p. 84); in 1316 Alan de Folthwait is certified, pursuant to writ tested at Clipston March 5, as one of the lords of the township of "Folthwait," co. York, 9 Edw. II. ('Parl. Writs,' part ii. p. 412). By Letters Patent 33 Edw. III., at Westminster, Nov. 14, 1359, Alan de Folifayt, William Fairfax, and others, are appointed Commissioners of Array for the Ainsty (Fœdera,' vol. iii. p. 455), and by Letters Patent 42 Edw. III., tested at Windsor Dec. 20, 1368, the Sheriff of York, John de Folyfayt, and others are ordered to raise archers to be sent to Ireland ('Fœdera,' vol. iii. p. 854).

H. D. E.

PICTURE OF PURITAN SOLDIERS (7th S. ii. 326, 358, 432).-The historical accuracy of the picture exhibited in the Paris Exhibition of 1855 is borne out by the following passages from "A True Copy of the Journal of the High Court of Justice for the Tryal of K. Charles I. as it was read in the House of Commons, and attested under the hand of Phelps, Clerk to that Infamous Court. Taken by J. Nalson, LL.D., Jan. 4, 1683." Lond., 1684, fol., p. 103:"His Majesty being taken away by the Guard, as he passed down the stairs, the insolent soldiers scoffed at him, casting the smoke of their tobacco (a thing very distasteful unto him) in his face, and throwing their pipes in his way...... Being brought first to Sir Robert Cotton's, and thence to Whitehall, the Soldiers continued their brutish Carriage toward him, abusing all that seemed to show any respect, or even Pity to him; not suffering him to rest in his Chamber, but thrusting in, and smoking their Tobacco, and disturbing his Privacy."


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continues, customary to use them. In a letter from
Cassini in the same volume of the Phil. Trans.
(No. 135, p. 868) giving some observations of a
comet, the abbreviation P.M.N. (for post mediam
noctem) is used. This expression requires great
care, lest it should seem to mean the midnight of
the date set down, instead of the preceding mid-
night, to avoid which Cassini also writes
(in the morning), which would seem to make the
other unnecessary, since 3h 30m (for instance) on
the morning of such a day can have no ambiguity,
but must mean what we now generally but erro-
neously call 3 30m A.M. (i. e., not three hours and
after the preceding midnight). Flamsteed also
a half before noon, but three hours and a half
occasionally used the expression "post mediam
noctem "; thus, in a paper in the Phil. Trans. for
1671 (No. 75, vol. vi. p. 2298), predicting certain
occultations for the year following, he says, "Feb-
Feb. 11 mane," taking care to avoid any possible
ruar. 10. Post med. noctem sequentem, vel potius
ambiguity as to the day to which the subsequent
times were to be understood to apply. He was,
however, so far as I am aware, the first to adopt
the abbreviation A.M. as we now use it, in the
paper referred to above, published about ten
years after that in which (as is pointed out by MR.
SYKES) P.M. is first known to have been used. It
does not then seem to have been noticed that, as
affixed to a time, the expression denoted by the
latter abbreviation is accurate, whilst that by the
former is not.

HOTCHKISS FAMILY (7th S. ii. 408).—In the list of prisoners taken in Shropshire, February 22, 1644, by the Parliamentary army, occurs the name of "Moses Hotchkys."

"July 25, 1662. Richard Hotchkis, of Lee Brockhurst Co. Salop, Gent., Wid, about 37, and Susan Clarke, of St Botolph, Aldersgate, Sp, abt 33, at own disposal; at Great St Bartholomew, London." The above is in the marriage allegations in the registry of the Vicar-General (Canterbury), just published by the Harleian Society.


