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ECCLESIASTICAL ORNAMENT AND COSTUME.
Setting forth the Origin, History, and Mystical Signification of the Various Emblems, Devices, and Symbolical Colours, peculiar to CHRISTIAN DESIGN of the MIDDLE AGES, with especial reference to the DECORATION of the SACRED VESTMENTS and ALTAR FURNITURE formerly used in the English Church. Compiled from Ancient Authorities and Examples, by A. WELBY PUGIN. Architect, Professor of Ecclesiastical Antiquities at St Mary's College, Oscott. Illustrated by Extracts from the Works of Durandus Georgius, Bona, Catalani, Gerbert, Martepe, Molanus, Thiern, Mabillon, Ducange, &c. Eularged and Revise by the REV. BERNARD SMO H, M.A, of St. Mary's College, Oscott.
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AGED NINE YEARS,
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LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 11, 1868.
management of her numerous family, is exem
| plified in a bundle of her letters, still preserved CONTENTS.-N° 28.
at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, which were NOTES:- Letters from Mary, Countess Dowager of West- / written to the Master (Dr. Holdsworth) and the morland, &c., 25 - The Red Book of Thorney, 28 - Lady
Fellows of the College in the year 1639. Kilsyth, Ib. - Sir William Blackstone's Works 29 - Soiled
These letters resulted from a dispute that had Horse 30 - Speroni, Tasso, and Guarini, 31 - Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury – Edmund Burke - Clitheroe in 1775 - arisen between this Mary, Countess Dowager of Monumental advertisements – Enamelling the Face
Westmorland, and the Vicar of Stanground, City of Lincoln - Names ending in "on" - Mayos, Vicars of Avebury, Wilts - Kincardine O'Neil - Bradshawe, the touching certain vicarial tithes in Stanground and
Regicide - Goldsmith's Epitaph - Margaret Roper, 32. Farcet, more especially the tithe of the Buristed
of Stanground at this time was the Rev. Henry English Refugees in Flanders: Sixteenth Century- Febian Salmon, who had been instituted to the living Alphabet - Fuscum - Portrait of the Marchioness of
Dec. 6, 1634.* The letters necessarily touch upon Hertford " L'Impartial” -“ Magdalen Herbert's Household Book”-Jenifer, a Woman's Name - King James I. so much that is of mere local interest, that it - Marc Antony as Bacchus – Mendelssohu's Organ Fugues
would not be desirable to reproduce them here in - Mozart's Portraits - Gold Napoleon - Naked Legs at Court - Portrait of William Penn - Pulsation - Quota.
their integrity; but some extracts from the busitions wanted, &c., 34.
ness-like epistles of the Countess Dowager may QUBRIES WITH ANSWERS: - Saint Andrew's, Scotland Citt and Bumpkin - Irish Wolfhounds -- John Snare's
evidences of the great abilities and strong will of Writings on Velasquez - Jones's “ Sepulchrorum Inscriptiones" - Dr. Goldsmith - Poem wanited - Henry Lawes
| their writer. I am enabled to make the transcripts - Shetland and Orkney Guide: Thule, 38.
through the courtesy of the present Vicar of StanREPLIES:-Calvin and Servetus, 40 – Serjeants-at-Law, ground, the Rev. Robert Cory, B.D., formerly Greek Motto - Sackbut-Gist - Mystics - Three Words of a sort -- Dutch Poets, &c. - Books placed Edgewise in
Fellow of Emmanuel College; and they may Old Libraries - A supposed Americanism, “Guess” - prove serviceable for a page in that history of Ameliorate-Tauler and Luther -- Gold. Enamelled Coffin
Huntingdonsbire which was once contemplated -"Tb' Mon at Mester Grundy's" - Stephenson - Portrait of Walter Grubbe, Esg.--"Tell them all they lie" - by its illustrious son, Sir Robert (Bruce) Cotton, Baliol Family - Quotations wanted, &c., 42.
but which still remains unwritten. I will acNotes on Books, &c.
company the transcripts by a few explanations
and notes; and, as the first letter of the Countess Notes.
Dowager is brief, and is not weighted with the
names and acreages of fen lands, &c., I will tranLETTERS FROM MARY, COUNTESS DOWAGER
scribe it in extenso, premising that her previous OF WESTMORLAND, TO THE MASTER AND
correspondence with Mr. Salmon is not, it is beFELLOWS OF EMMANUEL COLLEGE, CAM
lieved, in existence: BRIDGE, 1639.
