some apparently well reported notes of two of these, viz., "IX., Lecture on Progressive Changes in English Prose Composition," and "XIV., Lecture on Rabelais," &c. These reports have not been collected by Mr. Ashe.

In a letter addressed to John May, dated November 14, 1811, and printed in the 'Selections from Southey's Correspondence,' ii. 247, Southey says: "I am very anxious that Coleridge should complete this course of lectures, because whatever comes from him now will not be lost, as it was at the Royal Institution. I have taken care that they shall be taken down in shorthand." I fear Southey did not "take care," or, if he did, that his "chiel" did not. Had it been otherwise, poor J. P. Collier, his friends, and his enemies, would have been saved many a bad quarter of an hour, and the world would have gained much.


as Cluny Macpherson and Struan Robertson. Why have one or two names exceptionally been treated as of that ilk?

Again, in one or two instances the prefix "the " has been adopted; but this, I believe, only in the case of "the Chisholm," and more lately of "the Mackintosh." Is this merely borrowed from the Irish practice of having "the" Macgillicuddy, with his wife Madam Macgillicuddy, &c.? I have not heard of the Madam being introduced in Scotland. Has this use of "the" any foundation in Celtic languages, such as Irish and Gaelic, which are practically identical? There was once an attempted adoption of the recognized practice of eldest sons of barons in Scotland being called master, as Master of Forbes, &c.; and the eldest son of a Highland chief for a time called himself master of his name. This, of course, was entirely inadmissible.

As far as one knowing nothing of Gaelic can

"EAT ONE'S HAT."-This vulgar and unmeaning threat is possibly a popular corruption and mis-venture to guess, I should say that in most cases, application of the old phrase about " eating the heart." The transition from "I should eat my heart if this happened," to "I would [or will] eat my hat" would be easy when the force of the original expression was not appreciated.



We must request correspondents desiring information on family matters of only private interest, to affix their names and addresses to their queries, in order that the answers may be addressed to them direct.

when the territorial name is not adopted, the natives of the country usually consider the name of the family, par excellence, as the most honourable designation-as simply Macdonald, Macleod, Mackintosh, &c.

Curzon Street, W.

Larnaca, Cyprus.

I. M. P.


JOHN OF CYPRUS.-An advertisement in 'N.& Q.' of November 6, 1886, mentions, "Subtilissimi Doctoris Anglici Suiset Calculationum Liber. Per Johanem de Cipro diligentissime emendatus." Who was John of Cyprus? Are any independent writings of his known? For any notes on books of the sixTITULAR DESIGNATION OF HEADS OF HIGH-teenth and seventeeth centuries relating to Cyprus LAND FAMILIES.-In the case of a few Highland should be most grateful. I am attempting a names it has become usual to speak of the heads bibliography of the island. of them as being what is called "of that ilk"; for instance, we hear of Macleod of Macleod, Mackintosh of Mackintosh, and quite recently of Macdougal of Macdougal. Is not this practice comparatively modern, and merely an adoption of the Lowland practice, as in such names as Wedderburn of Wedderburn, &c.? I am aware that Highland gentlemen for more than 150 years, in writing or in speaking to each other in English, sometimes talked of the Laird of Grant, the Laird of Macleod, the Laird of Macfarlane, &c., but probably this was only when they used the English language. The question which I wish to ask is, whether such practice had its origin in Highland usage. It is only in the case of a few families that we hear of it. There never was a Cameron of Cameron, a Mackenzie of Mackenzie, Macdonald of Macdonald, Munro of Munro, &c.

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On the whole, heads of names were usually designated by their lands, Fraser as Lovat, Cameron as Lochiel, Maclean as Duart, &c., Macpherson as Cluny, Robertson as Struan; and, as there were many Clanys and Struans, sometimes

CALVERT: LORD BALTIMORE.-The Calverts were a Flemish family of respectability, but not of knightly lineage. Whence did they derive arms, and by what right did they quarter the coat of Crossland? Was Alice Crossland, who married Leonard Calvert, of Kipling, co. York, an heiress? implies that the family were seated in Yorkshire Wilhelm, the biographer of Sir George Calvert, some centuries before the time of James I. I think this must be a mistake, as they are supposed to have come over in the time of Elizabeth.



