that in all it bears the same Hebrew name which take, but after the courteous and convincing comhas come down along with it from the remotest munication of MR. MORGAN, the matter might antiquity. The word potsherd, which occurs oc well be allowed to drop; while Mr. Cuming's casionally in the Old Testament, chayrass, won services to archæology, in exposing the long series (Isaiah, xxx. 14; Job, xi. 8; Ps. xxii. 16), although

of London forgeries, ought to have dictated a very popularly accepted as a broken piece of any earthen

different tone of comment. vessel, appears to mean properly a fragment of

This is the more remarkable, as the communione of those sagars. Another accomplished Hebrew |

cation of ANGLO-Scotus contains some of the scholar tells me that although the Hebrew word | strangest errors I ever saw, for potsherd is ünn, chay-rass, he is by no means

1. He objects to Mr. Cuming calling the noble

man who was slain at Dumfries his great ancestor, sure that it is not derived from some Semitic and quotes the perfectly accurate statement of word like sa-char, or sa-gar; for if the letters of Mr. Riddell. that the descendants of that noble. chay-rass (Heb.) were transposed they would make man failed in the direct line. Was, however, the say-char.

word ancestor ever confined to the direct line I am not, as I have said, sufficiently acquainted

alone ? with Hebrew to form an opinion for myself, but

Shakespeare is an authority to the contrary. the antiquity of the name for this peculiar article | Take the speech of the Archbishop of Canterin the manufacture of earthenware is corrobora

bury in Henry V. Act I. Sc. 2.:tive of that absence of change which is so remark- | able in the potter's art during the revolution of

“Gracious Lord,

Stand for your own, unwind your bloody flag, ages, the principal contrivance employed, the

Look back unto your mighty ancestors. potter's wheel, being essentially the same to-day, Go, my dread Lord, to your great grandsire's tomb, in Staffordshire and Sevres, as it is described in From whom you claim. _Invoke his warlike spirit, ancient writings and depicted on the monuments

And your great uncle's, Edward, the Black Prince.” of Egypt. J. EMERSON TENNENT. 2. A reference to plate 2, of the arms of the

encouragers of his work, in vol. i. of Nisbet's TAMALA AND TÂMRAKUTTAKA, SANSKRIT WORDS

Heraldry, will show that the crowned and winged FOR TOBACCO (4th S. i. 517.) - The word Tamala heart was the crest of the Dukes of Queensberry. is undoubtedly good Sanskrit for tobacco, of ortho As wings are also attached to the spur of the dox usage, or it would not have been introduced Johnstones, I suspect they were originally what by a learned Brâhmin, of respectable character,

Nisbet calls the border, charged with roses of the into an Achloka, purporting, to the best of my

old Earls of March, viz. a badge of comital office, récollection and belief, to have been extracted

although they were subsequently adopted, or from one of the Puranas. Will any of your

rather retained, by the families of younger sons. readers to whom I may have communicated the I have sometimes conjectured that they were supposed discovery when in India kindly return

allied to the dragon wing of the eastern counties, any memoranda they may have of mine upon

both being derived from a Danish ensign. Certhe subject. Jaya Deva, the author of the Mys tainly that nation bad strong settlements in the tical Poetry, quoted by SATJAM JAYATI, was an in

eastern counties, while a great number of the habitant of Bardwân, adjoining the Tamluk Dis

local names in Annandale are derived from their trict, and Tamâla, as applied by him, may have language. I, however, throw out this idea merely meant tobacco fields, which would tend to con | as a vague guess, which may be true or may not. firm the derivation Tamâla Mulk, given for the

Having heard Mr. Cuming read his paper, I name of the fort and city Tamluk, on the coast near can testify that he gave the Douglases of Cavers Calcutta. Will SATJAM JAYATI, who tells us that their proper title. The introduction of the l is tobacco is called Tamrakuttaká, after its foreign simply an overlooked error of the press. name, in Wilson's Dictionary, be good enough to

GEORGE VERE IRVING. explain what is meant by saying there is no word in Sanskrit for tobacco, and that the word tamala Having examined MacFarlane's authorities cannot possibly occur in any Sanskrit work? (England, iv. 239), I find he has used the word

R. R. W. ELLIS. hearts for harts. The same error is in the Pictorial Starcross, near Exeter.

History of England (ii. 16).