A.M. AND P.M. (6th S. ix. 369, 431, 516; xi. 20, 77).-At the last of these references MR. SYKES calls attention to an early use of the latter of these abbreviations in the very first volume of the Philosophical Transactions (No. 14, p. 242, for July 2, 1666). It was, indeed, used earlier than the other abbreviation; yet (though MR. SYKES appears to have overlooked it) both are used in the Phil. Trans. for 1676 (No. 128, vol. xi. p. 687), where Flamsteed tabulates some observations of his own and of Halley's of spots on the sun in July and August of that year. Flamsteed usually reckons solar time from noon (as astronomers are still accustomed to do), even when TWO-HAND SWORD v. TWO-HANDED SWORD the interval exceeds twelve hours; but in this (7th S. ii. 306, 437).-There can be no doubt of particular case he seems to have thought it desir- this weapon having been once in use about the able to refer the spot observations to the day of fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, though not by ordinary reckoning. How illogically the expression those who fought on horseback. In The Fair A.M., or ante meridiem, is applied in this reckon- Maid of Perth' the two-handed sword is mentioned ing, I pointed out in a letter in the Athenæum for as the weapon wielded in the terrible combat on the February 7, 1885. In effect 4 A. M. ought to mean North Inch at Perth between the Clan Quhele and four hours before noon, i. e., 8 o'clock in the morn- the Clan Chattan, circa 1402. In Anne of Geiering; whereas it is used as meaning eight hours stein' it is said to be, and no doubt was, the usual before noon, or four hours after the preceding mid-weapon of the Swiss, circa 1474. In the Abbot' night. It seems, indeed, to have been very soon noticed that "ante" and "post" could not properly be used as it afterwards became, and still

Lord Lindsay is said to have presented himself before Mary, Queen of Scots, wearing the same kind of weapon, circa 1570, and he narrates

to the unfortunate queen at Lochleven Castle
how, when wielded by the hand of Archibald
Bell-the-Cat, 66
it sheared through the thigh
of his opponent, and lopped the limb as easily as
a shepherd's boy slices a twig from a sapling"
(chapter xxi.).

Besides the examples from the "Waverley Novels " of "two-handed" sword quoted by myself and other correspondents, I find in 'Marmion,' canto v. stanza ii.,

Long pikes they had for standing fight,
Two-handed swords they wore.

At this moment a bronze cast, about fourteen This, as in the passages cited from Milton, is coninches in height, of Richard I. is on the mantel-clusive against the theory of "two-handed" being piece of my dining-room, said to be after a statue of him by Baron Marochetti. His arms, repre- not scan. an editorial alteration, because "two-hand" would JONATHAN BOUCHIER. sented as bared from the elbow, rest upon a large two-handed sword. He is habited in a coat of linked POEMS ATTRIBUTED TO LORD BYRON: MISS FANmail, and pendant from the left side is a battle-axe SHAWE'S ENIGMA (7th S. ii. 183, 253, 298, 389, 457; with a blade, or edge, on each side of the haftiii. 33). It is a shock to learn, as ignorant pera weapon which the Romans called "bipennis.” His legs are encased in trews and stockings, all of she who wrote the best and most graceful of all sons like myself now learn for the first time, that one piece, and they are, as Malvolio's were," cross-poetic enigmas was capable of disfiguring its very gartered.' But if a licence, according to Horace, first line by using the prosaic and ineffective word is to be granted to poets and painters of ". quid-pronounced, and by inserting a weak and superlibet audendi," why not to sculptors also? This, however, certainly cannot be regarded as an example of the equipment of the twelfth century. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A.


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fluous conjunction. It is also unpleasant, though in a more tolerable degree, to find that one correspondent of N. & Q. objects to the word mutter'd, and another to James Montgomery's inspired Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge. suggestion of whisper'd for pronounced. "MutYour correspondent seems to have overlooked ter'd in hell" is precisely right, for the reasons one passage in Sir Walter Scott's Antiquary': given by R. R.; and for similar reasons, whis"The langest, the langest,' cried Jenny Rinthe-per'd in heaven" is also precisely right. Whisrout, dragging in a two-handed sword of the twelfth century (The Antiquary,' Adam & Charles Black, Edinburgh, 1886), p. 411. I do not remember "two-hand" sword in any of the "Waverley Novels." Certainly the expression 66 'twohanded" is, strictly speaking, indefensible from a grammatical point of view. I do not know whether there are any similar expressions in use. For instance, there are scissors made to be used by the left hand only; are these called "left-hand," or "left-handed," scissors? Perhaps the twohanded sword may have been so called partly with reference to the fact that the large sword to be used with two hands was double-edged. I am not at all sure that the passage quoted by MR. BIRKBECK TERRY from Milton's 'Lycidas,'