. Queen Elizabeth's Chancellor of the Exchequer, “My Revd and much esteemed frend Doctor OlesSir Walter Mildmay, Knt., was the founder of
worth, Mr of Emanuel College, Cambridge. Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in the year 1584. |
“My reverende frend, On October 28, 1588, he gave to the College the
ther hath been a longe comunication between me
and the Vicar of Stangrounde, about an augmentation to vicarage of Stanground, Huntingdonshire -- a vil
that Vicarige, & I have been ready and am, to trie it at law, lage which, at the present day, may be considered but by his entreaties I have stayed, being as desirous a suburb of the city of Peterborough, and which, as he, not in that way to contend with the Clargie. he with its curacy of Farcet, is worth 13001. a year. hath put me long in expectation that sume from Emanuell Sir Walter died in the year following his gifton May 31, 1589 — leaving two sons, Anthony and * He was B.A. in 1625; M.A. 1629; B.D. 1636. He Humphrey. Anthony succeeded to the North
| was buried May 18, 1654. His predecessor in the living amptonshire estates and the seat at Apthorpe. He
was the Rev. Elias Petit, who was buried Nov. 17, 1634,
and to whose memory there is the following inscription was knighted by Queen Elizabeth, and married
on a small brass plate on the south wall of Stanground Grace, daughter and coheir to Sir Henry Sherring church :-“ Here lyeth buried ye body of Elias Petit, ton of Lacock, Wiltshire. They had one only somtime Vicar of this place, 4th sonn ti, Valentine Petit child, a daughter, Mary, who, as sole heiress, suc- |
of Dandelvon in the Isle of Thanet in Kent, Esquire, who
departed this life xvth November, 1634, in the yeare of ceeded to a great estate, and married Francis Fane,
| bis age 31th.” He had held the living only four years. who was created Baron Burghersh and Earl of Previous vicars of Stanground, after the dissolution of Westmorland, December 29, 1624. He died on | Thorney Monastery, were as follows: (1.) Sir Andrew March 21, 1629, leaving a family of seven sons Pollard, Vicar, died Aug. 2, 1545. (2.) Sir Thomas and six daughters, to whose education their mother
Howlett, Vicar, died 1561. (3.) Mr. William Long, behad paid special care. That, as a widow, she
came Vicar 1573, married 1588, died Feb. 17, 1602,
baving lived twenty nine years in the vicarage. (4.) could administrate her large estates with the Mr. Sam. Starling, Fellow of Emmanuel, twenty-eight same ability with which she had directed the years vicar, died 1630.
College, authorized by the rest, should come unto me to founder a plentifull offspringe in me, whom I am treate about a peaceable end of this business; but I see
carefull to provide for and educate," and that if that is but a delay, because lately he hath procecuted
his Society would not accept her terms, but wished divers suits * against any tennants, contrary to his promise, as I conceive it yo are patrons by Sir Walter Mild
for more, you must get it how you can.” may's gift, and I will conclude nothing without you. Sr
1. Sr. The “ Maister & Fellows” of the College, under W. Mildinay out of his Bounty, and upon a suggestion date Dec. 19, 1639, thereupon reply, that they had that this Vicarige was but 121. p. an.t added to it out of
put Mr. Salmon to the trouble of a journey to his demaines and inheritance 1201. p. an.; if his hey res
Cambridge, and had examined into his demands; are willing to follow his steps, & to be a further benefactor to that Church, it is reason it should be settled (if Law
and they informed her, that if his estimate were will do it) that ther heyres may not after be troubled, as
correct, the 201. that she proposed to give was not I have been ; which will rest in your Society, therefore I a third part of the emoluments that would arise will stay my proceedings if in any short time I may hear to him from the 1200 acres only, without respect from you, if he in the meantime be quiet, which I believe
to the other branches of his demand. They thereyo will comaunde; I shall proove most of those grounds from which he asks tieths never paid any, nor ought to
fore begged her to reconsider her proposition, and pay any, and that the profitts of those grownds are un enlarge her 201. to 401., “beneath which we cancertain if they did pay tieths, and that most of them are not well goe with a due discharge of our trust." not liable to Vicarige tieths, if they ought to pay any They entreat that she will not think hardly of tieths, and yet I am willing to make him a competent addition, if it may be setled for posterity, and soe leaving
them, although the business has placed them in it to your discreete consideration, desiring to heere from
a great strait, “ being distracted betwixt the tenyo I rest
derness of offending your honor, and the betraying “ Your very loving frend,
of the rights of that Church wherewith we are
“M. WESTMORLAND. especially entrusted by our founder, your honor's “ Apthorp, 12 Nov“, 1639.”