“ Shee secretly gaue silver and gilt Harts (the badges DOUGLAS RINGS: THE DOUGLAS HEART. which King Richard used to bestow upon his followers)

as tokens."-Speed, lib. ix. p. 758. (4th S. i. 462, 562.)

" Fecitque fabricari cervos argenteos et auratos pluriIt was with extreme pain and regret that I

mos (signa videlicet quæ rex Ric. conferre solebat suis

militibus scutiferis et amicis) ut his vice regis distributis, read the article by ANGLO-Scotus on this subject.

facilius allicerentur in vota sua milites illius patriæ, cæThere is no doubt that Mr. Cuming made a mis- terique valentes."-Walsingham, p. 370.

Not in Otterbourne, i. 248.

beard does not “demonstrate thinly," as Iago “She procured a great number of harts to be made of phrases it. The legends read thus: silver & gold, such as King Richard was woont to give “GIVE THY IUDGEMENTS O GOD UNTO TÆ (sic) KING unto his knights, esquires, & friends, to weare as cog- | * AND THY RIGHTEOUSNESSE UNTO THE KING's soxx" nizances, to the end that in bestowing them in King (sic). Richard's name she might the sooner allure men to further her lewd practices.”Holinshed, i. 525.

I have besides this the impression of two other B. T. J.

heads engraved on silver, somewhat larger and

oval-shaped, of James I. and his queen Anne, eviDISCOVERY OF AN OLD MEDAL.

dently of the same workmanship. Here the king's

head is uncovered, and the collar of the Order of (4th S. i. 568.)

the Garter is of a different pattern. Over the I possess a silver piece, said to have been en- heads is a crown with the initials I. R. and A: R. graved by Simon Passe, similar to that described | Underneath, “ Jacobus D. G. Mag. Britt. Fra. & as having been recently found at Grantham. The Hyb. Rex,” and “ Anna, D. G. Mag. Britt. Fra. & figure on the reverse, which MR. J. A. BOASE Hyb. Regina." states is Henry Stuart, Prince of Wales, is, I be- On the sides “ * fe." (Simon Pass). The whole lieve, intended for King James's son Charles. The written backwards, which leads one to suppose person represented wears a pointed beard of con- that the medal thus engraven was not intended siderable size, and large curled mustachio, and is for reproduction on paper. It is very finely exealtogether very unlike a youth of eighteen (Henry cuted. was born in 1594, and died in 1612). The medal, I have several other curious engravings of if it may be so termed, was, I imagine, engraved James I. Amongst others, a small one where he at the latter end of the reign of James I., when is represented with “Geo. Villiers, Mar. BuckingCharles, Prince of Wales, was twenty-four or ham, drawn from the window, and engraved by twenty-five years of age. The “king's son” on W. P. Sherlock. Upper compartment of a window the medal above referred to bears a strong resem. in the Chicken House, Hampstead.” Under the blance to King Charles I. as represented on another king's head is written in French : “Icy dans cette : piece engraved by Passe which I bave before me, chambre coucha nostre Roy Jaques premier de and is certainly the same person that is depicted nom le 25 Aoust 1619.” Does this window still in an old oil portrait belonging to me, which I exist ?

P. A. L. take to be Charles, Prince of Wales. I do not remember any bearded portrait of Prince Henry, St. THOMAS A 'BECKET (4th S. i. 604.)—I reply and I think all those exhibited at Kensington into F. S. A. that a chasuble of St. Thomas is pre1866 were beardless. If my supposition is un served at Courtrai, another at Dixmude, and a founded, I shall be glad to be corrected by Mr.

set of his vestments at Sens. (See The Life of Boase or by any other gentleman who may be able | St. Thomas Becket by Canon Morris, p. 389.) In to furnish any information as to the time at which a former No. of «N. & 0." (2nd S. v. 242) he the piece was engraved.

