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"rough, styffe, royde;" while boystows garment is translated birrus.
2. Defameden is of a class of verbs of which we have an example in departed in the sense of part with, or, when used more strictly, of parted diversely among two or more. The de, perhaps from N. French influence, is the representative of the Latin di. Hence defame, like its Latin original, is to publish abroad either in a good or bad sense. In St. Matt. ix. 31, it is to publish abroad with renown. In St. Luke xvi. 1, it is by the context limited to publish abroad with ill-fame-et hic diffamatus est-and this was defamed to him. In both texts the Vulgate uses diffamare. In the other places where diffamare occurs-namely, St. Mark i. 45 and 1 Thess. i. 8-a vobis enim diffamatus est sermo Domini-Wiclif translates it by pupplisch.
3. Birre. In St. Matt. viii. 32, 2 St. Pet. iii. 10,
and Rev. xviii. 21, this is the translation of impetus-a word which, when occurring elsewhere in the N. T., Wiclif translates by assault (Acts vii. 56, xiv. 5, and xix. 29); and by fersness of fire, Heb. xi. 34; and by meuynge [moving] of the governor or helmsman, St. James iii. 4. In his dictionary Halliwell gives birr as a north-country word for "force, violence, impetus," and then goes on to give its more exact meaning of impetus or violence accompanied by noise or tumult. "It is applied to the whizzing of any missile violently thrown, and the noise of partridges when they spring is called birring." Wiclif's three passages are important as showing that he thus restricted the translation of impetus by birre, and with this agrees an old Lincoln MS. quoted by Halliwell-" whenne they saw the grete river ryne so swiftely, and with so grete a byrre." B. NICHOLSON.
PERVERSE PRONUNCIATION (4th S. i. 82.)-This country can furnish some examples of the mispronunciation of surnames. In one of the counties bordering on this city, Worrel is called Wurrur, and Lincoln, Linkhorn. In North Carolina, Nathaniel Macon, who was a very prominent man at the commencement of this century, was known as Old Nat Meakins. Mr. Cambreleng, a member of Congress from New York about thirty years ago, was a native of North Carolina. He was a warm friend of President Van Buren. Mr. Van Buren, travelling in North Carolina, was desirous of paying his respects to his friend's mother, but no one could direct him to Mrs. Cambreleng's residence. At length he came across her as Old Mrs. Crumley.
VOLTAIRE (4th S. i. 587.)-Your correspondent P. A. L. says, Voltaire proved that his esprit was better than his cœur, when he said, "Pour être heureux il faut avoir un bon estomac et un mau
vais cœur." I do not know where the passage occurs, but I venture to differ from the conclusion. If by heureux Voltaire had meant "happy," the sentiment is that of a fiend. But he meant merely "successful": a man of virtue and of delicacy will not get on in the world, because he is not unscrupulous.
When Marshal Tallard returned to Paris after his defeat at Hochstett, Louis XIV. with some generosity said to him, "Monsieur, on n'est pas heureux à notre âge": that is, you and I are too old to succeed in love or in war.
That Voltaire, with all his faults, was a humane man is proved by all his acts and by all his writings. His hatred of cruelty, of oppression, of torture, appears in every page. J. C. M.
MEDAL OF JAMES III. AND CLEMENTINA SOBIrespondent W. N. L., I may observe that the ESKI (4th S. i. 407, 466.)—In answer to your cormedal of the Stuart family which he mentions is in the collection of Mr. Edward Hawkins, F.R.S., No. 35 of coins and medals of the Stuart family, F.S.A., pp. 107, 108, in the
"Catalogue of Antiquities, Works of Art, and Historical Scottish Relics Exhibited in the Museum of the Archæological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Edinburgh, July, 1856 (London: Hamilton, Adams, & Co. 1859),
where it is described:
"35. Busts of Prince James and Clementina. Rev.: Female holds an infant in her left arm, which rests upon a column, and points to a globe whereon appear ING. SC. IRL. Leg.: Providentia Obstetrix,-Providence my help in childbirth. Ex.: CAROLO PRINC. VALLIE NAT. the last day of the year 1720. 1 ar. æ."
DIE VLTIMA A. MDCCXX,-Charles, Prince of Wales, born
The column indicates the fortitude of Clementina under the difficulties of her escape from her guards, and under the danger of childbirth. The child's attention is directed to the globe, on which are represented the kingdoms which it would be his future object to obtain. W. H. C.
