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Mr. Green, of Ipswich, author of the Diary of quered the world. Now what should the cause of this a Lover of Literature, having no doubt examined be, but that they find themselves empty in the midst of Lobo and been disappointed, gave up Abyssinia
their fulness ; that they desire farther than they enjoy ;
that however every sense be feasted to the height, yet altogether, and fell back upon an Indian Paradise
there remains a general appetite, that of being happy, described by Rennell:
which is not satisfied; and not only so, but because they “ The secluded Valley of Cashmere-forming an oval
suspect withal (as indeed they have very good reason, hollow 80 miles by 50; blooming with perennial spring,
having tasted the utmost of Nature's entertainment) that refreshed with cascades, and streams and lakes, and en
it never shall be. And from this desire and despair proriched with mountainous ridges towering into the regions
ceeds their melancholy and dejection of spirit. And to of eternal snow – was perhaps Johnson's prototype for
this purpose, I call to mind a very remarkable story rethe Happy Valley of Amhara in Rasselas."— See John
cordưd by Eusebius Nierembergius, in his De Arte Voluntatis (l. vi. p. 537), concerning an Eastern Emperor who
was minded to try the same experiment upon his son as The name of Johnson's celebrated prince was Solomon did upon himself; and see how far the accommoevidently taken from that of the Ras, or prince, dations of life might go towards true Felicity. He accordSela Christos, called by Lobo, or perhaps mis
ingly trained him up from his infancy in magnificent printed Rassela Christos (p. 102). He was governor
apartments, studiously removed from him all pitiable
objects, that he might not have so much as a notion of of Bagameder, and commander-in-chief under
Misery, humoured him in every punctilio, and furnished Sultan Seged, or Segued (grandson of Basilides), him with whatsoever he either did wish for ur might be who was crowned in 1609. The Eastern word supposed to take pleasure in : till at length, the unforRas means a head, and also a prince, chief, or
tunately happy young man, observing himself to be still captain. Lobo says:
in desires, and that in a state of all possible worldly
affluence, could no longer flatter himself with imaginary “ Sometimes the Emperor creates a Ratz [Ras), or
prospects, but concluded that no condition would ever Viceroy, general over all the empire, who is superior to mend the matter; and so fell into extreme melancholy all his other officers.”—P. 48.
and despair.” — Miscellanies, 6th edit., London, 1717, The name of Imlac, the prince's Mentor, seems
pp: 26, 216. to have been taken from that of an Abyssinian
Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, quotes emperor who ascended the throne about the year from Marco Polo an account of another Happy 1300. Imla, or Imlac, is said to have been the Valley: name also of the Ethiopian eunuch whom St. “ A Tartar prince, saith Marcus Polus (lib. i. c. 28), Philip baptized; and Lobo mentions his name at called Sener de Montibus, the better to establish his p. 45.
government amongst his subjects and to keep them in
| awe, found a convenient place in a pleasant valley Johnson's philosophic tale, setting forth a search
environed with hills, in which he made a delicious park after happiness, may have been partly suggested full of odoriferous flowers and fruits, and a palace to him by a passage in the Miscellanies of Norris full of all worldly contents that could possibly be devised, of Bemerton, who, after speaking of Solomon's music, pictures, variety of meats, &c.; and chose out a experiments, gives a story of an Eastern emperor
certain young man, whom, with a soporiferous potion, he
so benumbed that he perceived nothing; and so, fast out of Nieremberg. I shall prefix two verses of a
asleep as he was, caused him to be conveyed into this poem by Norris on the Pursuit of Happiness, fair garden. Where after he had lived awhile in all addressed “To Himself”:
such pleasures a sensual man could desire, he cast him “ Not yet convinced ? why wilt thou still pursue
into a sleep again and brought him forth, that when he Through Nature's field delusive Bliss ?
awaked he might tell others he had been in Paradise."'Tis false, or else too fugitive if true;
Edit. 1840, p. 673. Thou may'st as soon thy shadow overtake as this.