But that two-handed engine at the door Stands ready to smite once, and smite no more, refers to the two-handed sword of the archangel Michael or to the fiery sword described in the following passage :—

High in front advanc'd,

The brandish'd sword of God before them blaz'd,
Fierce as a comet.-' Paradise Lost,' bk. xii.

The second passage quoted by MR. BIRKBECK
TERRY undoubtedly refers to the sword of Michael.
I seem to remember having seen somewhere an old
picture of an angel, with a sword in either hand,
standing at the gate of Paradise. If Milton had
ever seen such a picture, perhaps his allusion in the
passage in Lycidas' (which is altogether rather
obscure) might be to that. F. A. MARSHALL.
8, Bloomsbury Square.

pering has here nothing to do with gossip and
tattle, as R. R. supposes it is used in its higher
literary sense-a sense pervading, so far as I
know, all classic phrase-of softness, mystery, awe.
And where could the soft mystery of an awful
whisper be more appropriate than in the very
presence of the Most Highest? On the other
hand, muttering, as R. R. well says, gives just the
sense of sullen rebelliousness that might be ex-
pected in hell. So that these two words, whisper
and mutter, convey exactly the antithesis that is
wanted - an antithesis which is weakened by
diluting the line with a central and. As for the
word pronounced, it conveys no antithesis at all;
for a word or a letter that is muttered is also
pronounced, however indistinctly. I have not
seen either B. M. Pickering's reprint or the ori-
ginal edition; but I confidently hazard a conjeo-
ture that Miss Fanshawe did not, like the verse-
writers of " to-day," write muttered, a word of
three syllables, in full, when she meant it to be
used as of two syllables only.
A. J. M.

As regards the question raised by your correspondent Mr. DIXON, as to whether the word muttered in Miss Fanshawe's well-known enigma was really written uttered, I have at home a letter written by one of her sisters to my father, sending him a copy of the enigma, and complaining that somebody had spoiled the first line, which she wrote thus:

'Twas in Heaven pronounced and 'twas muttered in Hell. Uttered instead of muttered would not change the

defect of two different words being used in reference to the same sound.

Mr. Fanshawe was the squire of my father's parish, Chipstead, Surrey, during the early period of his fifty-two years' incumbency. In the churchyard there is a tombstone inscribed with some lines, also written by Miss Fanshawe, to the memory of a farmer there. They were about the first I ever learnt by heart, and I can transcribe them now, in this distant land. Whether Mr. Vernon was as good as the poetry I am not old enough to remember. His son was not.

Here Vernon lies, who living taught the way
How best to spend Man's short important day.
To virtuous toil his morn of life was given,
And vigourous noon: his evening hours to Heaven.
Long ere his night approached his task was done,
And mildly cheerful shone his setting sun.
Nor pain, nor sickness could such peace destroy,
His Faith was certainty, his Hope was joy.
Good, wise and tranquil, eminently blest,
Content he lived, and joyful sank to rest.

Washington, D.C.


BISHOP JOHN LEYBURN (7th S. ii. 508).-This prelate was secretary to Cardinal Howard at Rome. He was consecrated Bishop of Adrumetum on Sept. 9th, 1685. He was the first Catholic bishop resident in this country since the death of Charles I. He was committed to the Tower in 1688. He died June 9th, 1702. His publications are a translation of Digby's 'Treatise of Bodies and of the Immortality of the Soul,' and a 'Pastoral Letter to the Catholics of England, 1688. WALTER LOVELL. See Thompson Cooper's 'Biographical Dictionary, always useful in its references to Roman Catholic biographies.


