took place in June, 1824. The Catalogue is in Five Parts, has also supplied eight pages of extracts from the burial 4to. The print of the ten “ Parliamentary Generals” is register. Under the year 1729 he has recorded the deaths one of most uncommon rarity, and perhaps unique. The of Sir Thomas Colby, Bart., Oct. 15, and the Right Hon. names of the ten Generals are—“Earl of Essex, Alexander Catherine, wife of William Lord Abergavenny, Dec. 12.] Leslie, Sir Thomas Fairfax, Edward Earl of Manchester, Major-General Skippon, Oliver Cromwell, Sir William Waller, Sir William Brereton, and Major-Generals Mas

Replies. sey and Brown, with a perfect list of all the victories

AËROGRAPHY, obtained by the Parliament's forces, and the nar es of

(4th S. i. 578.) the cities, towns, castles, and forts, taken since the beginning, to this present month, August, 1646, by Josiah I can assure T. P. F. that I have again and Ricraft.” The print was purchased by Woodburn. Sir again seen the experiment mentioned by Sir William Musgrave's copy sold for 111. See his Catalogue David Brewster tried, and always with success. of English Portraits, (Anon.) 8vo, 1800, p. 166.

As, however, the inflation of the lungs of the 2. John Theyre's collection of manuscripts is now in the

lifters admits of the full exertion of their strength British Museum. Vide A Catalogue of the Manuscripts of at the time of making their effort, which they the King's Library, by David Casley. Lond. 1731, 4to. could not do if the air in those organs was exIn the arrangement of this Catalogue, the manuscripts hausted (every one takes a full breath before atare taken as they originally stood on the shelves at St. tempting any feat of the kind), this fact is not James's, or sometimes in the order of acquisition, without

so inexplicable as several others in reference to any classification whatever; the former method appears,

the weight of the human body, the sudden variahowever, to have generally prevailed. For a Catalogue able. These do not seem to occur in the case of

tions in which seem to be perfectly unaccountof the Books in the library of the Lanthony Priory, see Harl. MS. 460. Some account of John Theyre may be jockeys and others in constant or regular training,

but in that of amateurs they sometimes present found in Wood's Athena Oxon. iii. 996 (ed. Bliss), and in

themselves in a manner that is utterly unaccountBigland's Gloucestershire, i. 251, ed. 1791.

able. I may mention one instance which camo 3. Elegiack Memorials is attributed to Thomas Twittee, under my own personal experience :— A wellS. T. P. of Oriel College, Oxford, and vicar of Kingston- known wine merchant in Glasgow was going to upon-Thames, ob. 1667. A short notice of him is given ride for the Commanding-officers' Cup of the in Wood's Fasti (Bliss), i. 469.]

Lanarkshire Yeomanry. He met me on the steps Song.- Where are the words to be found of a

of the inn, and asked me to go over with him to song which contains the following lines ?

the market scales and see him weighed. He “Oh! tlie oak, and the ash, and the ivy tree,

pulled the weight so fully that I advised him to They flourish the best in the North Countree."

make the 21b. declaration. We proceeded to our CORNUB.

drill ground, and went through a by no means [This song, with the music, is printed in that charming into the weighing-house, where I was acting

severe review day. When this was over he came work, Chappell’s Popular Music of the Olden Time, ii. 456. It is entitled " I would I were in my own Country.” the fourteen stone, and I had to lend him the

steward. To my utter surprise he was short of A black-letter copy of it is in the Roxburghe Collection, whole of the small weights I had, amounting to ii. 367, entitled “The Northern Lasses Lamentation ; or, The unhappy Maid's Misfortune;" and reprinted in

some four or five pounds. Evans's Old Ballads, i. 115, ed. 1810. It commences —

The next day I was to ride for the Offi

cers' Challenge Whip, and in the morning he in “A North-country lass up to London did pass,

turn accompanied me to the market scales. I Although with her nature it did not agree;

hardly pulled the weight. He reminded me of Which made her repent, and so often lament,

what occurred to himself the day before, and Still wishing again in the North for to be.