This is the “Mahumetical Paradise” described The gaudy light still dances in thine eye,
by Purchas as having been formed in the northThou, hot and eager in the chase, Art drawn through many a thorny rugged place,
east parts of Persia by a certain false prophet Still labouring and sighing, but canst ne'er come nigh.”
named Aloadin, or Aladeules, and afterwards de* Give o'er, my Soul, give o'er, nor strive again
stroyed by the Ottoman Emperor Selim: it is This treacherous Chymic Gold to find.
“the Paradise of Sin” so vividly pictured in Tell me, why should'st thou fancy, there remain
EIRIONNACH. Days yet to come more sweet than those thou'st left
behind ? A wiser Chymist far than thou, t'obtain This Jewel all his treasures spent :
THE ORIGIN OF MEZZOTINT ENGRAVING. But yet he failed in's grand Experiment,
In the Catalogue of the National Exhibition of And all he gained was this, to know that all was vain.”
Works of Art at Leeds, my friend Mr. William “ And that what this great Inquirer aster Happiness Smith, F.S.A. has written a short section, introexperimented is every man's case, I am farther assured, ductory to the etchings and engravings which, as when I contemplate that the greatest favourites of For- | tune, those who bave had the world at command, and
the Honorary Superintendent, he has collected could enjoy all that is good in it, have yet all along been
and arranged. subject to melancholy, especially after some notable
1. In a résumé of the History of Mezzotint Enenjoyment; as the Grecian hero wept when he had con- graving, he justly gives the credit of the invention to Louis von Siegen, a Dutch artist, but of German entirely confirmed by the subsequent publication extraction, and observes that up to a compara- of the letter of Siegen by the Count Leon Latively recent period Prince Rupert, on the autho- borde, the following translation of which was rity of John Evelyn, had the honour of the dis- sent me in the year 1839 by my friend, the late covery, “and that Leon Laborde, in his History | Mr. Ernest Harzen of Hamburgh: . of Mezzotinto Engraving, gives the facsimile of a “ Serene and Highborn Prince.
letter written by Siegen, dated 1642, in which he Most Gracious Sir states that he has recently made the discovery,
“In the same manner as my humble devotion, more but gives no account of the process." Mr. Smith's than a consideration of reward, has brought me to your observations remind me that, more than thirty
Grace's service; although these services, however agreed
by your Grace, have been rather derogated by some years since, I exhibited at meetings of the Society
persons : I have not relented in devoting to your Grace of Antiquaries an extensive series of early mezzo my diligence, my labour, and my time; in proof of tinto engravings (then in my own possession, but which I most humbly do present the present piece to your since purchased by the Trustees of the British Princely Grace. Museum); and in a letter to Sir Henry Ellis, I “This is the copper-plate print, most gracious Prince pointed out that Prince Rupert was not entitled and Lord, which some time ago I mentioned to you to to the honour of being considered the discoverer
have executed to your Grace's mother's laudable com
memoration with the view to bring the said portrait into of the process, although he distinctly claimed it
the possession of several persons of rank, acquainted with in his lifetime as his own discovery.
