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operation as a moving force. It can be so placed that by its expansive force it shall lift gravitation when that obstructs the way, and by its transmission leave to it the course, when its presence as a force would become hurtful. Why, then, should we hesitate to conclude that this is the principal force employed, since we know it exists in the human system? And if it is the principal agent which does actually perform this great work, then if the quantity afforded be small, so much the more perfect the machine, for so much the less will it be likely either to endanger the body or disturb the mind, and so much the more praise is due to the Mighty Artificer.

W

ILLARD, FRANCES ELIZABETH, an American

temperance reformer; born at Churchville,

N. Y., September 28, 1839; died at New York, February 17, 1898. After graduation from the Northwestern Female College Evanston, Ill., in 1859, she became Professor of Natural Science there, and in 1866 principal of the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary. After traveling in Europe she was made Professor of Æsthetics at the Northwestern University, and Dean of the Woman's College, where she developed a system of self-government. In 1874 she identified herself with the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, of which she was president from 1879. She organized the Home Protection movement, and founded many temperance societies. In addition to pamphlets and magazine articles, Miss Willard was the author of Nineteen Beautiful Years (1863); Woman and Temperance (1883); How to Win (1886); Woman in the Pulpit (1888); Glimpses of Fifty Years (1889); A Great Mother (1894).

HENRY WARD BEECHER.

An æolian harp is in my study window as I write. It seems to me the fittest emblem of him who has gone to live elsewhere and left our world in some sense lonely.

The compass of its diapason is vast as the scope of his mind; its tenderness deep as his heart; its pathos thrilling as his sympathy; its aspiration triumphant as his faith. Like him, it is attuned to every faintest breath of the great world-life; and like his, its voice searches out the innermost places of the human spirit. Jean Paul says of the æolian harp, that it is, like nature,

passive before a divine breath,” and in him who has fone from us there was this elemental receptivity of God. Other natures have doubtless developed that Godconsciousness which is the sum of all perfections to a degree as wonderful as Mr. Beecher did, but what other, in our time, at least, has been en rapport so perfectly with those about him that they could share with him

his blissful consciousness to a degree as great? John Henry Newman says, To God must be ascribed the radiation of genius.” No great character of whom I can think illustrates that most unique and felicitous phrase so clearly as Henry Ward Beecher. He was the great, radiating spirit of our nation and our age. For fifty years his face shone, his tones vibrated, his pen was electric with the sense of a divine presence, not for his home only, not for his church or his nation, but for Christendom. He radiated all that he absorbed, and his capacious nature was the reservoir of all that is best in books, art, and life. But as fuel turns to fire, and oil to light, so, in the laboratory of his brain, the raw materials of history, poetry, and science were wrought over into radiant and radiating forces which warmed and illumined human souls. Plymouth Church was the most home-like place that could be named; its pulpit a glowing fireside ever ready to cheer the despondent and warm those hearts the world had chilled. No man ever spoke so often or wrote so much whose classic, historic, and poetical allusions were so few; but the potency of every good thing ever learned by him, who was an insatiable student of nature and an omnivorous reader of books, was all wrought, in the alembic of his memory, into new forms and combinations. He intersphered so perfectly with the minds and hearts about him, that he seemed to them a veritable possession.

The interpenetrative character of his mind has not been matched, for the reason that he was that doubly dowered phenomenon a great brain mated to a heart as great. This royal gift of sympathy enabled him to make all lives his own; hence, he so understood as to have charity for all.

For this reason he was born a patriot, a philanthropist, and a reformer. We read of epoch-making books," but here was an epochmaking character.- Glimpses of Fifty Years.

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ILLIAMS, Roger, a

Welsh-American reformer, founder of the colony of Rhode

Island; born in Wales in 1606; died at Providence, R. I., in March, 1684. He entered the University of Oxford in 1624, mastered not only Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, but the French and Dutch languages, and took orders in the Anglican Church; but having embraced extreme Puritan views, he emigrated to New England in 1631. He became a minister at Salem, from which he was driven in 1635 for setting forth new and dangerous opinions against the authority of magistrates.” Finding it expedient to leave the limits of the Plymouth colony, he crossed Narragansett Bay, and established a settlement, to which he gave the name of Providence. In 1643 he went to England in order to procure a charter for the new colony. During the voyage he wrote a curious

Key into the Language of America. While in England he wrote his Bloody Tenent of Persecution for Cause of Conscience (1644). To this the Rev. John Cotton replied in his Bloody Tenent Washed and Made White in the Blood of the Lamb (1647). Williams rejoined in his Bloody Tenent yet more Bloody by Mr. Cotton's Endeavor to Wash It White (1652). Besides the foregoing, Williams was the author of several other works among them A Letter to the People of Rhode Island (1655), in which, as president of the colony, he sets forth his own views as to the rightful jurisdiction of the civil magistrate in several important respects.

In his American Literature, Moses Coit Tyler speaks thus of the celebrated Letter to the People of Providence:

* The supreme intellectual merit of this composition is in those qualities that never obtrude themselves upon notice - ease, lucidity, completeness. Here we have the final result of ages of intellectual effort presented without effort - a long process of abstract reasoning made transparent and irrresistible in a picture. With a wisdom that is both just and peaceable, it fixes, for all time, the barriers against tyranny on the one side, against lawlessness on the other. It has the moral and literary harmonies of a classic. As such, it deserves to be forever memorable in our American prose."

THE PROVINCE OF THE CIVIL MAGISTRATE.

There goes many a ship to sea, with many hundred souls in one ship, whose weal and woe is common, and is a true picture of a commonwealth, or a human combination or society. It hath fallen out that both Papists and Protestants, Jews and Turks, may be embarked in one ship; upon which supposal I affirm that all the liberty of conscience that I ever pleaded for turns upon these two hinges: That none of the Papists or Protestants, Jews or Turks, be forced to come to the ship's prayers or worship, nor compelled from their own particular prayers or worship, if they practise any.

I further add, that I never denied that, notwithstanding this liberty, the commander of this ship ought to command the ship's course; yea, and also to command that justice, peace, and sobriety be kept and practised, both among the seamen and all the passengers. If any of the seamen refuse to perform their services, or passengers to pay their freight; if any refuse to help, in person or purse, toward the common charge or defence; if any refuse to obey the common laws and orders of the ship concerning their peace or preservation; if any shall mutiny and rise up against their commanders and officers; if any should preach or write that there ought to be no commanders or officers, because all are equal in “ Christ”- therefore no masters nor officers, no laws, nor orders, nor corrections, nor punishments; I say I never denied but in such cases, whatever is pretended, the commander or commanders may judge, resist, compel, and punish such transgressors, according to their deserts and merits. This, if seriously and honestly minded, may, if it so please the Father of Lights, let in some light to such as willingly shut not their eyes. I remain, studious of your common peace and liberty, Roger Williams.- Letter to the People of Providence.

Toward the close of his life, Roger Williams was involved in a controversy with some leaders of the Quakers, and in 1676 he published a large quarto volume embodying his version of a series of stormy debates held with them. Among the notable Quakers were George Fox and Edward Burrowes, whose names gave ready occasion for a punning title:

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