grandfather.” The foregoing letter shows her ladyship's capa Her honour's tenderness was, however, very city for business. In her speedy reply to Dr. greatly offended by this communication, which, as Holdsworth's answer to the above, under date she told them, proved that they “wholly credited Nov. 26, she offers 201. per annum to terminate Mr. Salmon in his relations, passing by what I the cause, “ and in such a fation as I will give it had written.” At first, therefore, her intention to quiet all differences betweene the Lords of the was to say no more to them; but she suffered Manor and the Vicars for all time to com.” If herself to be over-persuaded, and, on Jan 8, 1639, this offer was not accepted, she was prepared to writes them a very lengthy epistle, in which she go to law; but she was convinced that it was a fully enters into the various particulars of the liberal offer; for
case. The vicar had claimed “the pension of “God knows my love to his Church to his ministers, | 14 nobles for the maintenance of a curate at the and my heart is larger towards them than my ability, chappell" : but this she explaired had been deand if it did appeare that soe much as 201. p. an. weare cided by the bishop of Lincoln (afterwards Archdue to the Vicar, I would much willinger give more then
bishop of York) to be " a benevolence that was lesse unto him, that I might be sure not to wronge him in a penny, but being in my conscience satisfied that it will
left to her father's free pleasure to pay it or no, not proove soe, and that the living by this addition is and that it had been discontinued before her made soe competent, I wounder that my offer should not time."* Other points she also explains upon clear be thankfully received; if ever the Fenns returne to thier
evidence; and with regard to the tithe milk and former ill condition, which they are in danger to doe,
herbage paid out of the 1200 acres in Stanground, then will my heyres tax me for giving soe much from them, and if they be bettered, more land will still be
and 400 acres in Farcet, she tells them that she taken from me by the undertakers, soe that if the waters can find no such number of acres, and that the land swallow not up my profitts, the undertakers will. I lost | lies “ all under water upon every flud," and that 1100 acres by the last undertakers, and now by these am
much of it was in another county and parish, like to loose more, and by those who will come after these,
and that the tithe herbage bad never been paid, I know not what." She reminds him that “God hath given your
and the tithe milk but seldom, and then by “some
poore tennants for feare upon suits"; and, in con* By a copy of a libel it appears that Hen. Salmon, | firmation of her statements, she refers her correVicar of Stanground, had proceeded againet Edward spondents to “ the Depositions taken upon two Bellamy in the Court of Arches, London, for the vicarial commissions out of the arches.” | But this was tithes of the Buristed or Manor Farm in Stanground, not all: for, she says: Horsey grounds, the Lavacks, Conquest Closes, and all the enclosed ground between Northea on the north side and Stanground on the south side, for the years 1634 to 8, * It appears from a deed from the Abbot of Thorney, and from March to June in 1689.
dated 1st Sept., 30 Hen. VIII, that Christopher Barton + From depositions, August 8, 1638, it appears that had for life 41. 138, 4d. This Sir Christopher Barton was Vicar Longe could not set “his Vicaredge to Farmer buried Nov. 27, 1558. Beale for 131. p. an." and that “Mr Longe did intreate + From these Depositions (Depositiones pro Doma Mr Beale to be a means to Sr Walter to enlarge the | Comitiss. de Westmor.) Domina Orme de Peterb, shewed Vicaredge."
that her father, H. Parkinson, thirty-eight years since,
“Ther is taken from me by my Lord of Bedford's un- This letter was sent to the Master and Fellows dertaking out of the lands in Stanground 127 acres, and of Emanuel College, and with it she sent a pri. out of the 400 acres in Farcet 162 acres, and upon the
vate letter to her friend, Dr. Holdsworth, the new commission for draining them better, whearin the King is the sole undertaker,* ther is a law made which
Master, in which she states the propositions on will take away neare a fourth part of that which remains,
either side, and her own determination not to give and what commissions will come after this to take any more than she had promised, her own famillie” more, noe man can devine. Deeping fenne is almost requiring "the haight of her abilities.” And it swallowed up by undertakings.”
was by no means a small family; for she was She hoped, therefore, that they would accept the mother of seven sons and six daughters. On her offer, and consider it, under the circumstances the 22nd of the same month, she wrote another of the case, to be not only fair, but bountiful. letter to the Master and Fellows to the purport
" And that yo may see the largeness of my hart to the that she had been compelled to postpone making Church, I pray yo to consider how this man hath pro the promised appointment; for, she says —. voked me, whoe bath accused me both to the King and to
“I had an unexpected and unavoydable occasion which the Arch BP by petitions to be a wronger of the Church,
called me up to London, wheare I had been before this setting down to them as he hath done to you, many faulce
time, but that the waters affrighted me, but I must seeke suggestions, whear-in he hath done ungratefully as well
bridges, and on way or other passe the next weeke if it as falcely, and yet I am still the same and ready to do
please God, wheare I shall not stay above a fortnight as him good.”