'THE ORDERS OF FRIARS.'-In the binding of a seventeenth century book I found a leaf of a strong attack on friars and their works with the above heading (apparently half of the running title). The signature is H, and the pages are 57, 58. What induces me to mention so insignificant a matter is that the printing looks like that of a secret press, or, at least, that of a poor printer. Here and there

in cap. 44 small capitals take the place of large his friend Migeon, who provided the funds, died of the ones. The marginal chapter summaries run as same disease, a pauper; Cérioux and the widow Perfollows: "Cap. 43. Friars policie in binding there roneau, who published soon afterwards the edition of nouices to vnknow'e things"; "Cap. 44. Mispen- appeared; Dalibon, who gave the most brilliant edition, 60 vols. in 12mo., were completely ruined and disders of the treasure of this land"; "Cap. 45. Friars with the money, it is said, of the Vicomte d'Arlincourt, holier then other men"; " Cap. 46. Friars altogether is now a workman at 2fr. 50 a day with a colour merset vppon couetousness." Can any of your readers chant; Touquet, who edited Voltaire, died suddenly at identify it? Q. V. Ostend in 1831 or 1832; Garnery, his partner in the edition of 75 vols. in 12mo., died suddenly, and ruined; 'CRAFTSMAN.'-I have in my possession a copy has since become blind; Daubrée, also an editor of VolDeterville, who is rich, published an edition in 8vo., and of the Craftsman (14 vols., Edin., Francklin, taire's works, was assassinated by a woman whom he 1731-37), in which No. 63 (the number which accused of have stolen a ten-sous book from him; finally, appeared on September 16, 1727) occurs in dupli- René, at Brussels, having a printing establishment and cate, a No. 63 in contemporary manuscript being a fortune, edited in 18mo. the works of Voltaire and inserted after the printed number. The MS. ar-Rousseau, fell into distress, and is now a simple workticle is on a subject totally different from the printed one, and considerably longer. The latter deals with certain abuses, &c., connected with the South Sea Company; the former (the MS.) is perhaps a political allegory, but professes to give an account of the corrupt elections to the corporation of Limerick, by means of which the members of the Roche family had obtained all the chief offices in that town. In the same hand are also inserted eight lines of verse (seven of which are unfortunately lost) facing the frontispiece in each volume, and explanatory of it. Opposite the frontispiece to vol. iii. are the following lines :

In this famed Ballance mark the heavier Scale,
And see how Wisdom does ore Fraud prevail.
Soul saving Henry view profoundly wise,
By reach of Thought Defect of Power supplies.
The Scale in steady Form his Conduct keeps
While W-e vainly Reams of Treaties heaps.
What Briton sighs not at the Guilty Scene,
Whence Blenheim's Rebus thus Revers'd has been.

I should be glad to know if any of your readers
can suggest an explanation of these insertions.


RICHARDYNE, A CHRISTIAN NAME. -In the registers of St. Peter's, Canterbury, the following occurs: 1595. The 21 of September was buryed Richardyne ye daughter of Robt. Maynarde." Are other instances known? J. M. CowPER. Canterbury.

ARMS OF DE WORDE OR WORDIE.-Could any of your readers say how this family got the arms they now use, and as given in Stodart's 'Scottish Arms'? A. F. B.

Edinburgh. VOLTAIRE'S EDITORS.-I find the following in a French clerical publication, La Semaine Religieuse du Diocèse de Cambrai (1881) Supplément, pp. 381-2. Can it, on specified authority, be contradicted? Is it an instance of pious fraud?