advised me to make sure of accidents. I told O the nak, and the ash, and the bonny ivy tree, him I could carry seven pounds of lead in my Do flourish at home in my own countree."]

saddle cloth, which we agreed would be sufficient. BURIALS AT KENSINGTON.-Perhaps the editor that I did not require an ounce of it, but, on the

On going to scale on the course, I however found can kindly inform F. M. S. where he should look contrary, had to make the declaration. for the tombstone of a celebrated individual who

A still more remarkable instance was, many is said to have been “buried at Kensington in years ago, mentioned to me by Lord Haddington 1729”? Where was the parish churchyard of

as having occurred at the Kelso races. A most Kensington at that date?

respectable farmer, for whose veracity his lord[ The old Kensington church was taken down in 1811 ; ship could personally vouch, came in as winner a few epitaphs in its churchyard have been preserved by of the deciding heat of a severely-contested race, Faulkner in his History of Kensington, 4to, 1820, who but failed to draw the scales; and his lordship,

then Mr. Baillie, was obliged to disqualify him, riments in Mr. Boyle's vacuum. A man thrusting in his and award the stakes to the second horse. A few arm, upon exhaustion of the air, had his flesh immediately minutes afterwards the gentleman returned to

swelled so as the blood was near bursting the veins.” the weighing-room, and, while adınitting the cor- This is similar to cupping. So far aërostatics : rectness of the decision, expressed a wish to try and by analogy, in hydrostatics, the pressure of the scale again for his own satisfaction. This water on the hull of a vessel is made to vary from being permitted, to the surprise of all present he the equilibrium by means of the rudder, which, in was found to be full weight. Mr. Baillie imme- effect, lengthens one side of the vessel and shortens diately asked, “ Have you eaten or drunk anything the other, thus rapidly moving into a line opsince you were here? “ No, sir.” “Have you posed to its direct course, by current, wind, or done anything ? " “ The only thing except talk- steam, a large vessel of many hundred tons buring was to go behind one of the tents for a few then and many hundred tons dead weight. minutes." I may add that the gentleman's saddlery

T. J. BUCKTON. had remained during the whole interval in the

Wiltshire Road, Stockwell, S.W. weigbing-room, and could not have been tampered with.

NOY AND NOYES. I have known persons attempt to explain these strange variations by referring them to the high

(4th S. i. 390, 566.) or low spirits of the rider; but although this I cannot agree with T. M. when he says that might apply to the last of these instances, it could the grant of arms to Attorney-General Noy's not to the former, as the discrepancy occurred grandfather in the name of Noy or Noyes " goes to before the race.

show that both these names belonged to the same The whole subject, I admit, is far beyond my family." In my opinion it goes to prove the pbilosophy, and I should be delighted to hear if ignorance of the person who made the entry in any reader of “N. & Q." can give any explanation the Register in the College of Arms. The cirof it. GEORGE VERE IRVING.

cumstance might be accounted for in this way.

The herald may have receired instructions for the After Sir D. Brewster (Nat. Magic, p. 256) has grant in the name of Noy, but not having met pronounced the phenomena to be inexplicable, I with the name before, and knowing that not only shall only venture to state that I have repeatedly were Noy and Noyes similar, but that the same experimented, and have to note that the filling the arms had previously been granted to a Noyes, lungs is a sine qua non, a person who is consumptive concluded that Noy was an error, but had no aunot possessing the same lifting power that another thority to alter it. To get over the difficulty, has whose lungs are in better order. The weight then, he registered the name as it appeared in the of air supported by the body is fifteen pounds on instructions, and added or Noyes to it by way of every square inch, but, acting as water and other

query. It might also be accounted for in this fluids, that pressure is counterpoised in every di- way. Noy and Noye, when used to denominate rection; sometimes the pressure is less (the ba- any of the Attorney-General's family, appear both rometer falls), and we experience lassitude ; some- to be correct. Noy is, however, the oldest and times the pressure is greater (the barometer rises), most common mode of spelling. The herald or his and we are exhilarated. When we attempt to use clerk probably knew of this, and entered the