I suppose, but being uncertaine, my stay depending more The reply that she received to this letter was n other pleasures than mine owne, I cannot now appoint not so satisfactory as she had desired. To their
a time.” proposal to refer the matter for adjudication before But, if the Master should come to town, she the great law officers in London, she replied, that would send for him to confer on this business, so
“This business is not worth troubling them; besides I that it might be brought to “a just and quiet shall not be in London till Easter tearme when they will be full of business, & I would have this business finished She got to London, but forgot the Master; and, in the next vacation, soe that if you please to match them, I think to chuse a Barronet a neighbor of mine,
on her return to Apthorp, was compelled to conand a Chaplaine of my owne, the place I desire to be here
fess the fact in her letter to her at Apthorp, because I would be at it. Now as I heere “Reverend friends the Master and Fellows of Emanuell from you how this is agreable to you, soe the day shall be
College in Cambridge. appointed. Ther is nothing better pleaseth me than
“Though I confesse I have not fulfilled on part of my peace, and nothing soe vexatious to me as contention
last letter in sendinge to seeke the Master of the College with such a Society as yours, but if yo be ungrateful to
while I was in London, which I faythfully assure you your Founder or his heyres, and grate upon them from whom you have your better being, as you would do upon
upon my word was merely forgetfulness, yet now I am
returned, this being the next day after my arrivall heere, those from whom you never received anything, then in
I send unto you about nominatinge the tyme and place Justice I am obliged to be as ready for law.suits as Mr. for the meetinge for the accomodation of the differences Salmon, which I hope your just respects to me will pre
betweene us, & if it may sute with your occasions, I think vent, and soe expecting your speedy resolutions to all
| Tewsday the last of March, at Stilton, a fitt tyme and particulers, I comitt you to God, and rest
place, and yf that tyme sute not well with you, name a "Your assured loving frend,
neerer day, and I will observe it yf I can, or write you “M. WESTMORLAND."
word yf I cannot; it cannot be deferred after that day, “Apthorp, 4 Feb. 1639."
because I goe towards London that day sennight, soe had lived for twelve years in the Buristed, or Manor
desiring to hear your resolution by this bearer, I committ Farm, and had never paid any tithe for it, those lands
you to God, and rest
“ Your assured loving freind, being exempt as part of the Abbot's demesne: Ds. Humfred. Orme deposed that he had milking cows in Bradley
“ Apthorpe, this 19th Fen, and paid no tithe ; and that the parishioners of
of March, 1639.” Stanground never went Perambulations on the north side This was destined to be her last letter on the of the Nene: Elizab. Miller de Stanground testified to subject. Not only the meeting, but her journey the same: Will. Arden de Yaxlye had held Conquest to London had to be deferred, for she was stricken Close for forty years without paying tithe: Simon Bonner de Yaxlye and Rich. Carrier de Yaxlye also proved a
with a mortal illness; and on April 9, 1639, this similar exemption : Rob. Randal de Witlesey observed, stout-heartea Dowager countess was
stout-hearted Dowager Countess was laid to sleep that, in the Perambulations, the people of Stanground in death. went no further than Raven's Willow in Horsey, and Nearly eighteen months elapsed before the never went on the north side the Nene: Wm. Bellamy del settling of that business on which she had ex
Tansor believed that the grounds between Northea and
pended so much ink and decision. Her foe was of the manor of Stanground.
still alive, and it was “ in the King's Chamber, By a Session of Sewers at Huntingdon, April 12, at the Angel at Stilton," on August 26, 1610, that 1638, the Earl of Bedford's undertaking was adjudged her son defective; and by another general Session of Sewers at Huntingdon, July 18, 1638, the king was declared the
“The Right Honorble Mildmay Earle of Westmorsole undertaker, and to haye not only the 95,000 acres,
land", and Henry Salmon, Vicar of Stanground in the but 57,000 acres more,
* He died Feb. 12, 1665.