"Voltaire brings Misfortune. The following is from La Review hebdomadaire de Van der Hoegan-Beaumarchais, the first editor of the works (called complete) of Voltaire, lost a million [francs] by the speculation, and died suddenly in 1798; Desoer, who published an edition in 10 vols., 8vo., died soon afterwards of phthisis, and




HARVARD OR HARVEY.-Some time ago I was looking through the rate-books of a Somersetshire village, from 1700 to 1720, and I noticed that the same man was called sometimes John Harvard, sometimes John Harvey. In the parish registers later on in that century I have seen the name written Harvet; and so likewise I have heard people call it. I am reminded of this by MR. RENDLE'S note on 'The Migration from England to New England,' wherein the founder of Harvard College is sometimes called John Harvey. I presume that the surname Harvey is (as well as Hervey) from the Norman personal name Hervé. Compare Barks and Berks, parson and person, &c. Why and when the change from Harvey to Harvard? or, is it that there are two Harveys, etymologically_distinct, the one from Harvard, and the other Hervé? S. H. A. H.

LOUVRE GALLERY.-Grimm ('Raphaels Leben') speaks of 2,500 paintings gathered in the Louvre more than two centuries ago. These works, before scattered in various royal palaces, Grimm says, were not shown to the public. It is natural to ask how far the public were admitted to see them in the new museum; and when, by what steps did admission to these treasures become as frequent and free as we now enjoy it. JAMES D. BUTLER.

Madison, Wis., U.S.

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ANCIENT BURIAL-PLACE AT DUNBAR.-In Belhaven Bay, and near Dunbar, within a recent period have been observed a number of graves, formed of flagstones at the sides and over the top, about two feet from the surface, in a raised beach of marine shells about six feet thick. The graves

mostly lie east and west, but not invariably. No remains, so far as my information goes, have been found. The sea appears to be encroaching on this ancient burial-ground, as some of the graves are partially bared by the action of the waves in washing the margin of the raised beach.

Fifty years ago, I am told by a gentleman born in Newcastle, the following rhyme (save the mark!) was current; at least, he picked it up in his childhood's days, but from whom or where he fails to remember. It has the ring of a nursery jingle:

St. Abb, St. Hilda, and St. Bee,

Built three churches, which be nearest to the sea.
St. Abb's was on the Nab,

St. Hilda's on the Lea,

St. Bee's was on Dunbar Sands,
And nearest to the sea.

St. Abb's or St. Ebba's was on the Nab, near Coldingham, now St. Abb's Head. St. Hilda's may have occupied any site at Shields or Hartlepool, where she lived before founding the monastery at Whitby. The former place may possibly derive its name from this saintly woman (St. Hilda). The object of this query is to ascertain if there is any tradition of a church near Belhaven Sands at Dunbar, to which the burial-ground above described may have belonged, and which would in that case completely justify the old rhyme.



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THE O'DONOVAN PEDIGREE.-Some three years could find the pedigree of the O'Donovans of the ago a correspondent asked in your columns where he county of Cork, who, he said, were connexions of the O'Neills and the Knight of Kerry, and are descended through the female line from the Plantagenets. As no answer has since appeared, will you allow me to recall the question, in the hope that some of your present readers may give the information, which others besides your original correspondent are most desirous to obtain? I know, of course, what is to be had in the 'Annals of the Four Masters' and in the Celtic Miscellany, but had in well-known works-alliances, branches, &c., what is wanted is fuller particulars than are to be down to as recent a date as possible. CROM.


merly a sculptured bas-relief of a woman on a house in Shoreditch. A drawing of it is in the Crace collection. Can any of your readers tell me if this bas-relief still exists?

P. N.

SECT OF ISRAELITES.-Can you direct me to any information about the sect called the Israelites, or New and Later House of Israel, recently started at Brompton, Kent ? G. J. GRAY. Cambridge.

COLOURED DESIGNS.-I have a series of twenty coloured plates, similar to those in 'Life in London,' but without name of either engraver or printer, commencing with 'Dashall and Lubin's departure for London,' and closing with 'All's up, Entered the Fleet.' I should be glad to know the name of the book from which they have been taken. J. B. MORRIS.

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GABRIEL FIESSINGER, ENGRAVER.-He was in SHELDON AND MUN FAMILIES.-Can any reader Paris at the time of the Revolution, and executed kindly inform me as to the pedigree of Richard the portraits of some of the members of the ConSheldon (1680-1736), of Aldington Court, Thurn-vention. Was living in London about 1802. ham, and Otteridge, in Bearsted, Kent, Sheriff of anything more known of him? the county in 1717, who married Mary, daughter

of Maximilian Western, of Abingdon Hall, Cam

E. S. B.



bridgeshire (Hasted, and Berry's Essex Pedi-box; a newly coined gold piece let in at lid, with

glass face on each side. The following inscription on lid, " In Memoriam Regni Ejus Anni L." Can any correspondent afford information concerning the above? JUBILEE.