name great force in striking, leaping, &c., we involun- in both forms. But then MEMOR says the Registarily hold in the breath, or ought to do so, to be ter gives Noy or Noyes. Possibly the s after the more effective. The equilibrium being de- Noye is, if I may so put it, not an at all, but a stroyed by the continued retention of the breath, simple flourish. Those who know how the e is brings into operation, I conceive, the difference of shaped in old MSS. will readily understand how pressure (externally fifteen pounds, internally say the slight curve which invariably follows the tersixteen pounds, or) one pound additional for each minating e could be mistaken for the letter 8. square inch of surface. I assume sixteen pounds The Visitations of Cornwall, which begin with for illustration merely.

the Attorney-General's grandfather, give Noy and The experiments I have been concerned in were Noye. when the man, to be raised by the tip of one finger Norden, whose description of Cornwall was proof four men, was laid on a table. According to bably written about 1584, though not published Brewster, the most striking effect was when six till 1728, mentions Edward Noye of Carnanton. men raised one man laid on two chairs, his legs Noah, the tenth in descent from Adam, may be being supported by the one and his back by the a possible derivation of Noy. The Greek form of other. A converse experiment is referred to by the patriarch's name in the New Testament is Evelyn, May 7, 1662 :

Nãe, Noë. Now, in the Origo Mundi contained in “ I waited on Prince Rupert to our Assembly (after

the Cornish dramas edited by Mr. Edwin Norris, wards the Royal Society), where we tried several expe- which, as that gentleman informs us, is pretty spelt Noe.

certainly of the fifteenth century, Noah's name is according to Davies Gilbert, was Teg yw Hedwich,

i. e.“ Beautiful in Rest,” in allusion to Noy and In the sacred Cornish drama called The Creation Noah. Lamech called his son Noah, rest, saying, of the World with Noah's Flood, the patriarch is " this same shall comfort us. always referred to as Noy. According to the MS. T. M. is, I think, mistaken in stating the Corof this drama it was written by William Jordan nish estates left by the Attorney-General to have in 1611, but Mr. Whitley Stokes, who has given been held forty years ago by Davies Gilbert, "in us a critical edition of it, leaves it doubtful whe- right of the descent of his mother or grandther William Jordan was the author or merely mother from Catherine Noyes.The principal the copyist, and thinks the text may belong to a estates passed out of the Noy family and from its much earlier date.

descendants very many years before Davies GilIn the old stained glass windows of St. Neot's bert was born. Perhaps T. M. will kindly specify church in Cornwall, some of which are considered them, and at the same time give his reason for as early as 1200, are representations of the Crea- denominating the ancestress of Mr. Gilbert Cathetion and the Noachical period. The last of the rine Noyes instead of Catherine Noy or Noye. series is devoted to the death of Noah, and bears In conclusion, I think it well to state that, after this inscription, Hic Noy mortuus est.

examining some thousands of manuscripts and These to some extent show that there is a curi- printed books in the study of this particular subous relationship between Noah and Noy; but the ject, I have never found Noyes in the remotest relationship, if any, is by name alone. In the way connected with or referring to Noy or Noye; Cornish vocabulary, arranged by Mr. Norris, the and that, if it so occurs in the Register of Arms, 1 word noi, a nephew or descendant, is found pro- believe it to be a solitary instance. W. N. nounced noee. I in Cornish, as our ee, is generally written y, rarely i, and now and then e; so that

THE WEDDING-RING. Noe and Noy, standing for Noah in the dramas, may be identified with noi, which, I think, is the

(4th S. i. 510, 561.) correct derivation of the Attorney-General's name. I suppose it is quite impossible accurately to The surname Noy may possibly have been given trace the origin and intention of the use of the to that person who represented the patriarch in ring in marriage. MR. PIGGOT's communication, the ancient plays of Cornwall.