THE CUCKOO (4th S. i. 533, 614.)-I cannot think that MR. B. PICKERING's reading of the saying is correct for if the "cuckoo" and "mooncall " are destroyed. Whereas if the latter is, as I take it synonymous, the whole sense of the passage is to be, the "nightingale," the allusion to the harvest is manifest. The nurse referred to was not, and brought up in Wiltshire; from which it as he surmises, a native of Wilby, but was born would appear that the "warning" is known beyond the county in which it originated, and the place from which it takes its name. (I myself, while staying in Yorkshire, heard it from the lips of an old Doncaster labourer.)
Perhaps one of your Wiltshire readers could give me further information on the subject? If So, I should be deeply obliged. H. SCOTT. Cloudesley Square.
EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY (4th S. i. 579.) Copies of E. E. T. S. books issued to subscribers are all in paper only; but copies of two books, viz. of Pierce the Ploughman's Crede, and of Piers Plowman, Part I., both edited by myself, can be bought separately by non-subscribers in cloth bindings, for which there is a fixed pattern, to be seen by asking for either of the above books. WALTER W. SKEAT.
1, Cintra Terrace, Cambridge.
THE COMYNS (4th S. i. 563.)—ANGLO-SCOTUS says: "The worshipful and knightly house of Altyre is, and has long been, the only one of the name (Cumine) in Scotland." There is at least one other territorial representative of the Comyns, Earls of Buchan-James Cumine, Esq. of Rattray, holding by long descent a portion of the wide domains which of old belonged to the earldom. Mr. Cumins's estate includes the site of one of the chief castles, and the remains of the royal burgh of Rattray-now reduced, I believe, to a single dwelling-house-which were erected by the powerful family from which he claims to be
Another ancient family in the district of Buchan, Aberdeenshire, now represented by James Buchan, Esq., of Auchmacoy, have an immemorial tradition that their ancestor was spared by the Bruce from the sweeping destruction which overtook their race and name, on condition of his dropping the name of Comyn, and adopting instead the territorial name of Buchan. General Buchan of Auchmacoy, who took the command of James VII.'s forces after the death of the great Dundee on the field of Killiecrankie was at the period the representative of that family. A fine contemporary portrait of the general is preserved at Auchmacoy House.
In one of the Spalding Club volumes (Antiquities of the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff, vol. ii. p. 416), there is a notice of the Abbey of St. Mary of Deer, which was founded by Comyn Earl of Buchan early in the thirteenth century. Referring to a grant of the patronage of a church to the abbey, the writer makes the following wistful remarks:
"This gift from the grandson of their founder was the last which the brethren of Saint Mary were fated to receive from his race or lineage. In the memorable revolution which placed the Earl of Carrick on the Scottish throne, the illustrious family of Comyn was so utterly overthrown, that, says a chronicle of the age, of a name which numbered at one time three earls and more than thirty belted knights, there remained no memorial in the land, save the orisons of the monks of Deir.'"
FAGGOTS FOR BURNING HERETICS (4th S. i. 196.)-I have never been able to identify this bequest, although pretty well acquainted with
every writer on the antiquities of the city of London. I suspect it is a myth. Bequests of faggots, for the merciful purpose of supplying fuel for the poor, are common. Margaret Dane, whose portrait still hangs in the Ironmongers' Hall, left the parish in which I reside 8s. for this object, which sum is now added to the general charity fund. JUXTA TURRIM.
MORTLAKE POTTERIES: TOBY JUGS (4th S. i. 160, 615.) — Your correspondent A. S. is of opinion that the Toby-jug song: "Dear Tom, this brown jug, that now foams with mild ale
(In which I will drink to sweet Nan of the vale), Was once Toby Fillpot, a thirsty old soul As e'er drank a bottle, or fathom'd a bowl," &c., "could not have been written so early as 1796."
The Rev. Francis Fawkes, the author of the words, died in 1777, and I have a copy before me, printed in 1759. It is with music, set by Mr. Hodson, in the second volume of Clio and Euterpe, large 8vo (p. 41)." The song is probably a few years older than this collection. The reference to the potter will be found in the third and last
"His body, when long in the ground it had lain, And tin.e into clay had dissolved it again, A potter found out, in the covert so snug, And with part of fat Toby he form'd this brown jug,' &c.
IRON PULPIT (4th S. i. 413.)—In Street's Gothic Architecture in Spain, an engraving of an example will be found from Burgos. Mr. Street says that he saw other examples of later date.