SHELLEY'S' PROMETHEUS UNBOUND.'-Will any student of Shelley oblige me by referring to the following passage in this drama, and stating his opinion thereon? In Act III. sc. iii., just after the beautiful description of the cave, all overgrown with trailing odorous plants," &c., Prometheus says:—

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And thou, Ione, shalt chaunt fragments of sea-music, Until I weep, when ye shall smile away The tears she brought, which yet were sweet to shed. Is not "she" in the last line an error, and ought we not to read "ye"? There is no antecedent person, so far as I see, to whom "she" can refer. In two independent editions of the 'Prometheus,' however, it is printed "she." "Shalt chaunt" is also printed "shall chaunt," but this is an obvious

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(7th S. ii. 461.)

In rendering the word yúval by woman there is no evidence to show-nor does MR. F. A. MARSHALL give any that the translators of the English Authorized Version intended any disrespect to the mother of our Lord. In fact, if they did so, by MR. MARSHALL'S own showing, translators of his own communion did the same. These are his words: "" So far from there being, apparently, any implied disrespect towards our Lord's mother, in the opinion of Roman Catholics, in the use of the vocative woman, in all the Roman Catholic versions I have seen, either French or English, the mulier of the Vulgate is rendered by femme in the one case and by woman in the other." Why, then, should it be suggested that these " good men"-the translators of the English Authorized Version-" might have purposely employed the word woman as being the less honourable of the two," any more than that the Roman Catholic translators "purposely " did the same? I believe that none of them "purposely" did anything of the kind.

Now of yúval Schleusner says: "Observandum autem est, vocem yúval festivam fuisse apud Græcos fœminarum honestissimarum, reginarum adeo, allocutionem et compellationem, ut apparet e multis Græcorum locis," and as references gives Homer, 'Iliad,' iii. 204; 'Odyss.,' xix. 221; Sophocles, Edip. Tyrann.,' v. 642; 'Electra,' v. 1104. Hence MR. MARSHALL has the very best authority for his opinion that yúvaι may be rendered lady, or by any other title even more honourable.


But is it so to be understood in the two addresses of our Lord to the Blessed Virgin? think not. I think rather, with Schleusner, that He meant by it "mother," a meaning which the word is capable of bearing. He says, on the one hand (John ii. 4), tí éμol kai ooi, yúval, "Mitte me nunc mater"; on the other (John xix. 26), yúval, ἰδοὺ ὁ υἱός 66 σου, 'Mater! en filium tuum." Now in saying on the former of these passages, rendered "What have I to do with thee?" "that our translators intended to make it appear that our Lord wished to rebuke His mother," MR. MARSHALL is suspecting" no more of them than what was actually asserted by some of the early Fathers. Irenæus says: "Dominus repellens ejus intempestivam festinationem, dixit, тí éμoi κai σoi, γυναι"; and Chrysostom : ἐβούλετο......ἑαυτὴν λαμπροτέραν ποιῆσαι διὰ τοῦ παιδός, and for this reason He σφοδρότερον ἀπεκρίνατο (Hom. xxi. in Joh.). Thinking that she wished to make herself more illustrious through the means of her Son, He answered her more harshly. Bishop H.

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Hammond's gloss seems to me to solve the whole question: "Christ repressed her, saying that this matter of His office, to which He was sent by God, was a thing wherein she, though His earthly parent, was not to interpose; farther telling her that 'twas not yet seasonable for Him to show forth His power unto all, intimating His purpose that He would do it more privately than by her words she appeared to design it." And again: "As for that form of speech, Tí čμoì kai σoi, it is only a form of repressing (as much as ea, let alone, with which it is joined Mark i. 24), and so is used 2 Sam. xix. 22; Matt. viii. 29; Mark v. 7; Luke viii. 28, to express dislike to the proposal in the first; in the rest to desire to let them alone, not to meddle with them. And accordingly it here signifies Christ's dislike of Mary's proposal, which was (without any care of secrecy) publicly to supply them with wine, now it was wanting. Which manner of doing it Christ dislikes, and gives His reason for it, ouπш уàρ кeɩ, it was not yet fit to do His miracles publicly."