interesting as it is, adds little or nothing to the That a connection between the two was under- valuable information, on this topic, collected in. stood to exist in the time of the Attorney-General your first and second series; neither does it supply is slightly shown by contemporaneous writings. an adequate answer to the particular questions on For instance, in the following lines written in p. 510. Having lately paid special attention to Sept. 1634, on the official changes consequent on the this subject, and having recently delivered (and death of the Attorney-General and the dismissal of published) a lecture on The Wedding-Ring, its Lord Chief Justice Heath :

History, Poetry, Literature, and Superstitions,* per“ Noy's flood is gone, the Banks appear,

haps I may be allowed to state, in order, the four The Heath is cropt, the Finch sings there." distinct reasons given for the original employ, One day when Mr. Attorney Noy was enter- ment of the wedding-ring. I am aware that I taining King Charles I. at his house in London, have nothing very new to state, and that I may Ben Jonson, who was at that time in very indifferent lay myself open, with Mr. Piggot, to the charge circumstances, sent a plate to him with this verse of repeating much of what has already appeared inscribed on it, in the hope of having something in print. But I have never yet seen these four to eat:

different accounts brought together, for the pur“ When the world was drowned

pose of comparing their value, into one article. No deer was found, Because there was noe park ;

Every, writer on this topic adduces his own

favourite idea of the origin of the ring, ignoring And here I sitt Without ere a bitt,

all others. These ideas are Cause Noyah hath all in his arke."

1. That defended by Hooker and MR. PIGGOT, The reply was a dish of renison, and the fol- which regards the ring in marriage, from its shape lowing:

and portability, as a pledge of sincere affection" When the world was drowned

" the badge of fidelity, and the emblem of conThere deer was found,

stancy and integrity." Although there was noe park ;

2. That given by Wheatly, in his book on the I send thee a bitt To quicken thy witt,

Common Prayer (quoted by MR. PIGGor), who Which comes from Noya's arke."

regards the ring simply as the pledge of the Mr. Noy was evidently aware of the connection, woman's dowry. as is shown in the selection of his motto, which, * London: W. Freeman, Fleet Street, 1868.

were :

3. The still more probable opinion, that the St. Clement of Alexandria, speaking of the original wedding-ring was a signet, which the nuptial ring, explains it as still intended for a husband handed to his wife on the day of the signet, as it is well known that rings originally marriage, in token' that he entrusted her with equal rights in the protection, management, and Δίδωσιν ουν αυταίς δακτύλιον εκ χρυσίου" ουδε τούτον dispensation of his property, more particularly his | εις κόσμον, αλλ' εις το άποσημαίνεσθαι τα οίκοι φυλακής household and domestic effects. It would seem άξια, διά την επιμελείων της οικουρίας. that in the early ages things of value were pro

Padag. lib. iii. cap. 11. tected in cases, not locked, but sealed; and that the wife, in order to the care of these things, sidered the ring as a pledge of mutual fidelity,

St. Ambrose however, and other Fathers, conwould require a facsimile of the husband's signet, binding as it were the hearts of the couple in a to wear both as a pledge of trust and equality bond of conjugal affection. Thus, St. Ambrose with him in domestic affairs, and also for the more ready and convenient discharge of her duty as

relates the speech of St. Agnee to one who sought custodian of his valuables at home.

her in marriage, alluding to her having chosen a 4. An additional reason is, that as a chain con

heavenly spouse : sists of links or rings, the ring is the token of that

“ Discede a me, quia jam ab alio amatore præventa mutual bondage to each other into which mar

sum, qui mihi satis meliora te obtulit ornamenta; et

annulo fidei suæ subarrhavit me."- Epist. XXXIII. riage brings husband and wife. See Müller's Chips from a German Workshop (vol. ii. p. 282):