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"Finds that the parties having each made choice of certain sittings in the seat in question, then a whole, they must enjoy the same as such, by taking their stations as they happen to enter the church, and neither of them is entitled to appropriate a certain portion thereof, and to put up boards to the exclusion of the other from that portion; Ordains the defender to remove the erection complained of, and to restore the seat to the condition in which it was at the time the choice was made."

Mr. Husband was esteemed an excellent judge and of great practical experience, and his rule of law has since prevailed in Perthshire.


T. S.

Full information on this subject is to be found in 'The History and Law of Church Seats, or Pews,' by Alfred Heales, F.S.A., proctor in Doctors' Commons, 1872, Butterworths, 7, Fleet Street. The following extract from vol. i., p. 110, may be interesting::

"The earliest mention we have met with of seating the parishioners according to their degree, under any show of authority (unless we except the remarks by the Judge of the Common-law Court in 1493, as to what he supposed the ordinary might do, and in which he probably only meant to distinguish the two or three great men from the rest of the parishioners), occurs in the year 1577, but it seems to stand alone for a considerable time. It happened at the union of the parishes of All Saints and St. Peter, Maldon, Essex, when (as it will be seen), with the consent of the churchwardens, the Court, held at Prittlewell, did order and decree, that the Churchwardens of St. Peter's should cause the parishe church of All Saintes, one Sondaies and holand procure the parishners there to repaire orderly to

lidaies, as the parishners of All Saintes; and that the Churchwardens of either parishe, should joyne together to be placed according to his degree; the Churchwardens in all matters and cause whatsoever, and everie parishner of either parishe agreed to the order.'

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the legal aspect of the case:-
At paragraph 190, vol. ii., Mr. Heales says, on

those who were most likely to be exigent (since the
"Various decisions, probably for the sake of satisfying
doctrine is not impressed with the stamp of high anti-
quity, and it appears to want any original legal basis),
direct that though all are entitled to seats, yet a prefer-
ence should be shown for persons of the higher social
maintained, though not their equal rights, which the
standing in the parish; but still the rights of all are
early decisions emphatically uphold."

PRECEDENCE IN CHURCH (7th S. ii. 361, 495).In parishes in Scotland partly burghal and partly landward, churches are erected at the expense of the heritors and feuars of such parishes, according to their real rents, as appearing in the Valuation Roll for the county. For example: the parish church of Crieff was divided, on April 25, 1828, by Charles Husband, of Glenearn, Sheriff Substitute of Perthshire, in terms of a Summons of Division raised at the instance of the heritors and feuars, for its division in terms of their several rights therein. The patroness of the parish-the late Lady Willoughby de Eresby-had the right to select the best pew for her own use, and the remaining pews in the church were divided amongst the heritors and feuars. One pew, of twelve feet in length, was apportioned between the freemasons of Crieff, in respect of their lodge, and a slater, in respect of his dwelling-house. "A SLEEVELESS ERRAND " (1st S. i. 439; v. The slater, however, closed up his part of the seat, 473; xii. 58, 481, 520; 7th S. iii. 6).-The statein order to exclude the masons from its use. The ment that "sleeveless errand" is the original phrase masons were indignant at such treatment, and has yet to be proved. I have already shown, in

It is to be hoped that the question will be settled shortly, and in accordance with the "early decisions." The issue is of vital importance to the Church. G. H. THOMPSON.