I might say something more on MR. MARSHALL'S paper, but forbear, as it may only lead to a controversy not befitting the pages of N. & Q.,' and unlikely to lead to any satisfactory conclusion. It is better for us, therefore, to “ agree to differ." EDMUND TEW, M.A.

MR. MARSHALL, in his elaborate note on these two names, having also alluded to the corresponding German terms Weib and Frau, expressed some doubt as to the present use of Weib compared with Frau. May I remark that it is a common error and prejudice to ascribe to the term Weib, in its present use, a certain amount of disrespect? Although some German-English dictionaries (as, for instance, Hilpert) state that Frau is now the more polite and refined term, yet its synonym Weib is far from being confined to a low and vulgar sense. It is only the compound Weibsbild or Weibsperson which now has such an exclusive meaning. I may add that Walther von der Vogelweide, who flourished c. 1200, in a wellknown poem prefers the term Weib to Frau. Oxford.


show that in the mouths of the lower classes in
some parts of Yorkshire the word woman is far
more respectful than lady, an inference founded
upon the following (among other) facts. 1. A
vicar's wife, from the South, notices in a West
Riding town that the word lady is used where she
would have expected to hear woman. 2. A laun-
dress, apologizing for non-appearance on
day," sends "another lady" to take her place. 3.
A lady visiting a low quarter of a large West
Riding town inquired of a man in the street where
a certain person lived; he said he did not know,
but "that lady" did (the lady was sitting on a
doorstep of an untidy house); and then he shouted
out, "Here, show this woman where
lives," and this in a quite respectful tone. 4. I
have heard a lady say she had much rather be
called a woman than a lady by working people,
because the women are to them the select few,
while the term lady implies no special respect.

Does not all this tend to show that there was a time when woman might have been generally used, even in the vocative case, with all respect and affection, and that the translators of our Authorized Version selected what was once the more appropriate term for yúval in the passages referred


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M. H. P.

Lady is used by Stow as equivalent to "girl" in the following passage: The 7 of September, being Sunday, betweene three and foure of the clocke, the Queene was deliuered of a faire lady [Queen Elizabeth], for whose good deliuerance Te Deum was sung incontinently" ("Annales,' 1592, p. 959). S. O. ADDY.

I venture to commend to MR. MARSHALL'S notice a tract by Bishop Zachary Pearce, entitled "The Miracles of Jesus Vindicated, Part III., Lond., 1729," in which occur the following passages (the tract is one of those written in answer to Woolston): "There remains now only one more Objection, which is what Jesus reply'd to his Mother when she said 'They have no Wine'; to which he answerd,' Woman, what have I to do with thee?' from which his captious Rabbi boldly concludes that 'Jesus himself was a little in for it, or he never had spoke so waspishly or snapIS MR. MARSHALL right in supposing that pishly to his Mother.' Bishop Pearce proceeds woman is not so respectful a term as lady, or even to show by analogy from John xix. 26, when Christ as yúval? I think a consideration of the follow-spoke to His mother on the cross, addressing her ing remarks will lead him to withdraw his statement that the term "was never used by a man to a woman when he wished to imply any respect or affection to her." I have neither the leisure nor opportunity to search for instances of this respectful use of the word in literature, but I have a note on a local use of the words woman and lady in actual conversation which has come under my own observation, and which seems to be a survival of a more general use of the terms. The note tends to

by the same appellation, and by a quotation from Xenophon ('Cyrop.,' lib. v. 317, ed. Hutchinson), that yuvm was an honourable title, which, of course, adds nothing to the elucidation of the reason why our translators rendered yúval

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woman," supposing it to be a word of disrespect. But he adds that the speech was generally understood to be a rebuke: "For it is probable that she was desirous to see him work a miracle, and that a little Vanity prompted her to this desire; and

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