Pope Nicholas also mentions the ring as given “ What is the meaning of the wedding-ring which the

at the espousals for a pledge of mutual fidelity :wife has to wear? There is no authority for it, either “ Postquam arrhis sponsam sibi sponsus per digitum in the Old or New Testament. It is simply a heathen fidei annulo insignitum desponderit.”Resp. ad Consulta custom; whether Roman or Teutonic, we shall not at- Bulgur. tempt to decide, but originally expressive of the fetter by which the wife was tied to her husband. In England

The nuptial ring was always fixed on the it is the wife only who wears the golden fetter, while all fourth finger: never on the thumb. The old over Germany the tie is mutual ; both husband and wife Sarum Ritual not only so directs, but adds the wearing the badge of the loss of their liberty."

reason. It was indeed placed first upon the The third and fourth of these reasons gain thumb, but immediately removed to the first and strength from the consideration that the wedding- other fingers in succession, till it was finally fixed ring was, in ancient times, worn by the husband on the fourth. The order was as follows:as well as the wife: hence the exchange of be- “ Tunc inserat sponsus annulum pollici sponsæ dicens, trothal rings in more modern times.

• In nomine Patris’: deinde secundo digito dicens, et There would seem, however, to be no means of Filii': deinde tertio digito dicens, “et Spiritus Sanctio: deciding which is the likeliest of the above four deinde quarto digito dicens, ‘Amen.' ibique dimittat

annulum : quia in medico est quædam vena procedens reasons. As to the questions on p. 510, I should

usque ad cor."- Ordo ad faciendum Sponsalia. be thankful to have satisfactory replies to them. I add, as a supplementary note on this topic,

The same form has always been retained in the the following, from Barrera's Gems and Jewels, Ordo administrandi Sacramenta, used by Catholics 8vo, London, 1860:

in this country.

F. C. H. “ The ring presented to the betrothed maiden was an iron one: a loadstone was set in place of a gem. It in- Wheatly has some authority for his statement dicated the mutual sacrifice made by the husband and that " anciently the ring was a seal.” Bingham wife of their liberty : the magnet indicated the force of book xxii. chap. iii. 5) says: – attraction which had drawn the maiden out of one family into another."-P. 325.

“ Clemens Alexandrinus is cited by Mr. Selden himself “ Among the Romans the seal-ring belonged to the as an evidence of the antiquity of the use of the ring in wife, and betokened her prerogative of having the charge espousals among Christians. He says, “The ring is given of the valuables. As there were not then, as in modern her not as an ornament, but as a seal, to signify the times, locks and keys to every piece of furniture, precious woman's duty in preserving the goods of her husband, articles, like jewels, were kept in caskets sealed by the because the care of the house belongs to her.'” mistress of the house.”—P. 335.


Comber, in his Companion to the Temple, of The wedding-ring was given anciently

at the Park tv. beatily, probably made much use, says

(Part IVsec. iii. espousals, before the actual marriage. This is “First, we may note that the ring is of so great anmentioned by Tertullian, and the ring is called by tiquity that Pliny professeth he knew not its first original, him pronubus. Speaking of Christian women, he but we may justly believe the first use thereof was for says:

sealing, as Macrobius affirms."

H, P. D. “ Cum aurum nulla (femina) norat, præter unico digito, quem sponsus oppignerasset pronubo annulo.”Apologet. cap. vi.


“ He Beareth, parted per Pale, gules & Azure, A Lyon (2nd S. vii. 344, &c.)

Rampant Argent, Armed & Langued or, ve feild [sic] As we have not yet found out where “N. & Q.” | atrice azure, Crested, Weloped, "& Armed Gules, Issuing