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'PICKWICK,' FIRST EDITION (7th S. ii. 508).F. W. D. may readily distinguish a genuine first edition by certain peculiarities on the title and frontispiece. A genuine edition has on title "Phiz fect," and over the doorway "Tony Weller, licensed to sell beer, spirits, tobaco," which can be read distinctly. The frontispiece has "Phiz Fect." on the left hand of the shield at the bottom. There is no doubt after six or seven numbers had emanated from the press the demand increased enormously, and by the time Nos. xix. and xx. had been issued in the green covers a reissue had to be made, requiring new engraved title and frontispiece. The reissue has on title "Phiz " larger, and "fecit" in full, and only the name over the door "Tony Weller can be read; on the frontispiece the signature "Phiz" is on one side of the shield and "fect." on the other. There are also several other minor

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I have compared the engravings of two first editions, and find that only five out of forty-three are identical. In some cases the design is quite different, as at pages 89, 117, 132, all by Phiz; in others the difference is small, as, for instance, at page 154 the bird-cage in one is placed in the middle of a tree, and in the other it is hanging from the lowest branch, at page 197 a second donkey is, in one copy, shown in the pound.

I should say that the title-page with "Phiz fecit" is the older, as the H of "Hall" is in a different style from the rest, a mistake which is corrected in the other. C. E.

Your correspondent has not necessarily been deceived in his purchases of 'Pickwick' if the plates in the books are "unlettered," which is the proof of the first edition. There is an edition, either of the same year or the following one, which has lettered plates, which condemn it at once. It

is well known that the actual first issue or edition of the first number of 'Pickwick' was only 500 copies. The "Pickwick Advertiser," in the fifteenth or sixteenth number, I think, first mentions the then issue, but in the eighteenth number, "October 2nd, 1837," which I copy, the notice to advertisers runs thus :-"The impression of the advertising sheet is limited to 20,000, but the circulation of the work being 29,000, that number of Bills is required." The vast proportion of the early numbers are, therefore, reprints, in the strict

sense of the word, and H. K. B. supplied duplicate plates for each engraving. A few plates signed Nemo," and some not signed at all, are his first productions, and then he always signs "Phiz." The two cancelled plates of " "Buss are, of course, older than their substitutes, and most collectors would not buy a 'Pickwick' without them, assuming them, ugly as they are, to be the great test of perfection and genuineness. "Mr. Pickwick in the Pound" is a plate in which there is considerable variation-two donkeys in place of one. The early plates in 'Nicholas Nickleby' also vary; but in the later novels the variations are at least not so conspicuous. I do not remember how the Seymour plates are managed, but they, of course, are essential. JONATHAN DIPPS.



Sele, better seel, was once a very common word. "THE SELE OF THE MORNING" (7th S. iii. 28).— It is the A.-S. sal, M.E. seel, time, season. sele of the morning" is simply "the time of day." The mod. E. silly is the derived adjective. Haysele, hay time, is common in East Anglia. All this has been explained over and over again. See "Silly," in my 'Dictionary,' WALTER W. SKEAT.

'ELIANA' (7th S. ii. 448, 498).-E. S. N. says: "Almost all the Essays of Elia' first appeared in the London Magazine." I have a copy of the Saturday Magazine for July 6, 1839, which contains Lamb's Confessions of a Drunkard.' I Lamb's lifetime, and shall be glad to know whether always had an idea that it was published during rude drawing of Correggio's picture of Man, the or not this is a reprint. It is given beneath a Slave of Licentiousness, and is signed "Charles


Holmby House, Forest Gate.


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ARMS OF THE DUCHY OF CORNWALL (7th S. iii. 29).-In Appendix B. to Lower's Curiosities of Heraldry' we learn that the arms of the county of Cornwall are, Sable, fifteen bezants, five, four, three, two, and one, with two lions as supporters, and the motto One and all." This coat is said to be derived from Cadoc, or Cradock, Earl or Duke of Cornwall in the fifth century. In the arms of the Prince of Wales the quartering for the Duchy of Cornwall is charged with ten bezants. I refer to the engraving in Boutell's larger work on heraldry. Lower (himself descended from a very old Cornish family, I believe) has gone thoroughly into this question that we may look with some confidence to his rendering being the correct one. The Oxford Glossary of Terms used in British Heraldry' (1847) also gives the same number of bezants as Lower, but whether copied from him I cannot say. Water Orton,



The arms used at present in the county have fifteen bezants, five, four, three, two, and one. But is it possible that the arms of the county and of the duchy have different numbers ?


