought that he might possibly feel upon principle continued to uphold the doctrine some resentment on this account, for he was of no of the inalienable rights of kings, and refused to gentle or forgiving temper, and could retain during the last to acknowledge the supremacy many years a bitter remembrance of small injuries. of William and Mary, or of Queeri Anne. But he was strong in his religious and political faith ; Macaulay, as we have seen, describes him as he reflected that the sufferers were dissenters, and he the fiercest and most intolerant of all submitted to the will of the Lord's Annointed, not only “Nonjurors." Having, refused at the rewith patience, but complacency. He became indeed a
volution to take the oaths to King William the more loving subject than ever, from the time his Third, he was deprived of his benifices; but, after brother was hanged and his brother's benefactres be
bis return from the little court of the exiled headed.-MACAULAY'S History of England,” vol. iii. p. 458. (a)
king at St. Germains, whither he had been sent (a) At a meeting of the Archæological Institute, May in 1673 with a list of the non-compounding 5th, 1865, 0. Morgan, M.P., exhibited the only portrait clergy, he appears to settled in Londo known of Alice, Lady Lisle, who was beheaded for having, through the influence of the leader of sheltering the brother of Dr. George Hicks in 1685. the Whig party, the accomplished and liberal -"Athenæum,” May 20th, 1865.
Lord Keeper Somers, "obtained permission to