charged wih Cross Crossletts of yo 4th, for ye Crest a Cockis not read, perhaps its pages may be conned over out of a Ducall Crown or ; and is Borne by the name of by some of the worthies of Newport, Rhode Hutchinson of Linconlnghire.” Island, North America. Some nine or ten years This inscription is written in faded ink under ago I made out, from historical documents, that an old coat of arms done on vellum, which now William Coddington, and not Roger Williams, lies on the table before me. T. Flower, Norroy, was the true founder of the Rhode Island granted arms like these to Edward Hutchinson, colony. I am anxious to be informed on two July 4, 1581 ; and I am inclined to think that this points respecting him : first, something more of painting is old enough to have been done from his pedigree and descendants than I am now in the original, and to have been taken out to Amepossession of; and second, whether he bore a coat rica when the family went in 1634. It is one of of arms? and if so, what were the charges ? the few things saved from the wreck and brought Perhaps some gentleman having access to the back to England by the family at the time of the archives or city papers of Newport, or elsewhere, Revolution. I have also got a dozen old-fashioned might come upon an impression of his seal ap- silver.handled knives and forks, which had bepended to some document. If so, I should feel longed to the governor and his ancestors. These obliged by a description of such a seal in true

were brought back too. The blades of the knives heraldic language. With respect to pedigree, I are curved and broad at the end, to take up gravy should much like to know whether there is any when it was not considered infra dig. to put the person of the name of Coddington now living who knife in the mouth. The forks have two steel can prove his descent from the said founder of prongs, like those in use before four-pronged the colony ? I believe there is not. As far as I silver forks bad been introduced. At an evening know, he has now no male representatives, but party given by my late father and mother, one some of his blood runs in my veins through other of the forks was stolen after supper by a waiter, channels . William Coddington had a son Na- supposed for the sake of the silver handle

. I thaniel, and no other child, as far as I now know; bave, therefore, only eleven forks.

I do not but if he had, I should much like to be informed. recollect the circumstance myself, but I have Nathaniel married Susannah Hutchinson, April 19, often heard my mother tell the story, 1677, who was a grand-daughter of William and

P. HUTCHINSON. Ann Hutchinson, well known in the colonies. Nathaniel and his wife had an only child (I believe), a daughter, who married Colonel Peleg

CIGARS AND SEGARS. Sanford, styled (in Governor Hutchinson's Me

(4th S. i. 553.) moirs, p. 18) " Governor of the colony.” The

What is the origin of the word cigar, or as it is Sanfords and Hutchinsons bad been long before

now pretty generally spelled, segar ? Smoking is acquainted in Lincolnshire, England, prior to their not, as is sometimes assumed, a custom only known emigration to America in Charles I.'s time, and since the discovery of America and the introduction the father or grandfather of Peleg had married

of Virginian tobacco. Tobacco was known long beBridgetta Hutchinson. (See Boston and Alford registers, co. Lincolnshire.); Peleg and wife had origin, and as ancient as the eating of opium,

fore in Persia, and smoking was a fashion of Eastern a son William Sanford, and no other child that I know of. William had no son, but three daugh

or perhaps the burning of incense. I am not aco, ters: e. g. Margaret, married Governor Hutchins quainted with Persian and its cognate languages son; Mary, married Lieut.-Governor Oliver; and sufficiently to know whether they contain a word Grizel, who died an old maid. In one pedigree I equivalent to segar and its European form cigar.

But a learned friend suggests to me as a derivative have it is doubtful, by the arrangement, whether William Sanford was father or brother of the

the Aramaic 7lw, or x7, segar, or sagar, hot, three women. If these statements are understood, and tells me that in the Targum (Ezekiel, xxxix. 9) it will be seen that both the families of Codding- the Hebrew word any is rendered I'? 117"}, ton and Sanford, who once held prominent places they shall burn. in Rhode Island and Massachusetts, have now Connected with this term thère occurs to mo merged into the descendants of Governor Hutch- another word of similar origin, and of curiously inson and Lieut.-Governor Oliver. The Sanford ubiquitous acceptance-I mean segar, or sagger, arms were: Argent, a chief gules. My authority which is the cylindrical case of fire-clay within for this is a seal belonging to a descendant of which fine stoneware is inclosed whilst underLieut.-Governor Oliver. The American branch going the process of baking in the furnace. I am of the IIutchinson family bore, and bear, as fol- assured that this implement is in use in every lows:

country in the world in which potteries exist, and

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