I beg to state that on the lease of my farm, which I rent under the duchy, the arms are Sable, fifteen bezants.


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Neither does it denote "acidity in the mouth" or
stomach, for the water brashed up may be tasteless,
acid, or, as in the quotation given, bitter from a
flavouring of bile. Nor, as I have intimated, does
brash denote any of these qualities. In Jamieson
we find: 1. "To brash, to assault, to attack.
8., a short turn of work, as in churning." 4.
2. “Brash, s., an effort, an attack," &c. 3. “Brash,
"Brash, s., a transient attack of sickness; thus
when weaned children may have the speaning-
brash; when teething, a brash of the teeth." So
under "Water-brash
he gives,
tions of aqueous humour," and quotes from Mac-
copious eructa-
taggart's Gall. Cyc.,'" Water-brash, an eruption
in the stomach." It is queried whether these four
or five uses of brash be variants, or some of them
of a wholly different root; to me they seem only
variants. But it matters not; the result is that
water-brash and brash are equivalent to an erup-
eruption on the skin, or rash. Miss M. A. Court-
tion, irruption, eructation, or rush, but not to an
ney, in her 'Glossary of West Cornwall' (E.D.S.) has
"Brash, an eruption, a rash "; but what connexion
this has with the Rev. T. L. O. Davies's Supp.
Eng. Glossary' I know not. In Nodal and Mil-
ner's 'Lancashire Dialect' (E.D.S.) it is ambigu-
ously said to be " an eruption," but I rather gather
that an up-throwing was meant.


Water-brash, meaning watery acidity rising from the stomach, I remember being commonly used in Ayrshire forty years ago. A medical friend tells me that " water-springs" is the word used here, but that water-brash is sometimes used in the hospital by natives of the midland and northern counties. Emerson's use of the word as Mere Down, Mere, Wilts. quoted in 'Two Years Ago' seems to me the same. ANCIENT BURIAL-PLACE AT DUNBAR (7th Slish Dialect Society: I find it in the following publications of the Engiii. 9). The following passage from the account of Haddingtonshire in the New Statistical Account of Scotland' (1845), vol. ii. p. 89, will be of interest to MR. BOOTH :

"It appears that the church [of Dunbar] was named St. Bae's, after its founder, according to a traditionary rhyme regarding three female saints, who strove to build

a church nearest to the sea. We find that in a charter

by King James IV. it is called Ecclesia Collegiata Sancti

Bae de Dunbar."

The traditionary rhyme is given in a note, and as
it differs slightly from that given by MR. BOOTH,
I transcribe it for his benefit. It runs thus :-
St. Abb's upon the Nab,
St. Helen's upon the Lea,
St. Bae's upon Dunbar sands
Stands nearest to the sea.

G. F. R. B.

BRASH (7th S. ii. 446).-Water-brash is a Yorkshire phrase, but it is also Scottish, and, if I may trust my experience, has a still wider range.

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1. Peacock, Glossary of Manley and Corringham, Lincolnshire': Water-brash=water-springs, p. 269.

2. Dickinson,' Glossary of Cumberland': Watterbrash a gushing overflow of saliva, p. 110.

Water-brash a sensation of water coming up the 3. Patterson, Glossary of Antrim and Down': throat into the mouth, p. 112; also brash-an attack of illness, p. 12.

4. Dr. R. Willan, 'Glossary of West Riding': 1811; reprinted Glossaries vii., ed. Skeat: Brash =a sudden sickness, with acid rising into the mouth (as in heartburn), p. 84.



Brash appears to be a genuine North Country word, of Scotland as well as Yorkshire. Jamieson has water-brash in the sense quoted, and Hoblyn writes, "Pyrosis is called water-brash in Scotland." Further, Jamieson explains brash as "to assault, to

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