the illustrious deeds of this far-famed Princess. Evelyn, in his Sculptura, or History of the Art “But having invented quite a new and hitherto unof Chalcography (London, 1662), gives a chapter known proceeding, I have been able to print off from the « Of the new way of Engraving or Mezzotinto, in
copper-not thousands as from common plates—but only vented and communicated by his Highnesse Prince
a few, owing to the subtlety of the workmanship, for
which reason I have only a small number of copies to Rupert, Count Palatine of Rhyne, &c.,” and says: | present. Of course I first of all make application to
"This obligation, then, we have to His Highness your Princely Grace, especially in dedicating the same to PRINCE RUPEKT, Count Palatine of Rhyne, &c., who has you according to the inscription at the bottom,* and for been pleased to cause the instruments to be expressly the following reasons: for the first, because the said obfitted to show me with his own hands how to manage, lject--the remembrance of your mother-cannot but be and conduct them on the plate, that it might produce agreeable to your Grace as being the nearest, nay the the effects I have so much magnified, and I am here only Son of the reigning Princess. For the second, beready to show to the world, in a piece of his own illus- cause I durst not omit dedicating a work of art so rare trious touching which he was pleased to honour this as never heard of before to such an extraordinary amateur work witbal, not as a venal addition to the price of the of the fine arts as your Grace is. book (although for which alone it is most valuable), but "No Engraver, or no Artist, will be able to imagine a particular grace as a specimen of what we have alleged, how tbis work could be done, because as your Grace is and to adorn the present chapter." * *
aware of, hitherto only three different species of workSo long as Evelyn's works exist, persons will be
manship are seen : to wit, 19, Line Engraving or cutting;
2°, Etching ; 3°, A very uncommon manner, called the disposed to give the prince the credit of the in
dotted manner, with points altogether-but different and vention, and many admirers refuse to admit the very troublesome, and therefore not in use. claims for another. An author of great popularity “This present manner, however, is none of these — has observed, in writing of Prince Rupert: “His though also consisting entirely of little dots, without a strict reputation of the invention of the art of
single line, and tho' some parts has the appearance of
lines, the whole is altogether stippled. mezzotint engraving has been somewhat ques
“I ought not to omit to state this, for the guidance of tioned, but with little probability.” I remember such an experienced amateur as your Grace is. being addressed by the late Mr. Eliot Warburton, “ Recommending your Grace io the Divine Providence in scarcely courteous terms, on the attempt tó | and welfare, I also recommend myself, remaining your deprive his hero of his then acknowledged right.
| Grace's most true and humble servant,
“L. DE SIEGEN. No doubt others before myself were cognisant
“ Amsterdam, 19/29 August, 1642. of the facts brought before the Society of Anti " To His Highness quaries, but it did not then seem to me that the The Landgrave of Hesse various allusions were supported by actual know
at Cassel." ledge, or a sight and examination of the pictures Readers of “N. & Q.” who feel a more especial on which these opinions were offered. I made interest in the works of Siegen and Rupert will the suggestion that, from the great rarity and delicacy of the works of Siegen, it was most pro
• “AMELIA ELISABETHA D. G. LANDGRAVIA, ETC. bable that “they were merely distributed among
Comitissa HanoviÆ MUTZEMB: his friends and patrons." That suggestion is
"Illustrissimo ac Celssimo Pr : ac Dño Dño WIL
| HELMO VI. D. G. HASSIÆ LANDGR, etc. hanc 1 • The work contains a small plate, the facsimile work Serenissimæ Matris of his head of the executioner of St. John, after Spagno et Incomparabilis Heroinæ effigiem ad vivums), letto, dated 1658. It is of considerable rarity. A good se primum depictam novoquejam sculpturæ modo ; copy of the book, with the print, is in the library of the expressam dedicat consecratque Society of Antiquaries.
L. à S. Ao Dñi cio.IO.CXLII."
e modo line.
| In one
find a tolerably accurate list of their works in the article to wbich I have referred in the twentyseventh volume of The Archæologia.
I may note that the increase of the value of the · early mezzotints is something fabulous; the more
interesting of the early specimens scarcely ever occur for sale, and prints which formerly could have been bought for shillings would now be thought to be fairly purchased at as many pounds.
Hugh W. DIAMOND, M.D.
PIECES FROM MANUSCRIPTS.-No. I.
“ THE RULE OF THE WORLDE.”
From Sloane MS. 1590, fol. 1. “ This was writ 1551; I mean, all the olde writeing," says a side-note in a later hand on the MS. The poem, like the last, “Tell them all they lie," bewails and denounces the evils of the time, but in much more stilted phrase, with much less vigour. The rhymester's oten reede skrekes out bis dolourous lines till, in the last verse but one, he rises to something like power. Still, in whatever words, the spirit that will not be quiet while wrong goes on, is welcome to the ear. Reform is one of the cries which in this world should never cease.
The title of the present series of poems is altered into.“ Pieces from Manuscripts,” because not only have two out of four that I have printed as “ Inedited Pieces" turned out to have been printed before, but the last is actually in Percy's Reliques, vol. ii., though with a different title, and without the two stanzas on London and cuckolds. I propose to follow up the present poem with one of Occleve's, and then to begin the Songs and Carols from Richard Hill's Commonplace Book, a Balliol MS.