JNO. PIGGOT, JUN. DISTANCE TRAVERSED BY SOUND (4th S. i. 121, 233.) The noise of the firing at the battle of Gettysburg is said to have been heard at Greensburg, Pennsylvania. The distance between these two towns is one hundred and twenty-eight miles, and seven ranges of the Alleghany mountains lie between them. There were more men engaged in this battle than in the battle of Waterloo. What the number of cannons was I am unable to BAR-POINT.
NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC.
Annals of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, A.D. 1598-A.D. 1867. With a Preliminary Notice of the earlier Library founded in the Fourteenth Century. By the Rev. William Dunn Macray, M.A., &c. (Rivington.)
Who that hath ever "fed of the dainties that are bred in a book"-to use the words of him to whom we owe the second best book in the world-but feels his pulse quickened at the very mention of the Bodleian? and who that is so moved, but would fain know something of the
origin and gradual development of that vast repertory of human knowledge, of the great and good men who have contributed to its formation, and of the learned scholars who have been entrusted with its custody, or laboured to make its riches known to the outer world? Mr. Macray, who is officially connected with the Bodleian, and therefore enjoys peculiar facilities for telling its story, has told it in a very instructive and amusing manner in the present book, which will be found as replete with notices of the more curious bibliographical treasures of the Bodleian as with pleasant historical and biographical illustration. The book is a valuable addition to our stores of literary history.
A Maso-Gothic Glossary; with an Introduction, an Outline of Maso-Gothic Grammar, and a List of AngloSaxon and Old and Modern English Words etymologically connected with Maso-Gothic. By the Rev. W. W. Skeat, M.A. (Ascher & Co.)
Mr. Skeat, who must be well known to our readers, not only from his frequent and valuable contributions to these columns, but from his labours on Piers Plowman and many similar contributions to the history of our early language and literature, has done good service to English philologists by the publication of the work before us. Mr. Skeat explains that, though Moso-Gothic is not strictly an older form of Anglo-Saxon, it comes sufficiently near to it to render a study of it peculiarly interesting and instructive to us in fact that to study Meso-Gothic is, practically, more the business of Englishmen than of any one else, excepting, perhaps, the Dutch. With the view, therefore, of providing English students with a useful handbook to the Moso-Gothic language free from some of the disadvantages which accompany most existing glossaries of it, the present work, which is based on the labours of Massmann, Gaugengigl, Schulz, Gabelenz, and Lobe, and our own accomplished scholar Dr. Bosworth, is written; and it comprises not only a Meso-Gothic Glossary, but an outline of the Grammar, Lists of Cognate English Words, and, in the Introduction, a Sketch of the Ulphilas and other literary remains in this Low-German language. The book is a real boon to English students.
PERIODICALS.-Whether the conductors of the leading magazines are of opinion that this "leafy" season is one in which their readers look for novelty and increased attraction, or from some other motive, all seem to be stirring themselves to increase the interest of their respective journals. Saint Paul's, in addition to Phineas Finn and its usual graver articles, gives this month the commencement of a new serial story which promises to be of great interest-"The Sacristan's Household." The Cornhill, in addition to its stock stories," The Bramleighs of Bishop's Folly" and "Avonhoe," has papers on "Two Mediaval Travellers," "Witches and their Cra't," and "Old Newspapers," well worth the reading. Macmillan has the conclusion of Mr. Markham's able account of the "Abyssinian Expedition," "Realmah," and the "Chaplet of Pearls," and some very interesting miscellaneous papers. Fraser has good papers on "Emerson," 66 The Portraits at South Kensington," Kinglake's new volumes, besides the continuation of Oatnessiana," and the conclusion of Southey's "Life of Sir Philip Sidney." Well may readers give so much time to the. perusal of our magazines, when they supply so much varied information and amusement, and of so high a class.
DR. LIVINGSTONE.-Mr. E. D. Young will shortly publish an account of his Search after Livingstone" (Lett, Son, & Co.), with a Map of the Route. The text has been revised by the Rev. H. Waller, F.R.G.S., and it will be illustrated by Mr. Baines.
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SOLITAIRE. There is no collected edition of the various works of William Blake, artist and poet. A gon! account of them is given in Gilchrist's Life of William Blake, edited by Mr. Dante G. Rossetti in 1863, 2 vols. 8vo, and published by Macmillan & Co.
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