E. D. E.

will find a communication by the undersigned,

minutely describing one of the saint's mitres, then This medalet, which I also possess, I thought in the possession of the late Cardinal Wiseman, until now represented on the reverse the effigy, I and now preserved by his successor Archbishop not of Henry, the eldest son of James I., as stated Manning, and mentioning another of his mitres as by MR. JOHN J. A. BOASE, but of the still more still remaining in the cathedral of Sens. hapless Prince Charles (the ill-fated Charles I.) The very interesting old cope formerly belongwith his peculiarly shaped nose (thick at the end, ing to Syon House I carefully examined about like his father's), and the well-known turned-uý twenty years ago, at Alton Towers. It was then mustachio and pointed beard. May I be allowed to in the possession of John, Earl of Shrewsbury. give my reagons for so thinking? I have lying

| He bequeathed all his magnificent collection of before me a portraiture of that promising young |

| church vestments to the Very Rev. Dr. Rock. man Henry, Prince of Wales, a mezzotinto en

F. C. H. graving by Dunkarton. The prince is in armour; A-Becket's chasuble is probably at present in his head uncovered, in profile, without any beard ; | the treasury of the Cathedral of Sens, France, the legs outstretched, and making the lance exer where many of his objects are, and where his cise. Underneath is written :

mitre may likewise be. The “Syon cope" is “Henry Prince of Wales, Eldest Son of King James

exhibited at, and is the property of, the South Io, Obit Novi 6th 1612, Æt, 18, from an extreme rare Kensington Museum.

A. S. C. print by S. Pass."

The chusable of St. Thomas of Canterbury is At that age, in fact, he must have been a preserved at Sens Cathedral. In 1164 that pre“ beardless Apollo," whereas on the medal the late was obliged to fly from England and tako

refuge in France, where he remained till 1170. give the eighteen forms which it assumes. They Though much injured, enough remains to show are : sain 8, suint 8, sainte 8 (in Sainte Thérèse, les the beauty and magnificence of the vestment. A saintes vierges), sein 8, scigne 8, je ceins, ceint 8, mitre and apparel of the amice belonging to the ceinte s, (de) cing. The doubt with me is, if the same set are also preserved. The chusable is French have cings as they have uns, and as we annually worn during mass on his festival. Beau- | have fives at cards, for instance. I only regarded tiful drawings of these vestments are given by complete words, but I think P. A. L. was right Mr. Shaw in his valuable work, Dresses and De- in including syllables. So, to his cin in “capucin" corations of the Middle Ages.

I add sin in * sincère," and sim in “ simplicité," The cope of the earlier part of the thirteenth thus bringing the whole number up to nineteen or century, formerly belonging to the nuns of Syon twenty. Perhaps P. A. L. is aware that the seven House, is in the collection of the Earl of Shrews- | forms I mentioned are those of verbs in er, as bury. The hood is lost, but the orphrey is com- | aimer, aimez, aimai, aimé s, aimée s. posed of armorial bearings, and on the body the

Thos. KEIGITLEY. crucifixion of our Lord, SS. Peter and Paul, St.

ADRIAN'S ADDRESS TO HIS SOUL (4th S. i. 603.) Michael the Archangel, St. Stephen, and other

Allow me to correct a mistake of the printer in saints are beautifully wrought in large intersect

the Latin of the above. In the original, the first ing quatrefoils. Papers by Mr. C. H. Hartshorne,

word in the fourth line is “ Jallidula," and so I giving much curious information on English me

sent it. It is meant for Gelidula, and I have diæval embroidery will be found in the Archæo

translated it by cold. The printer has made it logical Journal, i. 334 and iv. 285.

Pallidula, which finds no corresponding word in At Aix-la-Chapelle a cope is preserved in the

my translation.