F. J. FURNIVALL.
To see how many murmurre at theire state, how manye weepe at theire calamities, how many nature as a stepdame hate, how many blush not, laughe, at miseryes, how many, desprate, yeilde to Tymons tree or some such like dispairinge destinye! As I remember, longe agoe I reade vpon this hill, or not farre from this place, of on Aurelius that now is deade, who as a prince in Roma run his race, who fiftye yeares endevored to see whether mans nature might sufficed be. “whereon," sayde he, “my braynes were almoste spente, my sences in the floud of study drownde, my wits growne weakened, wrested, wracke & rente," if you will heare, I'le tell you what I founde, his purpose, through his labours, brought to passe : "Ah, worthy ruler,”-this his language was" I hongred in the deepe of dayntie fare, I thirsted in the midste of dronkennesse ; sleepe made me sleepe, in reste I slothfull were; In Avarice I loued that exesse. the more I sought, the more was fortune scante, & still, me thought, a worlde of wealth was wante." Rare speeches from soe great an Emperoure! worthy to be engrau'd in marble faire, or if twere soe, they cud by mortall powre be fixed & deciphred in the aire Soe playne, that ech man by a kings directions might view the Image of his owne affections. Alas! the earth is dronke in Blasphemies, effusions, slaughters, stratagems & fraudes. Ambition, rapine, hatred, avarice, rigour, vengeaunce, adultery of baudes. ah, this would make kinge David speake anew! -. this prooues the Propbesie of Esay true! These fowle reproches, & a thousand more which my poore pen, (beleeue me,) can not namo, began when heavenlye loue shut Eden dore ; & we, like wretches, persevere the same; & for these faultes, be-holde what woes are sento, that wilbe worser if we not repente.
GABRIEL D'EMILLIANNE. It will probably be difficult, at this time of day, to obtain much information as to this obscure writer. I have succeeded in learning nothing of him myself beyond the few facts which I have gleaned from his books. In the first place we have:
“The Frauds of Roman Monks and Priests set forth in Eight Letters. Lately wriiten by a Gentleman, in his Journey into Italy, and Publish'd for the Benefit of the Publick,” 8vo, 1691.
From the dedication of this book to the Earl of Nottingham, we learh that its author was “a stranger in this country"; and from his address to the Reader we gather some further particulars as to bis former condition, and bis motives for the publication of his work:
"It must be granted, that the Publick have been just in the kind Reception they have given to the LETTERS of Dr. Burnet, now the Right Reverend Bishop of Salisbury, concerning his Voyage to Italy. The Truth of his
Relations hath been own'd by all those who have had | And setting forth as a motive for its publication the Curiosity to Visit those Countries, and given occa
"Several of the Order of Gray and Black Fryars, havsion to the Learned, to make curious Reflections upon
| ing had confidence in the late King James's Reign, not them. But above all I have observed, that the Passages
only to flock by Troops from beyond Seas into England, ke hath inserted by the by, about some of their Religious
but also to appear publickly in their Monkish Habits, Practices, have particularly pleased the English Nation,
and a great many others of different Colours preparing to who (above all) abominate Popery. 'Tis this considera
follow. The People here was not in a little amazement to tion at first, that begat a Desire in me to publish many
e these new Faces, while the Papists were very busie in other Particulars on this subject, especially upon the Lives
combing the Fox's Tail to make it appear finer, and magand Practices of Romish Priests and Monks, which were
nified every where the pretended Holiness, both of these known to me, as having been a Secular Priest of the same
Monks and of their Habits. The good Protestants did only Church, and could not come so easily to the knowledge of
laugh at them, but the wiser sort inquired who they were, others."
and in what Book one might have a sutficient notice of He further adds, that he has
them," &c. " Still Matter enough in store to fill another Volume as big as this, which might serve for a Second Part, &c.;
So much for these three little volumes, which
are not often found together, or indeed separately, and concludes
but which will repay the collector for the trouble "Lastly, Forasmuch as those Observations made in
and expense of their acquisition. my Travels have much conduced to the Change of my Religion ; so (I trust in God) the Publication of them
WILLIAM BATES, will have a good effect upon others, by opening the Eyes Birmingham. of the People of the Roman Church; by discouraging those that Seduce them; and by putting Protestants upon Rendring hearty Thanks to God, for having delivered HISTORICAL NOTE ON THE CORONATION them from so miserable a Slavery."