F. C. H. sacristy of the cathedral, with small silver bells attached to the lower edge. This is said to have DIDO AND ÆNEAS (4th S. i. 579.)—The lines been worn by Leo III. at the consecration of the are by James Smith of Rejected Addresses fame, church, in the presence of the Emperor Charle- and are to be found in his Memoirs, Letters, and magne, assisted by three hundred and sixty-five

Comic Miscellanies, edited by his brother Horace, bishops. Mr. Walcott (Sacred Archæology, 183), | 1840, vol. ii. p. 193. They are given with slight says one at Canterbury had a little chime of one variations in The Life and Remains of Theodore hundred and forty in 1108, and others sent by | Hook, by Barham, 1849, vol. i. p. 229, where they William I. to Clugpy, or presented by Lanfranc, | are characterised as “Mr. Smith's happiest effort," Ernulph, and Conrad to their minister, were so and are stated to have been sent by the author to ornamented. I shall be glad to hear of other Count D'Orsay with the following note: examples. JOIN PIGGOT, Jun., F.S.A. | “MY DEAR Court,-Will you give me Gallic immor

tality by translating the subjoined into French ? " CURIOUS ORTHOGRAPHIC FACT (4th S. i. 571.)

H. P. D. Will you allow me to answer, as a Frenchman, to the above? The monosyllabic sound which in


S. i. 593.)-I had not time to complete a short French may be written in sixteen or seventeen different ways, is an, or en. I send you twenty

list of some passages in the Wolverhampton

“ Boscobel” when I sent my reply, printed on eight ways of writing it, and I am pretty sure I

p. 593. I send them now. have not given all:

At pages 18 and 24 the Lord Wilmot who atan ... ruban and ... gland

tended the king, and was afterwards Earl of ans. . rubans

ands. glands en .

Rochester, is confounded with his son.

“This .



nobleman was the famous and dissoluto Earl of ant.


onguent Rochester.” (P. 24.) He was father of that ants. . . gants


onguents noted person. aon .. . paon eant. gageant

At p. 24 the vale of Evesham is described as paons


• gageants banc

the vale of Esham. At p. 39 the two well-known eng . hareng bancs engs. .. harengs

lines out of Drunken Barnaby's Itinerary are misamp... champ

ent ... rudiment quoted thus:amps. . . champs ents ... rudiments

“He hung his cat on Monday ang ... rang emps. . . temps.

For killing a mouse on Sunday." angs .rangs In the word itself we have em, as in emporium,

The writer makes no mention of Drunken Barand many other; I believe there are altogether

orium, naby's Itinerary. At p. 28 we read : — "Trent

| House . . . . is situated in Somersetshire, thirty-four ways of writing en.

J. C.

though bordering on the skirts of Devonshire." As P. A. L. seems to wish to know it, I will state | It is really situated on the other side of the county, that the French sound I had in mind was that of " on the skirts of Dorsetshire." sain ; and as I presume it will gratify him, I here At page 48 we read :-" The next year, 1663,



aons. anc . ancs.

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witnessed the rupture with Holland. The Dutch Town Council and Guildry records are generally fleet triumphantly sailed up the Thames and burnt better kept, but hundreds of these volumes aro the ships of war which lay at Chatham."

| also in a state of decay. This seems to give 1663 as the date of the In Ireland most of the parish registers have first Dutch triumph. It occurred in June, 1667. been lost. The Cathedral records are kept in

The retaining such matter as this in the second the buildings, and have generally contracted miledition, from which I quote, is not in favour of dew. The records of the Presbyterian churches, the book.

I believe, are better kept, yet most imperfectly. I wish to add to what I said of Mr. Hughes's Of the records of the Irish Roman Catholic Church careful editing, that I hold several of his opinions, I know nothing. The records of the Prerogative expressed in his Introduction, in the utmost dis- or Probate Courts are, I admit, in a more satisbelief and aversion.

factory state, though all the original wills are not Some readers of “N. & Q." may not know that forthcoming. the late Bishop Copleston suggested to Mr.Hughes A remedy is simple. Let a competent judithat he should make the collection of Boscobel cious individual be appointed, with a staff of assisTracts. Bishop Copleston's letter, laying down, tants, to negotiate the proper preservation of the with the finest criticism, the rules which should different records in England, Scotland, and Ireguide a persrin who investigates a history such as land, and under his direction let indices, &c. be this, is printed in Mr. Hughes's Introduction. prepared. I will return to this subject again.

D. P.

CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D. Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells.

Snowdoun Villa, Lewisham, S.E. PARISH REGISTERS (4th S. i. 477,582.)— I con


reply to the query of T. P. F. I beg to state that sider that the public are deeply indebted to the corre

the application by friction of a piece of sandspondents of “N. & Q." who have so emphatically

stone to the surface of a tombstone will remove referred to the subject of preserving our parochial and other public registers. I am not in a condi- |

every incrustation, and render any inscription per

fectly legible. In the course of preparing my tion to add to what your correspondents have

still unfinished work on the churchyards of Scotwritten respecting the parish records of England,

land I adopted the method now suggested on but I have had occasion, while prosecuting some

several hundred tombstones, and always with a importaut inquiries, to search many public records

satisfactory result. The sandstone should be soft throughout Scotland and Ireland. The Scottish Parish Registers of Births, Marriages, and Deaths

and friable. A very little rubbing is required. are now deposited in the General Register House,

The surface should then be carefully brushed. Edinburgh, where they have been well bound and


Snowdoun Villa, Lewisham, S.E. conveniently arranged; but they exhibit numerous blanks consequent on the imperfect custodiership CAVE OF ADULLAM (3rd S. x. 341.)—I do not of the past. The Kirk Session and Presbytery re know whether the following use of this expression cords are still retained in the houses of the several has been before noted; but it will be seen that it clerks, and are generally kept without the least | dates prior to Mr. Bright's use of it:-regard to their national importance. To my “The determined band who did this daring deed (murknowledge they are frequently offered for sale

dered Cardinal Beatoun) kept possession of the castle. with the private libraries of their custodiers, when

They were joined by many friends. The Castle of St.

Andrews become a Cave of Adullum, in which numbers ignorant survivors proceed to realise their effects.

who feared the tyranny of the government sought shelter. Synod records are kept as indifferently. The earlier John Knox, whose life the priests eagerly sought, took records of the General Assembly were lost; they refuge there among the rest."-Mackenzie's History of were afterwards found and deposited in the library

Scotland. Nelson, 1863. of Sion College, and being temporarily removed to

T. T. W. St. Stephens'. Westminster, perished in the con CEREMONIAL AT INDUCTION (4th S. i. 481, 565.) flagration of the Houses of Parliament.

It may be interesting in connection with this These belong to the jurisdiction of the ecclesias- topic to make a note of the ceremonial observed tical courts. But there other public records in in the Episcopal Church of North America at the Scotland wbich are kept as badly or worse. Will “induction or institution of ministers into parishes it be credited that the Sheriff Court records, which or churches." For this a special office is procontain so many entries bearing on the rights vided in the American Prayer-book. A clergyof property, are in many counties degraded into man, standing within the altar-rails, acts as dingy and filthy cellars, where they are suffering institutor, in whose presence the senior warden, rapid and sure decay? Even where they have been or some other member of the restry, presents the arranged in presses they have been permitted to keys of the church to the new incumbent with suffer from the damp of unfired chambers. The appropriate words. After sundry prayers, the

incumbent is received within the altar-rails, and mountains, known as “the Skalp.” This singular has presented to him the Bible, Book of Common chasm is an abrupt, narrow, and precipitous rift Prayer, and Books of Canons of the General Con in the otherwise unbroken chain of hills, and its vention. Suitable prayers and a sermon follow, local designation is probably as old as the Danish the service concluding with the administration of occupation of that part of Ireland now referable to the Lord's Supper by the new incumbent.

some of those terms of the Norsemen of which

Juxta TURRIM MR. SKEAT has given illustrations in the Icelandic THE LIVING SKELETON. CLAUDE AUBROISE | skelfa and the Danish skiælve. SEURAT (4th S. i. 484.)-Your correspondent will

There is a second locality in Ireland which find a short notice of Seurat in Debay's Histoire

bears the name of “Scalp," between Gort and Naturelle, p. 174. This refers to an examination

Loughrea, in the county of Galway; but whether of him in France at the end of the year 1832,

there is any similar geological peculiarity to idenwhen he was thirty-four years old. His weight | tify the name, I am not able to say. is given as forty-three pounds (French), and his