OATH. Dr. Parr wrote in his copy, “a very entertain
Although the discussion of every political quesing book.” A reprint of it appeared, “ London,
tion, as a matter of course, is excluded from the 1817," in the title-page to which it is ascribed to
columns of “N: & Q.," the historical illustration "A Frenchman who was formerly a monk, but after
but after- of any such question may very properly find & wards became a Convert to the Church of England.”
place in them. And the editor, in his " Address to the Reader,” |
Under these circumstances, as I have lately had alludes to the matter, which
occasion to look into the history of the Coronation * He has every reason to believe is actual fact, which he
Oath, with the view of ascertaining the circumknows by an experience of twenty eight years."
stances under which it assumed its present form, There is a French translation
I venture to hope that a brief note upon that suba “Ruses et Fourberies des Pretres est des Moines,” 8vo. ject may not be without interest to all who have Leipzig, 1845.
had their attention drawn to that oath by the The success which the work met with the recent important discussions in which it has been copy before me is the third edition-encouraged the so frequently referredto. author to publish his threatened sequel, which is Those who desire to know what oaths were entitled :
taken by the sovereigns of this country previous “ Observations on a Journey to Naples, wherein the to the Revolution of 1688, will find much curious FRAUDS of Romish Monks and Priests are farther Dis and trustworthy information upon the subject in cover'd. By the Author of a late Book, Entituled, &c." Mr. Arthur Taylor's valuable volume, The Glory London, 8vo, 1791.
of Regality. This also met with the approbation of Dr. Parr, The present Coronation Oath, however, dates who styles it “very interesting"; and, indeed, only from the accession of William and Mary. both this and the former volume will be found to Immediately upon that event, “ An Act for estacontain a great amount of very curious and amus blishing the Coronation Oath" (1 Will. & Mary, ing matter.
c. 6) was passed, which recites that We next hear of the author in -
« Whereas, by the Law and ancient Usage of this “A Short History of Monastical Orders, in which the Realm, the Kings and Queens thereof have taken solemn Primitive Institution of Monks, their Tempers, Habits, Oath upon the Evangelists at their respective CoronaRules, and the Condition they are in at Present, are Treated of.” By Gabriel d'Emillianne. 8vo. London :
tions, to maintain the Statutes, Laws, and Customs of the
said Realm, and all the People and Inhabitants thereof in Roycroft, 1693.
their Spiritual and Civil Rigbts and Properties; but forHe dedicates his book to the arch bishops, bishops, asmuch as the Oath itself, on such Occasion administered, and the rest of the reverend clergy of the Church
hath heretofore been framed in doubtful Words and Exof England, stating in his preface :
pressions, with relation to ancient Laws and Constitu
tions at this time unknown. To the end, therefore, that “ As I cannot sufficiently praise God for his great | one uniform Oath may be in all Times to come taken by Mercy in calling me to be a Member of this Holy Church, I the Kings and Queens of this Realm, and to them respecso I thought I could not honour enough those who are the tively administered at the times of their and every of Pillars, and the chief ornaments of it," &c.
And then proceeds to enact:
Majesty in the Royal Government of the Kingdom of Great "That the Oath herein mentioned and hereafter ex
Britain, and so for ever hereafter, every King or Queen pressed, shall and may be administered to their most
succeeding and coming to the Royal Gorernment of the Excellent Majesties King William and Queen Mary
Kingdom of Great Britain at his or her Coronation, shall, (whom God long preserve) at the time of their Corona
in the presence of all persons who shall be attending, tion, in the presence of all persons that shall be then and
assisting, or otherwise there and then present, take and there present at the solemnising thereof, by the Arch
subscribe an Oath to maintain and preserve inviolably bishop of Canterbury or the Archbisbop of York, or either
the said Settlement of the Church of England, and the of them, or any other Bishop of this Realm whom the
Doctrine, Worship, Discipline, and Government thereof, King's Majesty shall thereunto appoint, and who shall be
as by Law established within the Kingdoms of England hereby thereunto respectively authorised; which Oath
and Ireland, the Dominion of Wales, and Town of Berfolloweth, and shall be administered in this manner; that | wick-upon-Tweed, and the Territories thereunto belongis to say,
ing." “ The Archbishop or Bishop shall say —
It will be observed that by this Act the Act “Will you solemnly promise to govern the people of William and Mary was not interfered with; of this Kingdom of England, and the Dominions the oath was not removed to give place to any thereunto belonging, according to the Statutes in new oath, but every succeeding sovereign was to Parliament on, and the Laws and Customs of the
take and subscribe an" oath “ To maintain and same?
preserve inviolably the said Settlement of the "The King and Queen shall say,
Church of England, and the Doctrine, Worship, “I solemnly promise so to do.
Discipline, and Government thereof as by Law “Archbishop or Bishop,
established," &c. “ Will you, to your power, cause Law and Justice in Mercy to be executed in all your judginents ?
The oath thus modified was taken by George I., “King and Queen,
George II., and George III.; but during the reign "I will.”
of the latter monarch an important change took
place in the relations between England and IreWe then come to the Coronation Oath:
land and the Churches of the two countries; and “Archbishop or Bishop,
the fifth article of the Act of the 40 Geo. III. 6 Will you, to the utmost of your power, main
c. 67, entitled “An Act for the Union of Great tain the Laws of God, the true profession of the
Britain and Ireland," is as follows:Gospel, and the Protestant Reformed Religion
"That it be the Fifth Article of Union, That the Churches established by Law ? and will you preserve unto
of England and Ireland, as now by Law established, be the Bishops and Clergy of this Realm, and to the
united into One Protestant Episcopal Church, to be called, Churches committed to their Charge, all such The United Church of England and Ireland; and that Rights and Privileges as by Law do or shall ap
| the Doctrine, Worship, Discipline, and Government of pertain unto them or any of them?
the said United Church shall be, and shall remain in full “King and Queen,
force for ever, as the same are now by Law established
for the Church of England; and that the Continuance "All this I promise to do.
and Preservation of the said United Church, as the Esta“ After this, the King and Queen, laying his and her blished Church of England and Ireland, shall be deemed hand upon the Holy Gospels, shall say,
and taken to be an essential and fundamental part of the “King and Queen,
Union : and that in like Manner the Doctrine. Worship. “ The things which I have here before promised, I
Discipline, and Government of the Church of Scotland, will perform and keep, So help me, God!
shall remain and be preserved as the same are now esta
blished by Law, and by the Acts for the Union of the “ Then the King and Queen shall kiss the Book.
Two Kingdoms of England and Scotland.” " And be it further enacted, That the said Oath shall
The oath taken by George IV. at his coronation, be in like manner administered to every King or Queen who shall succeed to the Imperial Crown of this Realm
having been altered to meet the requirements of at their respective Coronations,” &c.
the Act of Union with Ireland, assumed the foiBut though the Parliament in 1688 declared
lowing form :that “the said Oath shall in like manner be ad “Archbishop, ministered to every King or Queen who shall “Will you, to the utmost of your power, mainsucceed to the Imperial Crown of this Realm," tain the Laws of God, the true profession of the twenty years had not elapsed before the law in Gospel, and the Protestant Reformed Religion this respect underwent an important change. established by Law ? and will you maintain and
In 1706 an Act, 6th Anne, c. 8 (5 & 6 Anne, preserve inviolably the Settlement of the United cap. 5, in common printed editions), was passed Church of England and Ireland, and the Doctrine, “for securing the Church of England as by Law | Worship, Discipline, and Government thereof, as established," and by this Act, which was inserted by Law established within England and Ireland bodily in the Act of Union with Scotland, of and the Territories thereunto belonging ? and which it forms the twenty-fifth article, it was | will you preserve unto the Bishops and Clergy of epacted:
* Wales and Berwick-upon-Tweed huving been included " That after the Demise of Her Majesty (whom God in all English Acts by 20 Geo. II. c. 42, § 3, these words long preserve) the Sovereign next succeeding to Her / were afterwards omitted from the oath.