J. EMERSON TENNENT. height five feet three inches. Hone's account of MARVELLOUS STORIES OF SHARKS (3rd S. xü. him is far more complete than Debay's. The two 348, 470.)-See further, Keil & Delitzsh, Comauthors do not agree as to the date of his birth. mentary on the Twelve Minor Prophets, Jonah," Debay has it April 4, 1798. In the third series translated by Martin (Edinburgh, 1867): of Dr. Buckland's Curiosities of Natural History

“The great fish was not a whale, because this is ex. (vol. ii. p. 91), an article from The Field news tremely rare in the Mediterranean, and has too small a paper, signed “H. G., Paris,' is reproduced. It throat to swallow a man; but a large shark or sea-dog, contains an account of Seurat, who was then, in

Canis carcharias, or Squalus carcharias, L., which is very 1833, performing at Dinan in Brittany. The

common in the Mediterranean, and bas so large a throat

that it can swallow a living man whole. Oken mentions nature of his entertainment seems to have been

that in the year 1758 a sailor fell overboard and was im. the rope trick, lately made so notorious by the mediately taken into the jaws of a sea-dog and disapDavenport Brothers : only that, in lieu of ropes, peared. The captain, however, ordered a gun, which he made use of chains. How such a lean creature

was standing on deck, to be discharged at the shark, and as Seurat-who, according to Hone, was almost

the ball struck it, so that it vomited up the sailor that

it had swallowed, who was then taken up alive, and very entirely devoid of muscles-managed to perform

little hurt, into the boat that had been lowered for his this trick with success, will appear to those who rescue.” are acquainted with the mode of operation a

JUXTA TURRIY. puzzle. Perbaps, however, he too was in league

THE PRIOR's PASTORAL STAFF (4th S. i. 592.)with the spirits! It is further mentioned that

If the objects inquired for by P. are really “malSeurat had promised his body after death to the

lets," I can offer no explanation. But I am inHôtel Dieu at Paris. He must have changed his

clined to think that they are heraldic representamind, therefore, after he left England. I have

tions of the staff used by the “rectores chori," or not yet been able to ascertain the date of his

directors of the choir. I have an impression of the death. Who knows whether the poor fellow

seal of a cantor of the diocese of Ferns, with this may not still be going the round of the French


on which the staff is represented like St. An“JACKDAW OF RHEIMS" (4th S. i. 577.)-- From thony's cross, or a letter T, but with a bar slightly MR. SKEAT's communication it would appear not projecting half way down the stem, and the lower to be generally known that the incident so humor half terminating in a point.

F. C. H. ously narrated by Barbam has been told as a

RUDEE: DEFAME: BIRRE (4th S. i. 14, 84.)grave and striking fact. In the Sorbieriana is this

1. A. H. has apparently forgotten that Wiclif paragraph:

translated from the Vulgate. This, in St. Matt. "Janus Nicius Crytræus relates that a certain pope had ix. 16. has commissuram panni rudis, and rudee a tame raven, which secreted the pope's ring or annulus

looks like one of Wiclif's Latinate words, unless piscatoris. The pope, thinking that some one bad committed the robbery, issued a bull of excommunication

| the Sussex rudy=rude (Halliw. Dict.) represent against the robber. The raven grew very thin, and lost a word older than Wiclit's age, and the first form all his plumage. On the ring being found and the ex of our rude. In St. Mark ii. 21 (the only other communication taken off, the raven recovered his flesh

place where we find rudis in the Vulgate N.T.) and his plumage."- French Anas, i. 168. WILLIAM E. A. Axon.

panni rudis assumentum is translated “ a pacche of

newe clothe." But there must be a variation in Joynson Street, Strangeways.

Wiclif's versions. In that given in Bagster's SKELP (4th S. i. 485, 587.)—MR. WALTER W. Engl. Herapla the words of St. Matt. ix. 16 are SKEAT's exposition of the word skelp and its mean- "a cloute of boistous clooth,' as to wbich word ings suggests the probable origin of the name of the Prompt. Parv. gives boystows (or clubbyd= the extraordinary cleft or ravine in the Wicklow rudis); and in a note elsewhere it is said to mean

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